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M.  L 



3  1833  00858  4473 


Daniel  McNeill  Parker,  M.D. 

His  Ancestry  and  a  Memoir 
of  His  Life 

Daniel   McNeill  and   His   Descendants 






Copyright,  Canada,  1910,  by 
William  Frederick  Parker 



in  mind  and  character  peculiarly  adapted  to  her  husband 
who    through     fifty-three    years    supported    every 
effort  of  his  noble  life  ;  sustained  and  solaced 
him  ;  made  his  domestic  life  a  fount  of 
strength,    and    love,    and   happi- 
ness,   as    deep,    and   pure, 
and  perfect  as  mortal 
man    may    find 



Chapter.  Page. 

Introductory  7 

Daniel  McNeill  and  His  Descendants 9 

I.  The  Parker  Family   31 

II.  The  McNeill  Family 45 

III.  Early  Years 8S 

IV.  1845  to  1861   Ill 

V.  The  American  Tour  of  1861  146 

VI.  1861  to  1871    203 

VII.  Edinburgh;  1871  to  1873  261 

VIII.  First  Years  of  Consulting  Practice,  1873  to  1881 322 

IX.  Across  the  Continent  335 

X.  The  Closing  Years  of  Activity 372 

XI.  The   Jubilee    387 

XII.  Politics,  and  the  Legislative  Council 413 

XIII.  The  Declining  Years 489 

XIV.  "  Denominational  "   505 

XV.  From  Life  to  Life 521 

XVI.  Characteristic,  and  General  540 


A.  Recollections  of  Travel,  Fanny  A.  Parker 561 

B.  Lectures  Before  the  Mechanics'  Institute 563 

C.  Cheloid.     The  last  paper  read  before  a  Medical  Society 598 


"  Scribere  jussdt  amor." 
— Ovid. 

Fob  the  instruction  and  benefit  of  the  children,  grandchildren 
and  future  descendants  of  my  father,  I  desire  to  leave  some  record 
of  his  ancestry  and  his  life. 

In  this  ancestry,  humble  though  it  be,  they  will  discover  no 
cause  for  shame ;  while  in  the  imperfect  narrative  of  my  father's 
life  they  will  find  that  to  which  they  may  ever  point  with  pride. 
From  him  they  derive  the  heritage  of  a  noble  name — clarum  et 
venerabile  nomen;  of  a  character  and  career  which  should  ever 
be  to  them  a  memory  and  example  of  an  exalting  and  inspiring 

My  narrative  is  necessarily  imperfect.  Apart  altogether  from 
my  own  limitations  as  a  narrator,  I  am  embarrassed  by  the  scant 
measure  of  material  at  my  disposal.  After  he  had  relinquished 
the  practice  of  his  profession  in  the  year  1895,  many  times  did  I 
press  upon  my  father  a  suggestion  that  he  should  employ  some  of 
his  leisure  in  writing  something  of  a  biographical  or  reminiscent 
nature.  But  I  was  always  checked  in  this  by  that  innate  spirit 
of  humility  which  characterized  him.  and  which  relentlessly  for- 
bade any  such  thing.  Great  has  been  our  loss  as  a  family  in 
consequence;  irreparable  the  loss  to  one  who  would  attempt  my 

For  the  ancestral  record  materials  are  not  altogether  wanting. 
William  Parker,  senior,  left  a  brief  chronicle  of  family  names 
and  dates,  with  some  other  slight  information.  Since  my  father's 
death  I  discovered  the  original  of  this  in  the  possession  of  Mrs. 
Sarah  Dimock,  of  South  Rawdon,  Hants  County,  who  derives 
descent  from  William  through  his  daughter  Mary,  with  whom  he 
left  these  family  notes.  The  chronicle  appears  to  have  been  con- 
tinued by  Mary  after  her  father's  death.  Through  the  kind  offices 
of  a  kinsman,  Mr.  Lewis  Parker,  of  the  Assistant  Receiver-Gen- 
eral's Office  at  Halifax,  I  have  procured  a  copy  of  it. 

Material  concerning  the  McNeill  family  I  have  derived  from 
my  father  himself,  from  my  personal  investigations  in  North 
Carolina  in  1898,  as  well  as  by  correspondence  with  members  of 
the  family  in  Georgia,  New  York  and  Washington.  I  have  thus 
been  enabled  to  prepare  a  fairly  accurate  family  chart  or  "  tree  " 
of  the  McNeills,  which  I  have  in  my  possession.     Other  sources 


of  information  are  the  books :  "  Revolutionary  Incidents  and 
Sketches  of  Character,  chiefly  in  the  Old  North  State,"  by  Rev. 
E.  W.  Carruthers,  D.D.,  published  in  1854,  and  "  Colonel  Fan- 
ning's  Narrative  of  his  Exploits  and  Adventures  as  a  Loyalist  of 
North  Carolina  in  the  American  Revolution,"  published  first  at 
Richmond,  Virginia,  in  1861.  Judge  Savary,  of  Annapolis,  Nova 
Scotia,  published  an  edition  of  this  Narrative  in  1908,  critically 
annotated  from  the  Loyalist  point  of  view.  Other  books  of 
reference  are  noted  hereafter. 

For  information  concerning  the  Nutting  family  I  am  chiefly 
indebted  to  the  late  Charles  Martyr  Nutting,  who  received  it,  many 
years  ago,  from  a  Miss  Mary  Nutting,  of  Boston,  Mass. ;  and  to 
Page's  "  History  of  Cambridge,  Massachusetts." 

A  biography  of  the  Reverend  William  Black  was  first  written 
by  Rev.  Matthew  Richey  in  1839.  Rev.  T.  Watson  Smith,  in  his 
"  History  of  Methodism  in  Eastern  British  America,"  devotes  con- 
siderable attention  to  this  ancestor  of  my  mother,  and  in  1907  a 
smaller  biography  of  him  was  published  by  Rev.  John  Maclean. 
An  historical  record  of  Reverend  William  Black's  posterity  was 
published  by  Cyrus  Black,  of  Amherst,  N.S.,  in  1885. 

Concerning  the  Grants  and  other  families  who  enter  into  the 
record  I  have  attempted,  I  rest  upon  authenticated  tradition, 
received  from  members  of  those  families,  from  my  father,  and  my 
uncle,  Francis  G.  Parker. 

It  seems  necessary  to  add  that  my  monograph  entitled  "  Daniel 
McNeill  and  his  Descendants  "  was  written  by  request  in  1906 
to  supply  some  data  for  an  historical  record  of  the  McNeill  family 
which  Mr.  Lewis  S.  Atkins,  of  the  Postmaster-General's  Office 
at  Washington,  and  another  member  of  the  family  had  in  contem- 
plation, and  also  for  the  more  immediate  information  of  kinsfolk 
in  North  Carolina,  Georgia  and  Texas.  This  paper  of  mine, 
therefore,  was  restricted  in  its  scope,  and  confined,  in  point  of 
time,  to  the  McNeills  in  Nova  Scotia  and  their  descendants.  I 
have  now  revised  it  in  some  particulars,  and  I  prefix  it  to  the 
narrative  more  immediately  relating  to  my  father.  In  detailing 
the  events  of  his  life  in  the  latter,  I  have  tried  to  avoid  any  repe- 
tition of  statement  found  in  the  former,  and  to  make  the  sub- 
sequent narrative  supplement  and  fill  out  the  earlier  one,  in  which 
only  the  more  prominent  facts  in  his  career  are  given,  and  in  con- 
densed form. 

It  remains  to  be  said  that  the  volume  which  I  now  present  has 
been  compiled  with  no  commercial  intent,  but  solely  as  a  labor  of 
love ;  as  a  memorial  record  of  my  father,  for  the  use  of  his 
immediate  family  and  his  descendants. 

W.  F.  Parker. 

Wolfville,  N.S., 

January  31st,  1910. 


(Revised. ) 

Daniel  McNeill,  son  of  Archibald  and  Janet  (Bahn) 
McNeill,  was  born  at  Lower  Little  River,  Cumberland  County, 
North  Carolina,  in  1752.  Upon  the  outbreak  of  the  American 
Revolutionary  War  he  espoused  the  British  cause,  and  for  a  time 
served  as  lieutenant  in  the  7 1st  regiment.  He  first  took  service 
in  May,  1776,  when  Sir  Henry  Clinton  and  Admiral  Sir  Peter 
Parker  were  at  Wilmington,  N.C.,  on  their  way  from  New  York 
upon  the  first  expedition  against  Charleston,  S.C.  In  1780  he 
obtained  a  commission  in  a  North  Carolina  Royalist  regiment,  as 
appears  by  an  original  certificate  which  seems  to  have  been  granted 
to  replace  his  commission,  which  had  been  lost.  This  certificate 
is  as  follows : 

"  Inspk.-Genl's.  Office,  New  York, 
30th  Aug.,  1783. 
"  It  appears  by  the  Records  in  this  Office  that  Daniel  McNeil, 
Esqr.,  was  appointed  captain  of  a  company  in  the  North  Carolina 
Volunteers  by  the  Right  Honorable  Lieut.-General  Earle  Corn- 
wallis,  bearing  date  the  twenty-fourth  June,  one  thousand  seven 
hundred  and  eighty. 

"  (Sgd.)  Aug.  Prevost, 
"  Dy.  Ins.-Generl.  B.  A.  Forces." 

Captain  McNeill's  next  commission  in  the  British  forces  is 
here  given,  from  the  original,  as  a  matter  of  historical  curiosity. 
The  regiment  mentioned  is  not  the  same  as  that  named  in  the 
foregoing  certificate. 

"  By  His  Excellency  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  Knight  of  the  Moft 
Honorable  Order  of  the  Bath,  General  and  Commander  in  Chief 
of  all  His  Majefty's  Forces  within  the  colonies  laying  on  the 
Atlantic  Ocean,  from  Nova  Scotia  to  Weft  Florida,  inclufive, 
&c.  &c.  &c. 

"  To  Daniel  McNeil,  Esq. 

"  By  virtue  of  the  Power  and  Authority  in  Me  vefted  I  Do 
hereby  eonftitute  and  appoint  you  to  be  Captain  of  a  Company 


10     DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  descendants 

in  the  North  Carolina  Volunteers,  commanded  by  Lieutenant 
Colonel  Commandant  John  Hamilton.  You  are  therefore  to  take 
the  faid  Company  into  your  care  and  charge,  and  duly  to  exercife 
as  well  the  Officers,  as  Soldiers  thereof  in  Arms  and  to  ufe  Your 
beft  Endeavours  to  keep  them  in  good  order  and  Difcipline :  and 
I  Do  hereby  command  them  to  obey  You  as  their  Captain:  and 
You  are  to  obferve  and  follow  fuch  Orders  and  Directions  from 
Time  to  Time,  as  You  fhall  receive  from  the  General  or  Com- 
mander in  Chief  of  His  Majefty's  Forces  in  North  America,  now 
and  for  the  Time  being,  Your  Lieut.  Colonel  Commandant,  or  any 
other  Your  Superior  Officer,  according  to  the  Rules  and  Difcipline 
of  War  in  Purfuance  of  the  Truft  hereby  repofed  in  You. 

Given  under  my  Hand  and  Seal,  at  Head  Quarters  in  New 
York  the  Twentieth  day  of  August,  one  thoufand  Seven  Hundred 
and  Eighty  One  in  the  Twenty  First  Year  of  the  Reign  of  our 
Sovereign  Lord  George  the  Third  by  the  Grace  of  God,  of  Great 
Britain,  France  and  Ireland,  King,  Defender  of  the  Faith :  and  f o 
forth : 

"  By  His  Excellency's  Command 
"(Sgd)  John  Smith. 

"(Sgd)  H.  Clinton." 

Of  the  Captain's  personal  experiences  in  his  military  service 
few  particulars  have  been  preserved  to  his  Nova  Scotia  descendants 
now  living.  He  served,  however,  through  the  war  from  beginning 
to  end,  and  was  wounded  twice.  When  his  grandson,  Dr.  Daniel 
McNeill  Parker,  removed  his  remains  from  one  cemetery  to 
another,  he  extracted  from  one  of  the  thigh-bones  a  bullet  which 
was  embedded  in  the  bone.  It  was  a  rough  slug  of  rolled  lead, 
and  must  have  been  fired  at  close  quarters  to  retain  the  position  in 
which  it  was  found. 

At  the  close  of  the  war  there  was  a  large  outpouring  of  Royal- 
ists from  the  States  into  the  British  Provinces,  in  part  com- 
pulsory and  in  part  voluntary.  These  exiles  became  known  in 
Canadian  history  as  the  United  Empire  Loyalists.  Of  this 
exodus  Nova  Scotia  received  its  share.  In  March,  1783,  the  com- 
manding officers  of  fourteen  Provincial  (Loyalist)  regiments  peti- 
tioned the  Crown  for  grants  of  land  in  the  colonies  to  the  Loyalist 
officers  and  men,  for  pensions,  half-pay,  etc.  On  June  6th  of  that 
year  the  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia  informed  the  British  Secretary 
of  State  that  since  the  15th  of  January  upwards  of  7,000  refugees 
had  arrived  in  Nova  Scotia,  and  that  they  were  to  be  followed  by 
3,000  of  the  Provincial  forces,  and  others  besides.  Murdoch,  in 
his  "  History  of  Nova  Scotia,"  states  that  between  November, 
1782,  and  August,  1783,  upwards  of  13,000  Loyalist  refugees  had 

DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  DESCENDANTS     11 

arrived  in  the  Province,  and  that  in  July,  1784,  the  total  number 
of  Loyalists  arrived  in  Nova  Scotia  was  28,347. 

Captain  McNeill  first  appeared  in  Nova  Scotia  in  November, 

1783,  when  he  was  in  Halifax  in  connection  with  the  business  of 
procuring  a  Crown  grant  of  land  for  North  and  South  Carolina 
Loyalists.  On  the  13th  of  May,  1784,  a  grant  was  made  to  about 
400  officers,  non-commissioned  officers  and  men  of  Captain 
McNeill's  regiment  and  the  King's  Carolina  Rangers.  Among 
the  grantees  were  some  South  Carolina  Royalists.  The  grant 
contained  61,250  acres  at  Country  Harbor  in  what  was  then  part 
of  Halifax  County,  but  now  lying  within  the  County  of  Guys- 
borough.  Captain  McNeill's  share,  set  off  to  him,  was  1,250 
acres.  These  settlers  were  brought  from  St.  Augustine,  Florida, 
by  sea,  at  the  expense  of  the  British  Government,  in  the  spring  of 

1784.  They  called  their  settlement  Stormont,  a  name  which  has 
been  perpetuated  in  what  is  now  known  as  the  Stormont  Gold 
District,  under  the  Mining  Laws  of  the  Province.  Murdoch, 
speaking  of  the  place  in  August,  1784,  says:  "At  Country 
Harbor  (anciently  called  Mocodome)  a  new  settlement  or  town 
on  the  East  side  of  it,  called  Stormont,  was  in  progress.  The 
inhabitants  were  nearly  400  in  number.  Some  were  officers  who 
had  served  in  the  late  war." 

While  living  here,  Captain  McNeill  married,  at  Halifax,  Mary 
Nutting,  daughter  of  Captain  John  Nutting,  of  the  corps  of  Royal 
Engineers  in  the  British  Army,  and  his  wife,  Mary  Walton  (Nut- 
ting), a  native  of  South  Reading,  Mass.  The  date  of  the  mar- 
riage was  November  27th,  1788.  James  Walton  Nutting,  for 
fifty  years  Clerk  of  the  Crown  and  Prothonotary  (Chief  Clerk) 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Nova  Scotia,  was  a  brother  of  Mrs. 
McNeill.  Another  brother,  John,  was  a  captain  in  the  Royal 
Artillery.  Mary  Nutting  was  born  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  March 
6th,  1768.  Her  father,  John,  as  a  young  man,  served  with  Massa- 
chusetts troops  against  the  French  in  America.  Proscribed  as  a 
Royalist  in  1778,  he  was  forced  to  leave  his  home  and  property  in 
Cambridge,  and  came,  with  his  wife  and  family  of  eleven  children, 
to  Halifax.  He  was  employed  by  the  British  Government  as 
King's  Messenger  to  carry  despatches  between  America  and  Eng- 
land during  the  Revolutionary  War.  At  one  time  when  so 
engaged  he  was  captured  by  a  French  man-of-war  and  imprisoned 
in  France.  Being  well  up  in  Freemasonry,  he  was  assisted  by 
brother  Masons  to  escape,  and  so  got  safely  to  England.  After- 
ward? he  received  a  commission  in  the  Royal  Engineers  and  served 
in  the  Revolutionary  War,  being  several  times  wounded.  As 
captain  in  that  corps,  later,  he  was  employed  for  some  years  at 
Halifax  in  constructing  the  defences  of  that  city.  Among  other 
works,  he  built  the  old  "  Chain  Batterv  "  near  the  entrance  of 

12     DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  descendants 

the  North-west  Arm  of  Halifax  Harbor,  which,  with  a  chain  boom 
beneath  it,  was  designed  to  protect  the  city  from  attack  in  the  rear. 
He  died  in  1800,  and  his  wife  in  1830.  In  consideration  of  her 
husband's  services  to  the  Crown,  and  his  heavy  losses  of  property 
at  Cambridge  by  confiscation,  the  Duke  of  Kent  (father  of  Queen 
Victoria),  while  Commander-in-Chief  in  Nova  Scotia,  procured 
for  the  widow  a  special  pension  from  the  Crown.  Mrs.  McNeill's 
father  (John)  was  a  grandson  of  Jonathan  Nutting,  of  Cambridge, 
Mass.,  and  a  great-grandson  of  John  Nutting,  a  New  England 
Puritan  who  was  living  in  Woburn,  Mass.  in  the  year  1650,  was 
one  of  the  petitioners  for  the  town  of  Chelmsford,  Mass.,  and  one 
of  the  "  original  proprietors  "  of  Groton,  Mass.,  in  which  latter 
place  he  settled  about  the  year  1660.  According  to  the  family 
tradition  this  ancestor  was  killed  in  an  attack  by  Indians  on  his 
garrison  house  in  King  Philip's  War. 

Little  is  known  of  Captain  McNeill's  life  at  Stormont.  He 
had  ten  slaves  employed  upon  his  plantation,  which  must  have 
proved  an  unpromising  undertaking,  for  the  locality  was  largely 
a  wilderness  of  rock  and  poorly  timbered.  It  has  since  proved 
rich  in  gold;  but  as  the  Crown  grant  of  1784  reserved  this  royal 
mineral  the  settlers  lost  nothing  through  ignorantly  living  over 
potential  gold  mines.  Here  his  elder  daughter,  Mary  Janet,  was 
born,  September  24th,  1789.  The  McNeills  visited  Halifax  fre- 
quently. The  Captain  had  business  interests  there,  and  the  social 
life  of  the  Provincial  Capital  was  made  attractive  by  the  presence 
of  the  large  military  and  naval  forces  maintained  there  during 
the  European  wars  of  the  period.  There  were  no  roads  in  the 
eastern  part  of  the  Province,  and  communication  between  Stor- 
mont and  Halifax  was  by  small  coasting  vessels  or  open  boats. 
On  one  occasion  the  Captain,  in  default  of  better  conveyance, 
employed  two  Frenchmen  from  Cape  Breton  to  take  him  to 
Halifax,  about  110  miles  distant,  in  a  small  open  boat.  These 
men  knew  that  he  had  a  sum  of  money  with  him,  and  arranged 
to  murder  him  on  the  voyage.  They  talked  of  it  as  they  rowed, 
little  thinking  that  their  passenger  knew  some  French,  and  that 
he  was  armed.  When  their  time  came  they  threw  down  their 
oars,  one  reached  for  an  axe  in  the  bottom  of  the  boat,  and  the 
other  drew  a  knife.  Throwing  back  his  military  cloak,  their 
intended  victim  whipped  out  a  brace  of  horse-pistols,  and  covering 
both  of  the  villains,  bade  them,  in  vigorous  if  not  elegant  French, 
to  row,  threatening  to  kill  instantly  either  of  them  who  dropped 
a  stroke.  There  were  yet  many  miles  to  go,  but  all  night  he  kept 
them  at  it,  calmly  but  ruthlessly  sitting  with  a  pistol  on  each  knee. 
Arrived  at  the  landing  beach  in  Halifax  next  day,  the  weary 
Frenchmen  took  to  the  water  before  the  boat  was  beached,  and, 
despite  the  Captain's  efforts  to  have  them  detained  by  the  people 


en  shore,  they  broke  through  the  busy  throng,  and  taking  to  the 
woods,  were  never  discovered.  But  the  Captain  had  the  boat  by 
way  of  compensation.  In  her  correspondence  with  members  of 
the  Nutting  family  his  elder  daughter  refers  to  some  of  the  family 
excursions  to  Halifax.  In  one  letter  she  describes  a  return  voyage 
to  Stormont  after  a  visit  to  the  city  to  do  some  shopping.  The 
passengers  were  huddled  in  the  cabin  of  a  little  schooner  for  the 
night.  Yet,  she  says,  "  the  voyage  would  have  been  pleasant 
enough  but  for  the  continual  screaming  of  Captain  Marshall's 
cross  baby."  Captain  Marshall  was  a  brother  officer  of  her  father, 
who  became  one  of  the  Stormont  settlers.  This  obnoxious  infant 
became  Chief  Justice  John  G.  Marshall,  of  the  Court  of  Common 
Pleas  for  Cape  Breton,  and  his  daughter  married  a  brother  of  the 
second  wife  of  Dr.  Daniel  McNeill  Parker,  Captain  McNeill's 

During  his  military  career  Daniel  McNeill  had  met  at  New 
York  Captain  Robert  Grant,  of  the  42nd  Highland  Regiment 
("  The  Black  Watch  "),  and  an  intimate  friendship  arose  between 
them.  Grant  was  the  British  officer  who,  to  win  a  wager,  can- 
tered his  horse  through  Trinity  Church — up  the  main  aisle  from 
the  Broadway  entrance,  wheeling  to  the  right  before  the  altar,  and 
out  by  the  rear  door  into  the  churchyard — during  divine  service 
on  a  Sunday  morning.  This  occurred  when  the  British  cause 
was  waning  at  New  York,  and  the  mad  prank  might  have  cost  him 
his  life.  Grant  quitted  the  army  at  the  close  of  the  war.  He 
married  a  Miss  Bergen,  of  New  York,  and,  removing  to  Nova 
Scotia,  had  settled  at  "  Loyal  Hill,"  on  the  Avon  River,  about 
eight  miles  below  Windsor,  the  county  town  of  Hants,  and  fifty 
miles  west  of  Halifax.  Their  son,  Michael  Bergen  Grant,  mar- 
ried, July  10th,  1800,  Sophia  Elizabeth  Nutting,  a  sister  of  Mrs. 
Daniel  McNeill. 

Captain  McNeill  often  visited  the  new  "  Loyal  Hill  "  planta- 
tion. Windsor,  near  by,  the  seat  of  King's  College,  a  busy  little 
town  rapidly  increasing  in  size  and  importance  through  the 
Loyalist  immigration,  and  being,  moreover,  a  garrison  town,  was 
a  much  more  desirable  place  than  Stormont ;  while  the  better  soil 
for  tillage  and  the  fine  natural  scenery  about  the  Avon  and  the 
Basin  of  Minas  must  have  proved  most  attractive  to  one  coming 
from  the  rougher  and  less  congenial  eastern  part  of  the  Province. 
To  these  considerations  add  the  prospect  of  having  the  Grants 
for  neighbors,  and  it  is  not  difficult  to  understand  McNeill's  reso- 
lution to  remove  into  the  neighborhood  of  "  Loyal  Hill."  In  or 
about  the  year  1797  he  removed  thither  and  founded  a  new  home 
on  the  eastern  shore  of  Minas  Basin,  in  Hants  County,  calling 
the  place  Cambridge,  after  old  Cambridge,  the  birthplace  of  his 
wife,  whence,  as  a  child  ten  years  of  age,  she  had  fled  with  her 

14     DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  descendants 

proscribed  father  from  the  Massachusetts  "  Whigs."  His  brother- 
in-law,  James,  acquired  an  adjoining  estate,  though  living  most 
of  the  time  in  Halifax.  Previous  to  his  permanent  removal  to 
Hants  County,  the  Captain's  twin  children,  Archibald  John  and 
Sophia  Margaret,  were  born  at  Windsor,  March  27th,  1793.  The 
son  died  in  early  boyhood. 

In  1811  Captain  McNeill  revisited  North  Carolina.  His 
father  had  died,  and,  as  appears  by  his  will,  dated  April  17th, 
1801,  had  devised  to  his  son  Daniel  323  acres  of  land  in  Chatham 
County,  near  the  mouth  of  New  Hope,  and  other  land  on  McKay's 
Creek,  in  Cumberland  County  (N.C.),  with  a  provision  that  "  in 
case  my  son  Daniel  nor  any  of  his  heirs  in  Nova  Scotia  should 
never  come  to  claim  the  said  plantations,"  then  they  should  be 
equally  divided  between  "  my  son  Hector's  son  Daniel  and  my 
grandson  John  McNeill's  son  also  named  Daniel."  The  will 
also  bequeathed  to  Captain  Daniel  "  twenty  milch  cows  out  of  my 
stock  to  be  sold  and  the  money  put  to  interest  for  the  benefit  of 
Daniel  and  his  heirs  " ;  and  there  was  a  contingent  reversionary 
devise  of  another  plantation  to  Daniel  and  his  heirs.  It  is  known 
that  the  Captain,  during  this  visit,  engaged  in  litigation  with  his 
brother  Neill  (who  was  an  executor  of  the  will),  and  with  other 
persons,  concerning  his  interests  under  his  father's  will;  but  his 
Nova  Scotia  descendants  are  unaware  of  the  particulars  of  this 
controversy.  In  a  letter,  dated  Cumberland  County,  N.C.,  July 
17th,  1838,  Dr.  John  McKay,  who  married  Mary  McNeill, 
youngest  daughter  of  Margaret  McNeill,  Daniel's  sister,  informs 
Francis  Parker,  Daniel's  son-in-law,  "  that  the  Captain  made 
some  arrangement  of  his  business  when  he  returned  to  Nova 
Scotia,  expecting  in  a  short  time  to  return  to  North  Carolina," 
but  that  since  he  left,  he,  Dr.  McKay,  and  his  wife  had  never 
heard  anything  more  of  this  business.  It  seems  that  the  Captain 
never  returned.  By  his  will,  dated  January  8th,  1814,  and  pro- 
bated at  Windsor,  N.S.,  he  devised  the  two  plantations  first  above 
mentioned  to  his  daughter,  Mary  Janet,  but  no  steps  were  taken 
by  her  to  recover  these  properties.  While  in  his  native  State  on 
this  occasion  the  following  letter  to  him  from  his  younger  brother 
John  (copied  from  the  original)  may  be  of  interest  to  the  family. 
It  is  addressed :  "  Mr.  Danl.  McNeill,  Cape  Fear,  Sproule's  Ferry 
Cumberland  County,"  on  the  cover,  with  the  added  words, 
"  favored  by  Mr.  A.  Gilchrist." 

The  letter  is  as  follows : 

"  Moore  County,  Deep  River, 
"June  3rd,  1811. 

"  Dr.  Brother, — Last  night  I  had  the  pleasure  of  Mr.  Mal- 
colm Buie's  company,  and  Mr.  Archd.  Gilchrist,  lately  from  Ten- 
nessee, by  whom  I  shall  send  these  few  lines,  as  he  is  going  directly 


down  to  Mr.  D.  Shaw's.  Since  I  came  to  this  place  there  has  no 
remarkable  occurrance  taken  place  which  is  worthy  of  incerting 
in  a  letter.  I  am  happy  to  inform  you  that  I  am  perfectly  satis- 
fyed  with  my  situation,  that  I  have  interviews  with  agreeable  com- 
panions and  hospitable  citizens.  The  inhabitants  of  this  vicinity 
are  more  accomplished,  there  manners  and  customs  more  refined 
than  is  common  in  Country  villages.  This  is  an  advantage  which 
induces  me  to  make  choice  of  this  place  in  preference  to  any  other 
country  situation  and  even  town  itself.  When  I  first  came  I  com- 
menced memorising  the  Greek  grammer.  I  have  gone  partially 
through  it  once  and  have  began  to  read  the  Greek  Testament,  and 
I  must  confess  that  I  find  it  more  difficult  than  any  study  I  have 
ever  undertaken ;  but  I  hope  time  and  application  will  surmount 
this  difficulty.  My  classmate,  Mr.  Moor,  is  a  very  agreeable 
young  man  and  spares  no  pains  to  give  me  every  information  he 
can  and  in  making  me  acquainted  with  the  most  respectable 
citizens.  It  is  now  late  in  the  morning,  I  must  go  to  school.  I 
have  been  perfectly  well  since  I  came  here,  hoping  this  may  find 
you  and  the  family  enjoying  the  same.  I  wish  you  every  success 
with  your  farm.     I  remain  your  most  affectionate  Brother,  etc. 

"  (Sgd.)  John  MacNeill. 
"  D.  McNeill. 

"  N.B. — It  is  expected  we  will  have  an  exhibition  at  our  school 
about  the  first  of  July,  when  there  will  be  a  fortnight's  vacation. 
If  so  I  shall  write  you  by  the  mail  if  no  other  opportunity." 

Early  in  1812  Captain  McNeill  returned  to  Nova  Scotia, 
bringing  with  him  a  considerable  number  of  slaves.  A  short  time 
before  he  landed  at  Windsor,  doubts  as  to  the  legality  of  slave- 
owning  in  the  Province  had  arisen,  in  consequence  of  some  ill- 
considered,  off-hand  dicta  of  Chief  Justice  Blowers  in  deciding, 
upon  a  writ  of  habeas  corpus,  a  question  of  the  custody  of  a  slave 
at  Halifax  who  had  run  away  from  Shelburne.  The  deliverance 
of  the  Chief  Justice  was  taken  by  the  people  for  law.  Slaves  were 
encouraged  to  desert  their  service,  and  the  losses  to  slave-owners 
proved  serious  in  many  cases.  Most  of  these  slave-holders  were 
Southern  Loyalists.  As  Judge  Haliburton,  of  the  Nova  Scotia 
Supreme  Court,  says  in  his  History  of  the  Province,  writing  of 
this  period:  "  On  this  subject  there  prevailed  much  romance  and 
false  sentiment  in  Nova  Scotia  as  well  as  in  England."  He,  in 
common  with  many  other  of  the  best  legal  authorities  in  the 
British  Provinces,  held  that  slavery  there  contravened  no  law 
previous  to  the  British  Emancipation  Act  of  1833,  which  rendered 
it  illegal  in  all  British  possessions.  However,  Captain  McNeill's 
slaves,  on  landing,  were  told  by  certain  officious  persons  in  Windsor 

16     DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  descendants 

that  they  were  "  free  niggers  "  when  they  touched  British  soil,  and 
nearly  all  the  male  slaves  ran  away. 

Dr.  T.  Watson  Smith,  in  his  book,  "  The  Slave  in  Canada  w 
(p.  115),  relating  this  incident,  prefaces  the  account  by  saying 
that  "  perhaps  no  experience  at  this  period  was  more  trying  than 
that  of  Captain  Daniel  McNeill."  Dr.  Smith  states  that  these 
slaves  had  been  accepted  by  the  Captain  on  account  of  his  property 
claims  in  North  Carolina.  In  July,  1812,  five  hundred  acres  of 
the  Stormont  property  were  sold.  The  remaining  seven  hundred 
and  fifty  acres  were  never  disposed  of,  and  fell  into  the  possession 
of  squatters  who  were  never  disturbed. 

It  appears  to  have  been  about  the  year  1800  that  the  Captain 
lost  his  wife.  Hers  was  a  tragic  end.  Delirious  in  fever  on  a 
winter's  night,  she  escaped  from  her  nurse.  Her  naked  footprints 
in  the  snow  were  traced  to  the  brink  of  a  bluff  overhanging  the 
waters  of  Minas  Basin,  near  the  house.  The  Fundy  tide,  which 
there  rapidly  ebbs  and  flows  a  full  fifty  feet,  beat  against  the  cliff. 
Search  was  unavailing.     Her  body  was  never  recovered. 

Owing  to  the  loss  of  the  family  Bible,  to  which  reference  is 
made  elsewhere,  the  date  of  this  event  cannot  now  be  ascertained ; 
nor  can  the  date  of  the  marriage  of  Captain  McNeill's  elder 
daughter.  She,  Mary  Janet,  married  Francis  Parker,  of 
Windsor,  N.S.,  probably  in  1819.  He  was  a  merchant  doing 
business  there  at  the  time  of  this  marriage,  but  later  he  removed 
to  Petite  Riviere,  a  few  miles  north  of  Cambridge,  where  through 
his  success  in  shipbuilding,  the  quarrying  and  export  of  plaster 
and  gypsum,  and  in  the  conduct  of  a  general  mercantile  business, 
he  founded  and  built  up  a  village  which  he  named  Walton,  after 
the  maiden  name  of  his  wife's  grandmother. 

No  portrait  of  "  Jennet  "  McNeill  in  early  life  remains ;  but 
old  people  who  remembered  the  youth  and  fashion  of  Windsor 
when  she  was  a  bride  were  wont  to  remark  to  her  descendants  that 
"  Jennet  McNeill  and  Francis  Parker  were  the  handsomest 
couple  "  appearing  either  in  Windsor  or  in  Halifax  society.  She 
had  a  mind  well  formed  and  cultivated.  As  a  wife  and  mother 
she  was  to  her  husband  and  children  incomparable.  To  the  com- 
munity in  which  she  lived  and  to  all  comers  she  appeared  to 
embody  a  catalogue  of  the  graces,  and  by  no  means  least,  that  of 
hospitality.  Francis  Parker,  born  January  17th,  1797,  was  a 
son  of  John  Parker,  of  Newport  Township,  County  of  Hants,  N.S., 
and  Sarah  Grant,  his  wife,  a  daughter  of  Captain  Robert  Grant, 
of  "  Loyal  Hill,"  the  soldier  friend  of  Captain  McNeill.  John 
Parker  was  the  son  of  one  of  three  Yorkshire  Parkers  (brothers) 
who,  sailing  from  Hull,  England,  in  March,  1774,  came  to  Halifax 
and  settled,  two  in  Hants  and  one  in  Colchester  County,  as  farmers 
and  graziers.     Francis  Parker,  from  the  time  of  his  settlement  in 


Walton  until  old  age,  was  the  chief  magistrate  of  his  township. 
He  was  well  read  in  law,  though  not  a  lawyer,  and  was  a  man  of 
fine  and  discriminating  literary  taste.  His  nobility  of  character 
comported  well  with  a  distinguished  courtliness  of  demeanor,  which 
made  him  what  is  called  a  "  gentleman  of  the  old  school."  In 
charity  he  might  have  rivalled  Saint  Martin  of  Tours.  The  open- 
handed  hospitality  of  the  "  Squire's "  home  is  proverbial  to  this 
day.  He  was  prosperous  in  business ;  and  had  not  his  Maine 
and  Massachusetts  rivals  in  the  business  of  milling  and  grinding 
plaster  leagued  against  him  to  secure  from  Congress  a  prohibitive 
duty  on  ground  plaster,  thus  shutting  the  manufactured  material 
out  of  the  American  market,  he  would  have  been  comparatively 
wealthy.  Three  of  his  larger  ships,  "  The  Walton,"  "  The  Pem- 
broke," and  "  The  Wentworth,"  noted  vessels  in  their  day,  were 
commanded  by  three  of  his  sons.  He  was  originally  a  member 
of  the  Church  of  England,  but  in  middle  life  united  with  the 
Baptist  Church  at  Walton.  Mrs.  Parker,  too,  followed  this  course 
of  her  husband  in  religious  matters. 

Captain  Daniel  McNeill  died  of  apoplexy  at  Cambridge  on 
May  5th,  1818,  aged  66  years,  and  was  interred  in  the  Loyal  Hill 
family  burial  ground  of  the  Grants.  Years  afterwards,  the  Loyal 
Hill  plaster  quarry  at  the  beach  having  gradually  encroached  upon 
this  old  cemetery,  his  grandson,  Dr.  Daniel  McNeill  Parker, 
removed  his  body  to  the  Parker  family  cemetery  at  Walton,  where 
his  dust  now  mingles  with  that  of  his  two  daughters  and  many  of 
his  descendants. 

Mary  Janet  Parker  died  at  Walton,  March  7th,  1866,  aged 
76  years.  Francis  Parker  died  at  Walton,  August  24th,  1882, 
at  the  age  of  85. 

Descendants  of  Francis  Parker  and  Mary  Janet  Parker. 

The  children  of  Francis  and  Mary  Janet  Parker  are:  James 
Walton,  Daniel  McNeill,  John  Nutting,  Frederick  H.,  Francis 
Grant,  Wentworth  Foster,  Mary  Sophia. 

1.  James  Walton  Parker  was  born  at  Windsor,  in  the 
County  of  Hants,  Nova  Scotia,  about  1820.  He  followed  the  sea 
from  early  life,  and  while  commanding  one  of  his  father's  ships 
upon  a  voyage  to  the  East,  perished  with  the  ship,  which  was  never 
heard  of  after  setting  sail.     He  was  never  married. 

2.  The  Honorable  Daniel  McNeill  Parker,  M.D., 
L.R.C.S.  Edin.,  D.C.L.,  was  born  at  Windsor,  in  the  County  of 
Hants,  Nova  Scotia,  April  28th,  1822.  In  his  early  childhood 
his  father  removed  to  Walton,  in  the  same  county.  Daniel,  when 
not  at  school,  was  employed  in  getting  out  ship  timber  for  his 
father.     The  only  boasting  he  was  ever  known  to  indulge  in  was 


18     DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  descendants 

that  at  eight  years  of  age  he  could  handle  a  team  of  as  many  oxen 
in  the  lumber  woods, — and  do  it  as  well  as  any  other  man.     His 
early   education  was  obtained   principally   at   King's    Collegiate 
School,  Windsor,  and  at  Horton  Collegiate  Academy,  Wolfville, 
N.S.     He  began  the  study  of  Medicine  at  Halifax,  N.S.,  with  Dr. 
William  Bruce  Almon,  the  son  of  a  Georgia  loyalist  army  officer ; 
and  in  1842  went  to  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  Scotland.     On 
July  1st,  1845,  he  received  the  diploma  of  the  Royal  College  of 
Surgeons,  Edinburgh,  taking  the  gold  medal  for  Anatomy.     On 
August  1st  of  the  same  year  he  graduated  M.D.  at  the  University 
of  that  city.     During  his  course  of  study  there  he  served,  in  his 
vacations,  as  clinical  clerk  to  Sir  James  Y.  Simpson,  the  distin- 
guished gynecologist  and  discoverer  of  chloroform;    and  also  to 
Sir  Robert  Christison,  a  notable  physician.     Among  many  cele- 
brated men  of  Scotland  who  were  his  friends  during  these  years  of 
study  was  Dr.  Thomas  Chalmers,  the  Presbyterian  divine.     For 
fifty  years  Dr.  Parker  practised  his  profession  in  Halifax,  N.S., 
frequently  going  abroad  for  advanced  study  and  information,  that 
he  might  keep  pace  with  the  rapid  advance  of  medical  and  surgical 
science.     In  1871  he  relinquished  his  practice  and  went  to  Edin- 
burgh, where,  until  1873,  he  engaged  in  special  surgical  research, 
sometimes  visiting  London  and  some  of  the  European  capitals. 
Upon  his  return  to  Halifax  he  established  himself  as  a  consulting 
surgeon,  in  which  capacity  his  services  were  sought  throughout 
Nova  Scotia  and  the  adjacent  Provinces.     In  August,  1895,  he 
retired  from  practice.     He  is  an  honorary  member  of  the  Gyne- 
cological Society  of  Boston,  Mass.,  and  of  many  other  medical  and 
surgical   societies,   and  has  contributed   much   to  the   periodical 
literature  of  his  profession.     Much  of  his  time  has  been  given, 
during  a  busy  life,  to  philanthropical  and  educational  work,  as 
well  as  to  the  more  public  service  of  his  country.     He  was  a  com- 
missioner from  Nova  Scotia  for  the  International  Exhibition  of 
1851,  at  London,  and  for  his  services  received  from  the  Prince 
Consort  a  commemorative  medal.     In  1867,  previous  to  the  con- 
federation of  the  British  Provinces,  he  was  appointed  a  member 
of  the  Legislative  Council  of  Nova  Scotia,  the  Upper  House  of  the 
Legislature;   and  when  he  resigned  this  office  in  1901,  on  account 
of  impaired  health,  he  was  the  sole  surviving  member  of  that  body 
who  derived  appointment  from  the  Government  of  Great  Britain. 
A  few  extracts  from  the  speeches  of  his  colleagues  in  the  Legis- 
lature upon  the  occasion  of  his  voluntary  retirement  will  be  indica- 
tive of  the  esteem  in  which  he  has  been  held  in  private  as  well  as 
public  life.     Said  one :    "  He  is  a  man  prized  for  his  sterling 
worth,  his  uprightness  and  integrity,  and  his  great  business  and 
executive  ability.     Notwithstanding  Hon.  Dr.  Parker's  political 
views,  I  never  knew  him  once  actuated  solely  by  party  motives. 


He  was  always  anxious  to  do  what  was  right  and  just  in  con- 
nection with  private  bills,  and  what  was  right  and  wise  in  connec- 
tion with  public  measures,  so  that  bills  coming  from  the  Lower 
House  to  this  House  were  often  amended  in  most  important  par- 
ticulars through  his  instrumentality.  He  was  a  perfect  gentle- 
man, one  of  nature's  noblemen,  and  it  is  but  voicing  the  sentiments 
of  honorable  members  of  this  House  to  say  that  the  better  he  was 
known  the  more  highly  he  was  appreciated.  He  was  at  all  times 
at  his  post  in  the  Committee  on  Bills,  and  he  took  an  active  part 
in  the  debates  of  this  House.  Universal  regret  has  been  expressed 
by  honorable  members  of  this  House  when  he  tendered  his  resigna- 
tion. It  is  a  loss,  not  only  to  this  House,  but  to  the  Province  at 

Speaking  for  the  Government,  of  which  Dr.  Parker  was  an 
opponent,  the  Chairman  of  the  Council's  Committee  on  Bills  said : 
"  In  recent  years  we  (the  Government)  have  told  him  (Dr. 
Parker)  again  and  again  that  if  he  did  not  feel  able  to  devote  the 
entire  day  to  the  work  of  the  House  and  its  committees,  we  would 
be  glad  to  have  him  come  and  remain  a  short  time  while  the  House 
was  in  session,  so  that  we  could  still  have  his  valuable  assistance. 
The  long  period  he  had  spent  in  this  chamber  gave  him  a  large 
experience  in  legislation  and  enabled  him  to  speak  with  matured 
judgment  in  every  matter  that  came  before  it."  These  remarks 
had  reference  to  two  previous  occasions  when  Dr.  Parker  had 
withdrawn  his  resignation  at  the  earnest  request  of  the  Govern- 
ment and  his  colleagues.  In  the  speech  of  another  colleague  in 
the  Legislative  Council  occurs  this  tribute :  "  I  realize  that  Dr. 
Parker  maintained  here  that  high  standard  in  regard  to  public 
matters,  which  in  private  matters  has  always  been  associated  with 
his  name.  I  regard  Dr.  Parker  as  one  of  the  choice  spirits  of  this 
Province.  The  words  '  integrity  '  and  '  honorable  dealing  '  hardly 
express  to  my  mind  the  rare  qualities  which  go  to  make  up  the 
doctor's  personality.  He  is  a  man  of  most  tender  regard  for  the 
feelings  as  well  as  the  rights  of  others,  which  make  all  his  dealings 
with  his  fellow  men  emanate  from  the  bed-rock  of  justice. 
He  knows  neither  Trojan  nor  Tyrian  in  church  or  state.  He  has 
that  sense  of  dealing  with  his  fellows  as  he  would  be  dealt  by, 
which  makes  his  public  and  private  life  an  embodiment  of  the 
golden  rule." 

In  1877,  Dr.  Parker  was  chosen  by  his  political  opponents, 
the  Government  of  the  day,  as  a  delegate  to  the  Fredericton 
Conference  on  the  matter  of  a  Union  of  the  three  Maritime 
Provinces  of  Canada,  and  in  his  capacity  of  legislator  he  was 
frequently  engaged  in  special  political  service  and  prominent  in 
the  counsels  of  his  country.  Yet  he  uniformly  declined  various 
offers  of  political  preferment,  both  in   Provincial   and  Federal 

20     DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  descendants 

affairs.  In  his  contributions  to  educational  and  philanthropic 
work  in  Nova  Scotia  he  has  filled,  among  others,  the  following 
offices :  He  was  a  Commissioner  of  Schools  for  the  City  of  Halifax 
upon  the  institution  and  organization  of  the  Free  School  System 
in  Nova  Scotia.  For  about  twenty-nine  years  he  was  a  member  of 
the  Board  of  Governors  of  Acadia  College  at  Wolfville,  N.  S. 
He  was  active  in  promoting  the  establishment  of  the  Halifax 
Medical  College,  and  for  many  years  was  an  examiner  for  that 
Institution.  For  many  years  he  occupied  a  prominent  position 
on  the  original  commission  which  governed  the  affairs  of  the 
Provincial  and  City  Hospital,  and  of  the  Poor's  Asylum,  at 
Halifax,  and  was  later  a  valued  member  of  the  Boards  of  the 
Victoria  General  Hospital,  the  Halifax  Dispensary,  and  the 
Provincial  Board  of  Health.  Early  in  his  career  he  was  Chairman 
of  the  Commissioners  of  the  Nova  Scotia  Hospital  for  the 
Insane.  He  was  long  a  consulting  physician  and  surgeon  of 
the  Hospitals  above  mentioned,  and  of  the  Halifax  Infirmary. 
He  has  been  President  of  the  Provincial  Medical  Association  of 
Nova  Scotia  and  of  the  Canada  Medical  Association.  For  thirty 
years  he  was  President  of  the  Institution  for  the  Deaf  and  Dumb, 
at  Halifax,  and  for  many  years  President  of  the  Home  for  the 
Aged,  in  the  same  city,  and  a  Director  of  the  Protestant  Orphans' 
Home  there.  In  early  life  he  was  a  manager  of  the  Mechanics' 
Institute  at  Halifax,  and  a  frequent  lecturer  for  that  Society. 
He  also  served  on  the  Managing  Board  of  the  Industrial  School 
at  Halifax  for  a  time.  As  a  Director  of  the  Halifax  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association,  he  contributed  much  to  its  work.  With 
the  development  of  all  these  institutions  he  has  been  closely 
identified.  A  member  of  the  Baptist  denomination,  he  was  active 
in  all  its  work,  filling  positions  from  time  to  time  on  various 
Managing  Boards  of  the  Baptist  Convention  of  the  Maritime 
Provinces,  of  which  Convention  he  was,  for  a  term,  the  President. 
In  1882,  Acadia  College  conferred  upon  him  the  honorary  degree 
of  D.C.L.  In  business  life  he  was  for  many  years  a  Director  of 
the  Halifax  Gas  Light  Company,  and  President,  both  of  the 
Nova  Scotia  Benefit  Building  Society  and  the  Halifax  and 
Dartmouth  Steam  Ferry  Company.  He  was  also  one  of  the 
first  Directors  of  the  Windsor  and  Annapolis  Railway  (during 
the  period  of  construction). 

Dr.  Parker  travelled  much  in  the  British  Isles,  Europe,  the 
West  India  Islands,  the  United  States  and  Canada.  He  has  been 
an  eye-witness  of  historic  events,  including  the  final  scene  in 
the  disruption  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  in  1843,  the  beginning 
of  one  great  war  in  the  bombardment  and  surrender  of  Fort 
Sumpter  in  1861,  and  the  closing  scenes  of  another,  after  the 
bloody  work  of  the  Commune  at  Paris  which  followed  the  surrender 

DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  DESCENDANTS     21 

of  that  city  to  the  Germans  in  1870.  When  the  Civil  War  in  the 
United  States  was  beginning,  Dr.  Parker  was  at  McNeill's  Ferry, 
North  Carolina,  the  guest  of  Colonel  Archibald  McNeill.  During 
that  exciting  period  he  saw,  both  in  the  South  and  in  the  North, 
the  preparations  for  that  awful  struggle.  He  saw  Major  Anderson 
carried  a  prisoner  through  the  streets  of  Charleston,  and  was  him- 
self shut  up  in  that  city  for  a  few  days,  a  virtual  prisoner,  for- 
bidden to  leave,  write  or  telegraph,  and  afterwards  having  to 
make  his  way  North  with  the  Southern  army,  and  then  on  to 
Philadelphia  across  country  by  teams  and  along  the  coast  in  small 

When  Dr.  Parker  retired  from  the  practice  of  his  profession, 
in  August,  1895,  he  was  the  recognized  leader,  and  father  of  the 
profession  in  his  native  Province,  and  he  has  since  been  styled 
"  the  Dean  of  Canadian  Medicine."  Such  recognition  was  eulogis- 
tically  given  him  by  his  professional  brethren  in  an  address 
presented  to  him  by  them  at  that  time.  His  published  reply  to 
this  address  embodies  an  interesting  historical  retrospect  of  the 
progress  of  medicine  and  surgery  in  Nova  Scotia  during  his  pro- 
fessional career.  From  this  we  learn  that  he  was  the  first  surgeon 
in  Nova  Scotia,  and  probably  in  Canada,  to  employ  an  anesthetic 
in  surgery,  first  testing  it  upon  himself  to  see  if  it  would  prove 
harmless  to  his  patient.  Among  the  many  tributes  of  esteem 
rendered  him  at  that  time  by  the  secular  and  religious  press  of 
the  Maritime  Provinces,  the  following,  from  the  "  Presbyterian 
Witness  "  of  Halifax,  perhaps  embodies  most  concisely  the  general 
sentiments  expressed.  "  On  the  1st  August,  Hon.  Dr.  Parker 
attained  to  his  '  golden  jubilee '  as  a  physician.  His  career  has 
been  long,  and  it  has  been  honorable,  stainless,  and  altogether 
worthy  of  a  Christian.  He  has  been  a  public-spirited  citizen, 
showing  his  interest  in  all  that  concerned  the  welfare  of  the 
people.  For  twenty-nine  or  thirty  years  he  has  been  a  member 
of  the  Legislative  Council.  He  has  given  of  his  time  and  means 
unsparingly  to  help  philanthropic  and  religious  societies. 
A  member  and  trusted  office-bearer  of  the  Baptist  Church,  he 
has  at  the  same  time  manifested  his  generous  interest  in  all 
Christian  work.  It  is  not  for  us  to  speak  of  his  admirable  and 
signally  successful  professional  career.  As  a  physician,  he  won 
the  respect  and  confidence  of  thousands,  and  he  placed  very  many 
under  life-long  obligations.  We  respectfully  tender  to  Dr.  Parker 
cur  congratulations,  and  we  wish  him  many  additional  years  of 
usefulness.  Our  young  physicians  could  hardly  err  in  marking 
the  career  of  Dr.  Parker,  and  in  imitating  as  closely  as  may  be 
his  devotion  to  his  profession,  his  Christian  integrity,  his  unswerv- 
ing fidelity  to  principle,  and  the  blameless  purity  of  his  whole 


Dr.  Parker  was  twice  married.  His  first  marriage,  on  June 
10th,  1847,  was  to  Elizabeth  Ritchie  Johnstone,  daughter  of  the 
Honorable  James  W.  Johnstone,  Attorney-General  of  Nova  Scotia, 
and  afterwards  the  Judge  in  Equity  of  that  Province.  Judge 
Johnstone  was  of  a  Georgia  family.  His  father,  as  a  Loyalist, 
having  been  obliged  to  flee  the  country,  his  mother,  after  the 
father's  death  in  Jamaica,  made  a  new  home  in  Nova  Scotia. 
By  this  marriage  there  was  one  son,  James  Johnstone  Parker, 
born  August  15th,  1852,  died  July  1st,  1872,  while  a  medical 
student  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh.  The  mother  survived 
the  birth  of  her  son  only  for  a  few  days.  On  August  26th,  1854, 
Dr.  Parker  married  Fanny  Holmes  Black,  daughter  of  the  Honor- 
able William  Anderson  Black,  of  Halifax,  N.S.,  merchant,  a 
member  of  the  Provincial  Government  with  a  seat  in  the  Legisla- 
tive Council.  Mr.  Black  was  a  son  of  the  Reverend  William 
Black,  who  was  the  first  emissary  of  John  Wesley  in  America, 
and  who  sowed  the  earliest  seeds  of  Wesleyan  Methodism  from 
Upper  Canada  and  Newfoundland  to  Maryland  and  the  West 
Indies.  It  is  a  curious  coincidence  that  in  1774,  the  paternal 
great-grandfathers,  both  of  the  doctor  and  the  second  Mrs. 
Parker,  came  to  Halifax  from  Hull,  Yorkshire,  in  England, 
strangers  to  each  other,  in  the  same  ship.  By  his  second  marriage, 
Dr.  Parker  had  the  following  children :  William  Black  Parker, 
born  April  26th,  1856,  died  April  28th,  1856.  Mary  Ann 
Parker,  born  August  14th,  1857;  married,  July  25th,  1894, 
Reverend  Elias  Miles  Keirstead,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  Professor  of  Moral 
Philosophy  and  English  Literature  in  Acadia  College,  Wolf- 
ville,  N.  S. ;  later  Professor  of  Systematic  Theology  in  McMaster 
University  at  Toronto,  Ont.  Dr.  Keirstead  is  a  descendant  of 
Hans  Keirstead,  an  early  Dutch  settler  of  Manhattan  Island, 
whose  land  comprised  the  site  of  Trinity  Church,  on  Broadway, 
New  York  City.  His  nearer  ancestors  were  United  Empire  Loyal- 
ists, expelled  from  their  New  York  homes  to  found  new  ones  in 
the  wilds  of  New  Brunswick.  Dr.  Keirstead  has  a  widespread 
reputation  throughout  Canada  and  the  United  States  for  pro- 
found scholarship  and  exceptional  ability  as  a  teacher  and  orator. 
His  cultured  mind  has  been  enriched  by  travel  and  study  in 
many  lands.  Ida  McNeill  Parker,  born  July  26th,  1859 ; 
died  May  25th,  1860.  William  Frederick  Parker,  born  Sep- 
tember 16th,  1860;  married,  April  5th,  1886,  Kate  Bell  Welton, 
daughter  of  the  late  Reverend  Daniel  Morse  Welton,  D.D.,  Ph.D. 
(Leipsig),  Professor  of  Semitic  Languages  at  McMaster  Univer- 
sity, Toronto,  Ontario,  and  earlier  a  professor  at  Acadia  College 
in  his  native  Province  of  "Nova  Scotia.  Dr.  Welton' s  ancestors 
were  Loyalist  refugees  from  Connecticut,  driven  from  their  homes 
ftt  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War.    His  wife,  Sarah  Messenger, 


derives  a  Scottish  ancestry  through  a  Colonel  Graham  who  com- 
manded a  Highland  regiment  under  Wolfe  at  the  taking  of  Quebec. 
The  Messengers  were  of  New  England  stock.  Mr.  Parker  was 
educated  at  Halifax,  N.S. ;  Edinburgh,  Scotland;  Acadia  College, 
Wolfville,  N.S.j  and  at  Harvard  University.  Admitted  to  the  Bar 
of  Nova  Scotia  on  January  10th,  1885,  he  practised  his  profes- 
sion for  sixteen  years  at  Halifax,  and  afterwards  removed 
to  Wolfville,  N.S.,  to  reside,  on  account  of  impaired  health. 
Lauka  McNeill  Pakker,  born  May  30th,  1862;  married, 
October  26th,  1887,  McCallum  Grant,  of  Halifax,  merchant,  a 
great-grandson  of  Captain  Robert  Grant,  of  the  42nd  High- 
landers, who  has  been  referred  to  earlier  as  a  friend  and  fellow- 
soldier  of  Captain  Daniel  McNeill.  Mr.  Grant  fills  a  large  part 
in  Halifax  commercial  circles,  and  is  Imperial  Consul  for  Germany 
at  that  port.  Fanny  Aline  Parker,  bom  July  14th,  1868.  She 
is  unmarried  and  resides  with  her  parents  at  Dartmouth,  N.S. 

The  children  of  Mary  Ann  Keirstead  are:  Ronald  McNeill 
Keirstead,  born  June  20th,  1895,  and  Mary  Frances  Keirstead, 
born  September  30th,  1896. 

The  children  of  William  Frederick  Parker  are  :  Fred- 
erick Daniel  Parker,  born  April  5th,  1888;  Arthur  McNeill 
Parker,  born  June  28th,  1895,  and  William  Allan  Parker,  born 
June  20th,  1901. 

The  children  of  Laura  McNeill  Grant  are:  Eric  McNeill 
Grant,  born  May  8th,  1889 ;  Gerald  Wallace  Grant,  born  March 
22nd,  1891;  Margaret  Frances  Grant,  born  August  8th,  1893; 
John  Moreau  Grant,  born  July  17th,  1895 ;  Grainger  Stewart 
Grant,  born  July  5th,  1897;  Harold  Taylor  Wood  Grant,  born 
March  16th,  1899.  It  may  interest  the  Southern  reader  to  know 
that  the  last-mentioned  child  was  named,  in  part,  for  the  late 
Captain  John  Taylor  Wood,  of  Halifax  (a  dear  friend  of  the 
family),  who,  during  the  Civil  War  in  the  United  States,  rendered 
distinguished  service  to  the  South  as  Commander  of  the  Con- 
federate cruiser  "  Talahassee  "  ;  as  a  lieutenant  on  the  "  Merrimac  " 
in  her  engagement  with  the  United  States  fleet  at  Hampton  Roads 
which  culminated  in  the  famous  duel  with  the  "  Monitor  " ;  also 
as  commander  of  a  naval  detachment  in  the  defence  of  the  James 
River  against  the  Northern  gunboats.  Captain  Wood  was  a  grand- 
son of  President  Zachary  Taylor  (his  mother  being  General 
Taylor's  eldest  daughter),  and  a  nephew  (by  marriage)  of  Presi- 
dent Jefferson  Davis,  whose  first  wife  was  General  Taylor's  second 
daughter.  At  the  close  of  the  war  Captain  Wood  was  on  Presi- 
dent Davis'  staff  with  the  rank  of  colonel,  and  was  with  him  at 
the  time  of  his  capture.  After  a  romantic  escape  from  his  captors, 
Captain  Wood  made  his  home  in  Halifax,  N.S.,  where  he  died 
in  1905. 


3.  John  Nutting  Pakker  (born  1824,  died  September  26th, 
1868,  and  buried  in  Liverpool,  England),  engaged  in  a  seafaring 
life  and  became  commander  of  one  of  his  father's  ship3,  trading 
mostly  between  China  and  Great  Britain.  In  1868  he  was 
accidentally  drowned  at  Liverpool,  England,  where  his  ship  was 
lying.    He  never  married. 

4.  Frederick  H.  Parker  (born  in  1825,  died  December  3rd, 
1858),  like  his  brothers  James  and  John,  went  to  sea  from  his 
boyhood,  and  became  a  captain  in  his  father's  service.  His  voy- 
ages took  him  chiefly  to  the  Indian  and  China  seas  and  the 
Mediterranean,  in  the  barque  "  Walton."  He  too,  lost  his  life 
in  following  his  profession.  He  was  never  married.  His  body 
was  interred  at  Cardiff,  Wales. 

5.  Wentworth  Foster  Parker  was  born  at  Walton  in  1828. 
He  began  life  as  a  clerk  in  a  bank  at  Windsor,  N.S.,  and  after- 
wards engaged  in  business  in  Walton.  He  married  Eliza  Mary 
Eatchford  Crane,  of  Cumberland  County,  N.S.,  a  daughter  of 
Silas  Hibbert  Crane.  The  Cranes  were  of  a  New  England  Loyal- 
ist family,  exiled  after  the  Revolutionary  War.  Mr.  Parker's 
career  was  short.    He  died  on  October  18th,  1868. 

The  children  of  Wentworth  Foster  Parker  are:  Susan 
Haliburton,  died  in  infancy;  Anne  Chandler,  born  at  Walton, 
January  13th,  1861.  She  took  up  the  profession  of  a  nurse, 
receiving  her  training  at  the  Boston  City  Hospital,  where  she 
became  a  superintendent  of  nurses.  For  some  years  Miss  Parker 
has  been  the  superintendent  of  the  Hale  Hospital  at  Haverhill, 
Mass. ;  Janet  McNeill,  born  at  Walton,  September  13thx  1863, 
died  at  Amherst,  N.S.,  October  27th,  1889,  unmarried.  Helen 
Sophia  Grant,  born  November  21st,  1866.  Resides  with  her 
mother  at  Amherst,  N.S. 

6.  Francis  Grant  Parker  was  born  at  Walton,  Hants  County, 
Nova  Scotia,  August  15th,  1830.  In  early  life  he  was  engaged  in 
business  in  Chicago,  and  afterwards  in  New  York.  In  1864  he 
began  business  in  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  as  a  wholesale  dealer  in 
flour,  tea  and  salt.  Later  he  engaged  in  the  milling  of  flour,  in 
partnership  with  his  brother-in-law,  John  Grant.  He  was  active 
in  promoting  the  manufacturing  interests  of  Halifax,  and  was 
a  public-spirited  citizen.  He  was  President  of  the  Nova  Scotia 
Cotton  Mills  Company,  and  of  the  Starr  Manufacturing  Company, 
whose  business  consists  in  the  making  of  the  Starr  "  Acme  "  patent 
skate,  and  in  all  kinds  of  iron  and  steel  manufacture,  including 
the  construction  of  bridges.  He  was  also  a  Director  of  the  People's 
Bank  of  Halifax,  a  chartered  bank  of  Canada.  He  was  actively 
engaged  in  politics,  and  was  the  first  President  of  the  "Morning 
Herald  "  Printing  and  Publishing  Company,  which,  in  his  time, 
conducted  the  chief  Nova  Scotia  newspaper  in  the  interests  of  the 
Conservative  party. 


About  1895  Mr.  Parker  retired  from  business,  having  become 
a  prey  to  inflammatory  rheumatism,  which  confined  him  much  of 
the  time  to  his  home. 

On  June  5th,  1867,  he  married  Marianne  Grant,  daughter  of 
John  Nutting  Grant,  of  Loyal  Hill,  and  a  great-granddaughter 
of  Captain  Robert  Grant  of  the  42nd  Highlanders.  There  were 
no  children  of  the  marriage.  Mr.  Parker  died  on  the  9th  day  of 
August,  1905.  His  wife  survives  him.  He  was  of  an  ardent, 
impulsive,  generous  and  loving  temperament.  A  friend  to  the 
poor  and  to  every  good  cause  calling  for  benevolence  or  charity, 
a  friend  of  every  child  within  a  wide  radius  of  his  home,  especially 
devoted  to  his  entire  family  connection,  his  memory  is  ever  fresh ; 
for  "  to  live  in  hearts  we  leave  behind  is  not  to  die." 

1.  Maey  Sophia  Parker  was  born  at  Walton  in  1834.  She 
inarmed  Charles  Rathburn  Allison  of  Windsor,  N.S.,  merchant, 
in  1857.  In  1875  she  became  a  widow,  and  afterwards  resided 
with  her  father  until  his  death.  She  died  at  Hampton,  New 
Brunswick,  July  22nd,  1898.  Her  seven  children  are: 
(1)  Frederick  Allison,  died  in  infancy;  (2)  Frances  Allison, 
died  in  infancy;  (3)  Foster  Allison,  who  followed  the  sea  and 
became  a  captain  in  the  merchant  service.  He  died  on  board  his 
ship,  of  yellow  fever,  at  Havana,  June  23rd,  1882,  aged  about  22. 
He  was  unmarried;  (4)  Mary  McNeill  Allison,  born  September 
6th,  1861,  married,  April  20th,  1887,  Rev.  Charles  Arthur 
Warneford,  of  New  Brunswick,  an  Episcopal  clergyman,  son 
of  Rev.  Edmund  Arthur  Warneford,  a  native  of  Surrey,  England. 
She  died  in  the  Province  of  New  Brunswick  on  August  7th,  1888, 
leaving  no  child;  (5)  Harriet  Penniston  Allison,  born  Novem- 
ber 18th,  1864,  married,  July  20th,  1888,  Percy  H.  Warneford, 
of  Hampton,  New  Brunswick,  Physician,  a  brother  of  her  sister 
Mary's  husband.  She  died  at  Hampton,  April  26th,  1905,  survived 
by  her  husband  and  the  following  children:  Arthur  Kemys 
Sweeting  Warneford,  born  April  9th,  1890;  Harry  McNeill 
Warneford,  born  April  17th,  1892;  Eric  Percy  Warneford, 
born  June  9th,  1897;  (6)  Charles  Rathburn  Allison,  born  in 
1866,  went  to  sea  when  a  boy  and  became  a  master's  mate  on  a 
Nova  Scotia  ship.  During  the  summer  of  1886,  while  on  a  voyage 
to  Central  America  from  the  West  Indies,  the  officers  and  crew 
were  stricken  with  yellow  fever,  and  among  those  who  died  and 
were  buried  at  sea  was  young  Allison.  The  ship  was  found  in  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico  with  two  or  three  dying  men  on  board  and  was 
towed  to  port;  (7)  Frank  Hector  Allison,  born  in  1872,  died 
at  Amherst,  N.S.,  March  11th,  1889. 

In  consequence  of  the  loss  of  Francis  Parker's  family  Bible  in 
a  fire  which  destroyed  Dr.  Warneford's  house  at  Hampton,  certain 
dates  in  the  foregoing  narrative  cannot  be  supplied. 


Descendants  of  Sophia  Margaret  McNeill. 

Sophia  Margaret  McNeill  was  twice  married.  Her  first 
husband,  whom  she  married,  probably  in  1809,  was  Stephen 
Teriiune,  who  was  of  a  Loyalist  family  from  New  York,  settled 
in  Hants  County.  Of  this  marriage  there  were  four  children: 
Daniel  McNeill  Terhune,  born  September  6th,  1810 ;  Mary 
Ann  Terhune,  born  May  13th,  1812 ;  Sarah  Eliza  Terhune, 
born  April  23rd,  1814;  and  Janet  Belinda  Terhune,  born  June 
15th,  1816;  died  April  17th,  1869.  Save  in  the  case  of  Janet 
Belinda,  further  records  of  the  Terhune  family  cannot  now  be 
ascertained.  The  children  and  grandchildren  have  removed  to 
the  United  States,  where  they  seem  to  have  scattered  widely. 
Daniel  McNeill,  Mary  Anne  and  Sarah  Eliza  are  dead,  and  their 
descendants  have  not  communicated  with  their  Nova  Scotia  kins- 
folk. Daniel's  son,  Alpheus,  resides  in  Everett,  Mass.,  Sarah 
Eliza  married  a  Salter,  and  a  son  of  hers  lives  in  Hantsport,  N.S. 
Janet  Belinda  Terhune,  married,  February  23rd,  1835, 
Isaac  O'Brien  of  Noel,  Hants  County,  farmer.  Mr.  O'Brien 
died  March  29th,  1894.  Their  children  are:  (1)  Adela  O'Brien, 
born  January  21st,  1836,  married  January  18th,  1859,  Isaac  O. 
Christie,  of  Truro,  Colchester  County,  N.S.,  farmter,  who  died 
May  13th,  1862;  (2)  Lorenzo  O'Brien,  shipbuilder,  born  June 
24th,  1838,  married  December  14th,  1865,  Margaret  Stirling  of 
Maitland,  Hants  County,  N.S.  They  are  now  living  in  Humbolt 
County,  California.  They  have  no  children;  (3)  Albert  S. 
O'Brien,  born  September  10th,  1843;  drowned  at  sea  May  13th, 
1865 ;  unmarried. 

The  children  of  Isaac  O.  and  Adela  Christie  are :  ( 1 )  John 
Christie,  electrician,  born  October  22nd,  1859 ;  married  Decem- 
ber 17th,  1890,  Mary  Adelia  Ruggles,  of  Weymouth,  Digby 
County,  N.S.,  and  who  has  three  children:  Marjory  Adela, 
born  April  13th,  1892,  died  January  30th,  1902;  Andrew 
Campbell,  born  December  4th,  1893,  and  Mary  Alice,  born  June 
7th,  1900.  (2)  Isaac  O.  Christie,  Jr.,  born  December  13th, 
1861;  married  December  2nd,  1886,  Lillie  Archibald  of  Truro, 
N.S. ;  died  in  Nevada,  April  16th,  1906.  His  widow  and  one  son, 
Alexander  L.,  born  October  16th,  1887,  survive  him,  and  reside 
in  Boston,  Mass. 

The  Second  Husband  of  Sophia  Margaret  McNeill 
(Teriiune)  was  William  Parker,  of  Walton,  to  whom  she  was 
married  on  March  19th,  1820.  He  was  born  in  Hants  County, 
N.S.,  September  10th,  1792,  and  was  an  elder  brother  of  Francis 
Parker,  the  husband  of  Mary  Janet,  the  elder  sister  of  Sophia 
Margaret.  William  Parker's  earlier  life  was  spent  at  sea.  At  the 
age  of  twenty-eight,  after  he  had  been  for  some  years  a  sea  captain, 

DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  DESCENDANTS     27 

he  relinquished  that  profession  and  took  up  farming  at  Walton. 
He  was  a  man  of  fine  parts,  resembling  his  brother  in  most  char- 
acteristics, save  that  Francis  was  of  a  more  energetic,  impetuous 
and  sanguine  temperament.  William  was  a  man  universally 
respected,  and  beloved  by  all  the  large  circle  of  his  family  and 
his  friends.  In  point  of  character  and  accomplishments  as  well  as 
in  appearance,  there  was  a  strong  resemblance  between  the  sisters 
Sophia  and  Janet  Parker. 

The  Walton  farmhouse  (with  "the  latch  outside")  and  the 
"  Squire's  "  home  vied  with  each  other  as  centres  of  family  attrac- 
tion and  a  boundless  hospitality.  William  Parker  died  at  Walton, 
August  18th,  1874,  within  a  month  of  83  years  of  age.  Sophia 
Margaret,  his  wife,  died  at  Walton  December  19th,  1875,  aged  83. 

Descendants    of    William    Parker    and    Sophia    Margaret 


The  children  of  William  and  Sophia  Margaret  Parker  are: 
Caroline,  Archibald  McNeill,  Mary  Walton,  William  Dixon  and 
Ellen  Sophia. 

1.  Caroline    Parker   was    born   January    1st,    1821.      She 
married,  December  22nd,  1840,  Thomas  Parker,  of  Colchester 
County,  N.S.,  farmer,  who  was  born  October  6th,  1816,  and  was 
a  descendant  of  one  of  the  Yorkshire  Parker  immigrants  of  1774. 
Her    husband    died    March    9th,    1889.      Their    children    are: 
(1)  Belinda  Parker,  born  September  22nd,  1841;  (2)  William 
Parker,  born  September  29th,  1843;   (3)  Mary  Parker,  born 
June  4th,    1846.     In    1871  Mary    married    in  Boston,    Mass., 
William    Richard    Dingwall.      Their    children    are:    Nelson 
Webster   Dingwall,    born   in    Boston    January   31st,    1872,   who 
married  June  2nd,  1896,  Christine  Rethwisch,  of  Port  au  Prince, 
Haiti,  West  Indies,   and  has  the  following  children:     Dorothy 
Lorna,  born  October  28th,   1900,   in  New  York  City;   Eleanor 
Emily,  born  June  19th,  1902,  died  July  12th,  1904;  Beatrice, 
born  November  7th,   1.903 ;   Caroline  Parker  Dingwall,  born  in 
Boston,  Mass.,  who  married  in  1898,  at  Souris,  Prince  Edward 
Island,  Henry  P.  Duchemin,  and  has  the  following  children: 
E.  Parker,  born  June  15th,  1899 ;  Adela  Irene,  born  December 
19th,    1900;    Roy   DesBarres,    born    June    22nd,    1902;    Rohan 
Compton,  born  June  15th,   1905 ;   Belinda  Landelles  Dingwall, 
born  at  Fortune  Bridge,  Prince  Edward  Island ;  Adella  Ding- 
wall, born  at  Fortune  Bridge,   P.E.I. ;   Chester  Dingwall,  born 
at  South  Lake,   P.E.I.,   deceased.      (4)    George   Parker,  born 
January   24th,   1849.     He  was  for  some  years   in  business   in 
Halifax,  N.S.,  but  is  now  doing  business  in  Sydney,  N.S.    George 
married  at  Halifax,  N.S.,  December  7th,  1872,  Hannah  Thompson 
(born  February  20th,   1847),   and  has  the  following  children: 


Belinda,  born  October  12th,  1873;  married  Joseph  A.  Ervin, 
of  Edmonton,  Alberta,  Canada,  January  21st,  1903 ;  George, 
born  December  26th,  1874;  Charles,  born  October  28th,  1876; 
Allen,  bom  December  7th,  1879;  Burton,  born  October 
10th,  1883;  Caroline,  born  November  26th,  1887;  Ethel, 
born  April  12th,  1890.  (5)  Samuel  Parker,  born  April 
22nd,  1851.  (6)  Joseph  Parker,  born  September  11th,  1853. 
(7)  Sophia  McNeill  Parker,  born  August  21st,  1856.  She 
married  January  1st,  1874,  William  Irvine  Boomer,  of  Sydney, 
Nova  Scotia,  and  has  the  following  children:  Ira  Leigh,  born 
June  10th,  1875,  who  married,  November  15th,  1902,  Marion 
McKenzie,  and  resides  at  Montreal,  Canada;  Muriel  Beatrice, 
born  February  22nd,  1880,  who  married,  April  13th,  1905, 
Nelson  F.  Kennedy;  Gertrude  Caroline,  born  February 
]2th,  1890.  (8)  Henry  Parker,  born  September  25th,  1859. 
(9)  Margaret  Parker,  born  March  31st,  1864;  married 
January  6th,  1885,  Burton  Fulton,  of  Colchester  County,  N.S., 
who  was  born  February  20th,  1862.  Their  children  are:  Foster 
Leland  Fulton,  born  November  7th,  1887;  Caroline  Gertrude 
Fulton,  born  January  17th,  1889 ;  Nellie  Parker  Fulton,  born 
April  2nd,  1891;  Mary  Elina  Fulton,  born  September  3rd,  1893; 
Muriel  Louise  Fulton,  born  October  21st,  1896 ;  Henry  Burton 
Fulton,  born  November  5th,  1898. 

2.  Archibald  McNeill  Parker  was  born  January  11th, 
1823,  at  Walton,  where  he  spent  part  of  his  life  in  farming.  He 
was  never  married.  Deprived,  by  lameness,  of  many  of  life's 
activities,  he  read  widely  and  cultivated  intellectual  tastes.  For 
many  years  he  was  collector  of  customs  of  the  Port.  He  had  a 
striking  personality  and  a  genial,  warm-hearted  disposition. 
Anyone  regarding  the  celebrated  picture  of  Sir  Walter  Scott  and 
his  friends  at  Abbotsford,  can  see  in  James  Hogg,  "  the  Ettrick 
Shepherd,"  an  almost  perfect  portrait  of  Archibald  McNeill 
Parker.    He  died  at  Walton,  December  8th,  1890. 

3.  Mary  Walton  Parker,  born  April  1st,  1825,  married 
Michael  Terhune  Parker,  of  Walton,  builder  and  farmer, 
December  22nd,  1843.  He  was  a  first  cousin  of  his  wife,  being 
the  son  of  Joseph,  who  was  the  son  of  John  Parker.  She  died 
September  3rd,  1904.  Her  husband  is  still  living.  Their  children 
are:  (1)  Rupert  Eaton  Parker,  who  married  in  June,  1868, 
Susan  Parker  of  Walton,  and  died  in  1878,  leaving  the  following 
children:  Edith,  who  died  in  July,  1904;  Maynard,  who  died  in 
November,  1904;  Clifford  Mosher  and  Almon  Rupert; 
(2)  Caroline  Parker,  who  married  in  October,  1869,  Captain 
C.  W.  M.  Geitzler,  of  Norway.  She  died  in  January,  1881,  and 
her  husband,  while  in  command  of  a  ship,  was  drowned  off 
Delaware    Breakwater    in    March,    1888.      Their    children    are: 


Hector  Frantz,  who  died  May  2nd,  1880 ;  Julia  Maude,  Arthur 
Leland,  a  sea  captain,  and  Charles  Rupert  Geitzler;  (3)  Abtiiur 
Dixon  Paekee,  a  contractor  in  Truro,  N.S.,  who  married  in 
January,  1880,  Lillian  Bigelow,  of  Kingsport,  Kings  County,  N.S., 
and  has  the  following  children :  Clara  Blanche,  Mary  Josephine, 
Ethel  Elizabeth  ;  Helen  Gwendoline  ;  Vera  Lois ;  Arthur  Bernard ; 
(4)  Norman  William  Paekee,  born  September  10th,  1849; 
married  November  3rd,  1875,  to  Emiline  Crowe  (born  February 
15th,  1855).  Their  children  are:  Lillian,  born  September  30th, 
1876,  who  is  a  school  teacher;  Archibald  Stewart,  born  November 
8th,  1878,  who  is  a  builder  and  unmarried ;  Elmore  Nutting,  born 
December  31st,  1880,  and  who  is  a  seaman,  unmarried;  Partis 
Fulton,  born  December  15th,  1882,  and  Carl  Richmond,  born 
September  6th,  1895;  (5)  Ada  Sophia  Paekee,  married  Septem- 
ber 1876,  to  Silvius  J.  Lake  of  Cheverie,  Hants  County,  of  which 
marriage  there  are  the  following  children :  Eva  Blanche,  Gertrude 
Maud,  Ethel  Winnifred  (died  in  February,  1880),  Irene  Madge, 
Hector,  Bertha  R.,  Perry  Parker  and  Trenholm;  (6)  Edgae  M. 
Paekee,  died  in  infancy,  1855;  (7)  Irene  Maegaeet  Paekee, 
married  in  May,  1880,  Charles  P.  Cochrane,  of  Windsor,  N.S.,  a 
sea  captain,  who  died  at  sea  in  April,  1897.  The  widow  survives, 
with  three  children :  Madge  Irene,  Muriel  F.  and  Charles 
Maxwelton;  (8)  Lawrence  Edgar  Parker,  married  in  August, 
1887,  Annie  Ellen  Hunter,  of  Newport,  N.S.  He  is  a  sea  captain. 
The.  children  of  Captain  Parker  are  Grace  Lenore,  Annie  Laurie, 
Albertha,  Clyde  Whitney,  Nila,  and  Howard  Bligh;  (9)  Geeteude 
Maude,  died  unmarried,  in  1881;  (10)  Lena  Caelotta,  the 
youngest  child  of  Mary  Walton  Parker  and  Michael  Terhune 
Parker,  married  J.  W.  Boomer,  of  Sydney,  N.S. 

4.  William  Dixon  Paekee,  of  Walton,  farmer,  was  born 
April  27th,  1831,  and  on  January  10th,  1853,  he  married  Hannah 
Archibald  Braden  (born  April  22nd,  1832),  daughter  of  Samuel 
Braden,  Esq.,  and  Mary  Logan  Braden,  of  Musquodoboit,  Halifax 
County,  N.S.  The  children  of  William  Dixon  Parker  are: 
(1)  Heney  Angus  Paekee,  of  Walton,  farmer,  born  December 
13th,  1853,  who  married,  December  31st,  1879,  Mary  Janet  Weir 
of  Walton,  and  has  three  children:  Julia  Frances,  born  October 
8th,  1880;  Foster  Leland,  born  October  23rd,  1882;  Harry  Weir, 
born  September  20th,  1891;  (2)  Fostee  Beaden  Paekee,  of 
Walton,  farmer,  born  December  9th,  1855,  who  married,  June 
14th,  1899,  Mabel  Pooley,  of  London,  England,  and  has  one  child, 
Margaret  Favell,  born  September  19th,  1905 ;  (3)  Maeion  Sophia 
Paekee,  born  September  22nd,  1857,  who  married,  January  1st, 
1883,  Hibbert  Binney  Weir,  of  Walton,  and  has  the  following 
children:  William  Parker  Weir,  born  December  12th,  1883; 
Frederick  Harold  Weir,  born  February  5th,  1886;  Edna  Marion 

30     DANIEL  McNEILL  and  his  descendants 

Weir,  born  September  25th,  1888;  Percy  Braden  Weir,  born  June 
25th,  1895;  Caroline  Frances  Weir,  who  died  in  infancy,  March 
1st,  1900,  and  Ernest  Conradi  Weir,  who  died  in  infancy,  May 
19th,  1903 ;  (4)  William  Parker,  a  retired  sea  captain  residing 
m  Boston,  Mass.,  who  was  born  September  21st,  1859,  and  married, 
March  4th,   1889,  Kathleen  Davison,  of  Hantsport,  N.S.     His 
children  are:   Ernest  Wellesley,  born  January  11th,  1891;  Frank 
Watson,  born  March  19th,  1895 ;  George  Bertrand,  born  December 
17th,  1897 ;  Rex  Arnold,  born  January  6th,  1899  ;  Adria  Valentine, 
born  February  14th,  1900 ;  William  Dixon,  born  July  2nd,  1902 ; 
Evelyn  May,  born  April  4th,  1906;   (5)  Percy  Parker,  a  sea 
captain,  born  January  5th,  1862 ;  married  August  5th,  1893,  Isabel 
Mary  Patterson,  of  Yarmouth,  N.S. ;  died  in  New  York  City, 
April    30th,    1905,   leaving  his   wife   and   two   children;    Mary 
Dorothy,   born   September   12th,    1894,   and   Jack  Walton,  born 
July  18th,  1896;  (6)  Mary  Janet  Parker,  born  December  11th, 
1863;  married  March  25th,  1885,  George  William  Bradshaw,  of 
Windsor,  N.S.,  and  has  the  following  children:     Helen  Madge 
Bradshaw,  born  May  5th,   1886;  Bertha  Jean  Bradshaw,  born 
December  4th,  1888;  Janet  Mary  Bradshaw,  born  August  20th, 
1891;  Isabel  Margaret  Bradshaw,  born  September  23rd,   1893. 
George  William  Bradshaw,  died  June  22nd,  1897;  (7)  Samuel 
Adams  Parker,  born  December  9th,  1865,  is  a  sea  captain,  and 
is  unmarried;    (8)  Ernest  Leslie  Parker,  born  September  10th, 
1867,  who  is  a  merchant  in  Boston,  Mass.,  and  married,  October 
16th,  1894,  Sarah  Morris,  of  Walton.     He  has  three  children: 
Max  Yerxa,  born  August  18th,  1895  ;  Helena  Morris,  born  Decem- 
ber 4th,  1897;  Ernestine  Mildred,  born  February  19th,   1901; 
(9)   Caroline   Parker,   born   June   17th,    1870,   who   married, 
July  30th,  1895,  Avard  Longley  Starratt,  of  Annapolis  County, 
N.S.,  a  sea  captain.     They  live  in  Walton  and  have  two  children: 
Ralph  Parker   Starratt,  born  July  17th,   1896,   and  Francklyn 
Zwicker    Starratt,   born   June    20th,    1904;    (10)  Helen   Wing 
Parker,  born  December  15th,  1872,  who  resides  with  her  parents 
at  Walton,  and  is  unmarried;  (11)  Bertrand  Everett  Parker, 
born  November  5th,  1875;  died  unmarried,  May  19th,  1901. 

5.  Ellen  Sophia  Parker,  born  December  8th,  1834,  married 
Joseph  Moxon,  of  Walton,  now  a.  contractor  and  builder  in  the 
vicinity  of  Boston,  Mass.  They  have  several  children.  Their 
present  location  is  unknown. 

Wolfville,  N.S., 

September,  1906. 




"  Nor  you,   ye   Proud,   impute  to  these  the  fault, 
If  Memory  o'er  their  tomb  no  trophies  raise, 
Where  through  the  long-drawn  aisle  and  fretted  vault 
The  pealing  anthem  swells  the  note  of  praise." 

— Gray. 

It  is  to  be  noted  at  the  outset,  that  this  family,  so  far  as 
known,  is  not  connected  with  the  Parkers  of  Annapolis  and  Kings 
Counties  in  Nova  Scotia,  who  derive  their  ancestry  through  settlers 
from  the  New  England  colonies. 

Our  earliest  progenitor  of  this  name  of  whom  we  have  any 
knowledge  is  John  Parker,  originally  of  Plympton,  near  Knares- 
borough,  in  the  Parish  of  Spanforth,  Yorkshire,  England.  He  was 
born,  probably,  near  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and 
died  previous  to  the  year  1769.  In  his  later  years  he  appears  to 
have  resided  at  Cold  Carum,  Yorkshire.  He  was  a  farmer  and 
grazier.  In  religion  the  family  were  Quakers.  His  wife,  Mary, 
whose  maiden  name  has  not  been  preserved  by  any  record  known 
to  us,  was  born  at  Plympton  in  the  year  1700,  and  died  at  the 
home  of  her  son,  William  Parker,  senior,  near  Windsor,  Nova 
Scotia,  May  27th,  1780. 

John  and  Mary  had  the  following  children: 

1.  Francis,  born  at  Plympton  in  1738;  died  at  Shuben- 
acadie,  Nova  Scotia,  May  3rd,  1800. 

2.  Joseph,  born  at  Plympton,  in  1740;  died  at  Newport, 
Nova  Scotia,  September  9th,  1815. 

3.  William  (distinguished  hereafter  as  William  Parker, 
senior)  born  at  Cold  Carum,  in  the  Parish  of  Kilburn,  Yorkshire, 
February,  1742;  died  at  Rawdon,  Nova  Scotia,  September  17th, 

On  the  10th  of  January,  1769,  at  Masham,  Yorkshire,  William 
(Senior)  married  Mary  Hardaker,  daughter  of  Thomas  and  Mary 


32  DANIEL  McNEILL  pabker,  m.d. 

Hardaker,  of  Ullishaw,  near  Masham,  in  the  Parish  of  Kirby 
Moorside,  Yorkshire.  Mary  Hardaker,  wife  of  this  William 
Parker,  was  born  at  Cold  Carum,  in  January,  1734,  and  died  at 
Rawdon,  Nova  Scotia,  December  30th,  1810.  Her  father,  Thomas, 
died  at  Bromley  Grange,  near  Ripon,  in  Yorkshire,  April  4th, 
1785.  No  other  information  concerning  her  family  has  been 
transmitted  to  her  descendants,  except  that  they  were  Quakers. 
William  and  Mary  Parker  were  married  according  to  the  quaint 
and  simple  rite  of  the  Quakers,  which  had  become  recognized  by 
English  law.  The  Friends  held  that  marriage  was  the  Lord's 
joining  of  man  and  woman,  and  therefore  was  not  performed  by 
man.  Men  were  but  witnesses.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  the 
record  of  this  marriage  ceremony.  It  served  as  the  marriage 

"  William  Parker,  of  Cold  Carum,  in  the  Parish  of  Kilburn, 
and  County  of  York,  Husbandman,  son  of  John  Parker  (deceased) 
and  Mary,  his  wife,  late  of  Plympton  in  the  Parish  of  Span- 
forth  and  County  aforesaid,  and  Mary  Hardaker,  daughter  of 
Thomas  Hardaker,  and  Mary,  his  wife,  of  Ullishaw,  in  the  Parish 
of  Kirby  Moorside  and  County  aforesaid,  having  declared  their 
intentions  of  taking  each  other  in  marriage,  before  several  meet- 
ings of  the  people  called  Quakers,  in  the  County  aforesaid,  and  the 
proceedings  of  the  said  William  Parker  and  Mary  Hardaker, 
after  due  enquiry  and  deliberate  consideration  thereof,  were 
allowed  by  the  said  meetings,  they  appearing  clear  of  all  others, 
and  having  their  parents'  consent  and  relations  concerned. 

"  Now  these  are  to  certify  all  whom  it  may  concern  that  for  the 
accomplishing  of  their  said  marriage  this  10th  day  of  the  first 
month  (called)  January,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  sixty  nine,  they,  the  said  William  Parker 
and  Mary  Hardaker,  appeared  in  a  public  assembly  of  the  afore- 
said people  and  others  in  their  meeting  house  at  Masham,  in  the 
County  aforesaid,  and  he,  the  said  William  Parker,  taking  the 
said  Mary  Hardaker  by  the  hand,  did  openly  and  solemnly  declare 
as  followeth: 

"  Friends,  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord  and  before  this  assembly, 
I  take  this  my  friend  Mary  Hardaker  to  be  my  wife,  promis- 
ing thro'  divine  assistance  to  be  unto  her  a  loving  and  faithful 
husband,  until  it  shall  please  the  Lord  by  death  to  separate  us 
(or  words  to  that  effect)  and  the  said  Mary  Hardaker  did  then 
and  there  in  the  said  assembly  in  like  manner  declare  as  followeth: 

"  Friends,  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord  and  before  this  assembly, 
I  take  this  my  friend  William  Parker  to  be  my  husband,  promis- 
ing through  divine  assistance  to  be  unto  him  a  loving  and  faith- 
ful wife  until  it  shall  please  the  Lord  by  death  to  separate  us 
(or  words  to  that  effect)  and  the  said  William  Parker  and  Mary 



Hardaker  as   a   further  confirmation   thereof,   and   in  testimony 
thereunto  did  then  and  there  to  these  presents  set  their  hands. 

"  Sgd.     William  Parker. 
"  Sgd.     Mary  Hardaker. 

"  We  whose  names  are  hereunto  subscribed  being  present  among 
others  at  the  solemnizing  of  the  above  said  marriage  and  subscrip- 
tion in  manner  aforesaid  as  witnesses  have  also  to  these  presents 
subscribed  our  names  the  day  and  year  above  written. 

"  Sgd.      JOHN    HoLESWORTH,    SlMON    HUTCHINSON,    MaNTREW 

Thompson,  Richard  Thompson,  Thos.  Hardcastle, 
Mulden,  Elizabeth  Fulton,  Esther  Kel- 
vin, Lydia  Kelvin,  Mary  Kelvin,  John  Binks, 
Richard  Binks,  Mary  Weatherhead,  Edith  Holds- 
worth,  Armistead  Fielden,  Catherine  Wells. 

"  Relations. 

"  Sgd.  Thos.  Hardaker,  A.  Fred  Parker,  Elizabeth  Cold- 
beck,  Joseph  Parker,  John  Coldbeck,  Sarah 
Parker,  William  Johnson,  Mary  Parker,  Henry 
Hardaker,  William  Thistlethwaite,  Saml.  Ash- 
ton,  Thos.  Cook,  John  Janson,  John  Thompson, 
Eliz.  Thompson." 




According  to  the  custom,  this  record  would  be  entered  in  the 
Friends'  register  of  births,  deaths,  and  marriages  kept  at  Masham, 
or  at  Richmond,  in  the  North  Riding. 

The  list  of  "relations"  who  signed  as  witnesses  opens  up 
interesting  speculations  as  to  families  in  England  to  whom  the 
Parkers  are  allied. 

The  parties  to  this  marriage,  William  Parker,  senior,  and 
Mary  Hardaker,  were  the  great-grandparents  of  my  father  Daniel 
McNeill  Parker.  John  Parker,  above  referred  to  as  our  earliest 
known  progenitor,  and  Mary,  his  wife,  were  my  father's  great- 
great-grandparents.  From  my  children  (inclusive)  to  the  last 
named  ancestors  there  are  thus  seven  generations. 

Of  the  lives  or  condition  of  the  Parkers  in  Yorkshire,  no 
record  or  tradition  remains  to  us.  As  appears  by  the  marriage 


record  William  was  a  farmer.  They  lived  in  a  part  of  England 
where  breeding  live  stock  for  the  London  market  was  a  consider- 
able industry,  and  doubtless  some  of  them  were  graziers  as  well 
as   farmers. 

It  was  only  in  1722  that  the  Act  for  the  relief  of  the  Quakers 
from  their  political  disabilities  was  passed.  Previous  to  that, 
under  their  form  of  affirmation  in  lieu  of  an  oath,  they  were 
unable  to  answer  in  Courts  of  Equity,  take  probates  of  wills, 
prove  debts  on  commissions  of  bankruptcy,  take  up  their  freedoms, 
and  to  poll  their  votes  at  elections,  as  freeholders.  John  Parker's 
father,  and  possibly,  he  himself,  lived  during  the  fierce  persecu- 
tion and  stubborn  resistance  of  the  Quakers  under  the  Conventicle 
Act  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  The  father  of  John  was  doubtless 
living  when  the  founder  of  the  Religious  Society  of  Friends, 
George  Fox,  in  the  year  1658,  shortly  before  Cromwell's  death, 
"  laid  the  suffering  of  Friends  before  him,"  when,  as  Fox  wrote, 
"  before  I  came  to  him  as  he  rode  at  the  head  of  his  life  guards,  I 
saw  and  felt  a  waft  of  death  go  forth  against  him;  and  when  I 
came  to  him  he  looked  like  a  dead  man."  Between  the  years 
1661  and  1697  over  13,000  Friends  were  imprisoned  in  England, 
198  were  transported  as  slaves,  and  338  died  in  prison  or  of 
wounds  received  in  assaults  while  attending  meetings;  and  for 
the  sole  cause  of  professing  and  practising  their  religious  beliefs. 
This  historical  setting  of  these  forefathers  of  ours  I  thus  briefly 
sketch  because,  without  doubt,  the  moral  and  religious  fibre  of 
such  ancestors  as  these  bluff  and  sturdy  Quaker  Yorkshiremen 
schooled  by  family  tradition  and  actual  knowledge  to  "  hold  fast 
the  form  of  sound  words,"  even  at  the  cost  of  imprisonment, 
banishment,  wounds  and  death  itself,  became  the  heritage,  by 
blood,  of  Daniel  McNeill  Parker.  Such  an  ancestry,  in  large 
measure,  may  account  for  certain  temperamental  qualities  which 
he  had,  as  also  for  the  strength  and  depth  of  his  religious  nature 
and  convictions,  with  their  practical  manifestation  in  his  life. 

Two  sons  were  born  to  William  Parker,  senior,  and  Mary, 
his  wife,  in  Yorkshire,  namely,  John  Parker,  born  March  8th, 

1771,  at  Ullishaw,  and  William  Parker,  junior,  born  August  16th, 

1772.  This  son,  John,  was  the  grandfather  of  my  father. 

In  the  year  1758  Governor  Lawrence  of  Nova  Scotia  had 
issued  a  proclamation  inviting  settlers  from  the  older  American 
Colonies  to  come  in  and  take  up  the  lands  of  the  French  Neutrals, 
or  Acadians,  who  had  been  deported,  mainly  in  1755.  Public 
interest  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  was  also  aroused,  soon 
afterwards,  by  the  advantageous  inducements  thus  held  out ;  and, 
about  1760,  immigrants  from  the  old  country  began  to  arrive 
in  Nova  Scotia  in  considerable  numbers.  During  the  period  of 
emigration    which    followed,    four    different    parties    came    from 


Yorkshire,  the  first  arriving  in  1772.  In  the  178th  chapter  of 
Knight's  History  of  England,  volume  6,  there  is  an  account  of 
the  discouraging  conditions  of  rural  Yorkshire  at  this  period, 
due  in  part  to  what  would  be  called  general  "  hard  times  "  in 
England,  in  part  to  the  exhaustion  of  the  soil  through  many 
generations  of  antiquated  and  unprogressive  methods  of  farming, 
and  in  part  to  the  inability  of  the  people  to  extend  the  area  of 
cultivation  in  proportion  to  the  growth  of  population.  The 
Marquis  of  Rockingham,  leader  of  the  Whig  party,  Sir  Digby 
Legard,  the  Earl  of  Darlington,  Mr.  Danby,  and  other  large 
landed  proprietors  of  the  shire  were  just  beginning  their  public- 
spirited  and  ultimately  successful  labors  for  the  amelioration  of 
these  conditions.  Mr.  Danby  was  a  colliery  owner  at  Swinton, 
near  Masham,  the  town  where  William  Parker  was  married,  and 
which  was  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Ullishaw,  the  home  of 
Mary  Hardaker  before  her  marriage,  and  where  William  appears 
to  have  located  after  that  event.  At  this  period  the  older 
American  colonies  were  seething  with  discontent,  and  already 
startling  overt  acts  of  rebellion  had  occurred;  the  people  were 
organizing  and  arming  for  the  inevitable  war  for  independence. 

From  such  circumstances  as  these  it  is  not  difficult  to  con- 
jecture why  the  four  parties  of  Yorkshire  folk  referred  to  should 
emigrate,  and  choose  Nova  Scotia  for  their  future  home,  nor 
why  our  ancestors  should  join  them. 

The  three  brothers,  Francis,  Joseph,  and  William  Parker, 
senior,  sons  of  John,  with  their  wives  and  families,  embarked 
at  Hull,  Yorkshire,  for  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  on  the  5th  day  of 
March,  1774,  and  landed  at  Halifax  on  the  7th  day  of  May 
following.  Emigrants  at  that  time  usually  came  in  slow-sailing 
brigs,  which  fact  may  account  for  the  length  of  this  voyage. 
Their  widowed  mother,  Mary,  accompanied  them. 

The  names  of  the  wives  of  Francis  and  Joseph,  who  were  of 
the  party,  were,  respectively  Mary;  born  in  Yorkshire  in  1737, 
died  at  Shubenacadie,  N.S.,  October  17th,  1809;  and  Elizabeth, 
born  in  Yorkshire,  died  at  Newport,  N.S. 

William  brought  with  him  his  two  children,  John,  three  years 
of  age,  and  William,  Junior,  a  baby  of  nineteen  months.  By  what 
seems  a  singular  coincidence,  William  Black,  my  mother's  great- 
grandfather (the  father  of  the  future  Reverend  William  Black) 
was  a  fellow  passenger  with  the  great-grandparents  and  the 
infant  grandfather  of  my  father  on  this  voyage.  Dr.  Richey,  the 
Reverend  William  Black's  biographer,  says :  "  His  father  having 
for  some  time  entertained  the  design  of  emigrating  to  America, 
deemed  it  prudent  to  visit  the  intended  land  of  his  adoption  him- 
self, before  he  should  finally  determine  on  a  step  so  deeply 
involving  the   future   fortunes   of  his   family.      Accordingly,    in 

36  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

the  spring  of  1774,  he  came  to  Nova  Scotia,  purchased  an  estate 
at  Amherst  in  the  County  of  Cumberland,  and  returning  to  Eng- 
land in  the  autumn,  moved  to  America  with  his  family  the 
ensuing  Spring." 

Owing  to  the  discovery  of  William  Parker's  family  record,  I  am 
able  thus  to  correct  the  tradition,  given  in  my  monograph  on  Daniel 
McNeill  and  his  descendants,  that  the  Parkers  came  out  in  the 
brig  "  Jenny "  in  April,  1775,  when  William  Black,  Senior, 
brought  out  his  family,  including  his  young  son,  the  future  dis- 
tinguished Wesleyan  pioneer  preacher. 

The  three  immigrant  Parker  brothers  settled  as  follows :  Francis 
on  a  farm  at  Shubenacadie ;  Joseph  at  Mantua,  a  section  of  New- 
port, near  Windsor,  on  a  farm  known  later  as  the  John  Allison 
farm;  William,  also  near  Windsor  on  a  property  which  he  desig- 
nates in  his  record  as  "  Margaret  Farm."  The  mother  went  to 
live  with  her  son  William.  It  is  very  probable  that  each  of  these 
three  farms  had  belonged  to  deported  French  Acadians.  Some 
years  passed,  after  the  main  body  of  these  unhappy  people  had 
been  removed  in  1755,  before  all  the  farm  properties  from  which 
they  had  been  torn  were  taken  up.  As  late  as  1762  the  Acadians 
were  still  being  removed,  and  in  1765  there  were  many  of  them 
imprisoned  at  Fort  Edward  in  Piziquid  (later  called  Windsor), 
only  nine  years  before  the  arrival  of  the  Parkers. 

When  they  came  to  this  Province  Francis  was  38  years  of  age, 
Joseph  34  and  William  32. 

At  "  Margaret  Farm  "  three  more  sons  and  a  daughter  were 
born  to  William,  senior,  and  Mary  his  wife,  namely,  Thomas 
Parker,  born  October  28th,  1774,  whose  birth  was  registered  at  a 
monthly  meeting  of  Friends  at  Richmond  in  Yorkshire ;  Mary 
Parker,  born  February  9th,  1777 ;  Joseph  Parker,  born  May  5th, 
1779,  and  Francis  Parker,  born  July  25th,  1782.  The  only  other 
known  family  event  connected  with  "  Margaret  Farm  "  is  the  death 
of  the  elder  William's  mother,  Mary,  which  occurred  there  May 
27th,  1780,  at  the  age  of  80. 

Sometime  previous  to  the  year  1810,  William  Parker,  senior, 
removed  to  Rawdon,  in  Hants  County.  His  daughter  Mary  had 
married  Timothy  Dimock  at  Petite  (afterwards  Walton),  Decem- 
ber 29th,  1795,  and  they  had  settled  in  Rawdon.  His  sons  Joseph 
and  Francis  had  also  founded  homes  there,  where  they  both 
married  in  1805.  His  sons  John  and  William,  junior,  had  settled 
at  Petite  and  had  married,  John  on  November  8th,  1791,  and 
William  on  November  25th,  1793.  This  accounts  for  the  mar- 
riage of  their  sister  Mary  taking  place  there. 

Thomas  Parker,  the  first  son  of  William,  senior,  to  be  born  in 
this  province,  settled  at  Newport,  where  he  married  on  January 
21st,  1804. 


Mary  (Hardaker)  Parker,  wife  of  William,  senior,  died  at 
Rawdon  on  December  30th,  1810.  Of  the  life  there  he  records  this 
incident, — the  only  attempt  at  narration  which  his  family  chron- 
icle makes.  I  give  it  in  his  own  words :  "  A  remarkable  acci- 
dent happened  in  my  family  the  16th  day  of  the  eleventh  month, 
1812.  The  two  daughters,  one  of  Timothy  Dimock,  the  other  of 
Francis  Parker,  namely  Hannah  Dimock,  aged  nine  years  and 
ten  m'ths,  &  Elizabeth  Parker,  aged  six  years  and  ten  m'ths,  being 
sent  to  drive  in  a  cow  about  three  o'clock  of  the  above  day,  the  cow 
turning  into  the  woods,  the  children  followed  and  became  bewil- 
dered. Leaving  the  cow,  they  tried  to  make  their  way  home  or  to 
their  uncle's  house,  but,  missing  their  way,  made  into  the  wilder- 
ness. An  alarm  was  made  to  their  neighbours.  A  band  of  twelve 
men  was  quickly  raised  who  exerted  themselves  to  the  best  of  their 
knowledge,  seeking  them  till  past  three  in  the  morning,  about  which 
time  the  moon  set,  and  then  for  some  time  it  had  snowed  and  was 
very  cold,  though  not  much  frost.  By  morning  a  considerable 
of  snow  had  fallen.  About  sunrise  fifty  men  went  in  search  of 
them,  and  about  nine  in  the  morning,  to  the  astonishment  of  the 
greatest  part  of  the  searchers,  found  them,  hearing  them  hullow 
in  answer  to  the  men's  hullow  one  for  another.  They  were  found 
in  perfect  health,  with  a  good  appetite.  They  were  lightly  clothed 
and  bare-headed." 

From  this  narration  it  will  be  seen  that  William  continued  to 
record  his  dates  according  to  the  old  Quaker  method.  Throughout 
his  chronicle  he  never  uses  the  heathen  names  of  the  months,  but 
numbers  them. 

Beyond  the  circumstance  that  William,  senior,  caused  the  birth 
of  his  son  Thomas  to  be  recorded  in  the  Quaker  register  at  home, 
as  has  been  stated  above,  there  is  nothing  to  show  to  what  extent, 
or  for  what  length  of  time  the  family  continued  in  the  Quaker  con- 
nexion. There  was  no  Society  of  Friends  in  Nova  Scotia  when 
they  came  to  the  Province,  and  I  am  not  aware  that  there  ever 
has  been  one.  The  descendants  of  the  immigrant  brothers  for  the 
most  part  connected  themselves  with  the  Church  of  England. 
Others  worshipped  with  the  religious  congregations  which  hap- 
pened to  be  nearest  them.  In  point  of  religious  association,  the 
family  became  divided,  through  the  influences  of  neighborhood  or 
environment.  But  nevertheless  the  inheritance  of  the  Quaker 
lineage  has  often  revealed  itself  in  certain  family  characteristics. 
The  forms  of  faith  have  passed,  but  their  ethical  import  and  influ- 
ence have  remained ;  though  it  must  be  confessed  that,  sometimes, 
there  has  occurred  that  natural  deterioration  from  type  which  is 
sure  to  affect,  in  some  degree,  the  scions  of  an  older  civilization 
when  grafted  upon  the  crude  and  rougher  conditions  of  a  remote 
colony  upon  the  frontier  of  human  habitation. 

38  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

In  the  year  1815  William  Parker,  senior,  his  sons  and  his  son- 
in-law,  Timothy  Dimock  acquired  large  tracts  of  land  at  and  about 
Petite  Riviere,  where  there  had  formerly  been  a  small  settlement 
of  French  Acadians.  The  name,  in  time,  had  become  abbreviated 
to  "Petite."  The  following  grants  are  of  record  in  the  Crown 
Land  Office  at  Halifax.  The  inclusion  of  Michael  B.  Grant  and 
James  W.  Nutting  in  the  grants  is  explained  by  their  connection 
with  the  family,  which  appears  later. 

Book  E,  page  125.  Grant,  dated  June  3rd,  1815,  to  Michael 
B.  Grant,  of  Newport,  Francis  Parker,  John  Parker,  William 
Parker  the  third,  Joseph  Parker  and  Thomas  Parker,  of  2,225 
acres,  divided  thus:  To  Michael  B.  Grant,  Lot  1,  325  acres,  and 
Lot  2,  175  acres.  To  Francis  Parker,  Lot  3,  202  acres,  and  Lot 
7,  148  acres.  To  John  Parker,  Lot  4,  450  acres.  To  William 
Parker  the  third,  Lot  5,  200  acres.  To  Joseph  Parker,  350  acres. 
To  Thomas  Parker,  375  acres. 

William  Parker  the  third,  here  mentioned,  is  the  eldest  son 
of  John,  my  father's  favorite  "  Uncle  Willie,"  who  was  at  this 
time  about  twenty-three  years  of  age. 

Book  E,  page  129.  Grant,  dated  June  26th,  1815,  to  William 
Parker,  senior,  William  Parker,  junior,  James  W.  Nutting, 
Timothy  Dimock  and  John  Warren,  of  1,900  acres,  divided  thus: 
To  William  Parker,  senior.  Lot  3,  200  acres.  To  William  Parker, 
junior,  Lot  5,  375  acres,  and  Lot  6,  125  acres.  To  James  W. 
Nutting,  Lot  1,  500  acres,  and  the  remaining  700  acres  to  Dimock 
and  Warren. 

The  last  named  grantee  does  not  appear  to  have  been  connected 
with  the  family.  William  Parker,  senior,  owned  land  in  the 
vicinity  earlier.  In  his  family  record  there  is  this  entry :  "  I 
bought  the  lands  at  Petite  of  Wm.  Graham,  of  Halifax,  in  the  4th 
month,  1781,  and  all  the  writings  are  registered  in  Halifax  register 

In  the  year  1797,  Captain  Daniel  McNeill  had  acquired  by 
grant  his  estate,  "  Cambridge,"  adjacent  to  Petite,  the  record  of 
the  grant  in  the  Crown  Land  Office  being  as  follows:  Book  20, 
page  48.  Grant  dated  December  18th,  1797,  to  Daniel  McNeill, 
"  A  half-pay  captain  in  His  Majesty's  service."  This  land,  esti- 
mated at  one  thousand  acres  in  extent,  is  described  by  metes  and 
bounds  in  Description  Book  5,  page  254.  It  is  situated  on  the 
south-western  shore  of  the  river,  and  its  frontage  extends  thence 
southerly  along  the  shore  of  Minas  Basin. 

The  Parkers,  Grants,  McNeills,  Nuttings,  Dimocks  and  other 
families  were  now  becoming  associated  in  and  near  the  com- 
munity afterwards  to  be  known  as  Walton,  which  was  to  be  the 
future  centre  of  the  Parker  family  life  for  many  years. 


William  Parker,  senior,  died  of  apoplexy,  at  Rawdon,  Sep- 
tember 17th,  1819,  in  his  seventy-eighth  year. 

I  have  now  brought  down  the  lineage  of  my  father  to  his  grand- 
father, John,  eldest  son  of  William,  senior.  After  John  had 
settled  at  Petite  he  married,  November  8th,  1791,  Sarah  Grant, 
daughter  of  Captain  Robert  Grant,  of  Loyal  Hill,  concerning  whom 
I  have  furnished  some  particulars  in  my  other  narrative.  John 
was  a  bridegroom  of  20,  and  Sarah  a  bride  of  17. 

Of  this  marriage  there  were  the  following  children : 

William  Parker,  born  September  10th,  1792 ;  Hannah  Parker, 
born  June  11th,  1795;  Francis  Parker,  born  January  17th,  1797; 
Joseph  Parker,  born  February  28th,  1799;  John  Grant  Parker, 
born  March  9th,  1801.  The  third  child,  Francis,  was  the  father 
of  Daniel  McNeill  Parker. 

Sarah  (Grant)  Parker  died  at  Petite  on  the  31st  of  October, 
1802,  "  aged  28  years  7  m'ths,  married  11  years  wanting  10  days," 
as  her  father-in-law  has  minutely  set  it  down  in  his  chronicle. 
John  Parker  subsequently  married  Sarah  Lockhart;  and  of  this 
second  marriage  the  children  were:  Wentworth,  Maria,  Thomas 
Woodbury,  Daniel  Dixon,  Sophia,  Collingwood,  Charles  and 

John  Parker  died  at  Petite  June  25th,  1854,  aged  83.  A  brief 
account  of  his  children,  other  than  William  and  Francis,  with 
whom  I  have  dealt  in  my  other  narrative,  seems  in  order  here.  I 
recall  a  few  facts  which  my  father  told  me  relating  to  his  uncles 
and  aunts. 

Hannah  died  early. 

Joseph  married  his  cousin,  Jane  Parker,  born  March  3rd,  1807, 
the  eldest  daughter  of  his  uncle  Joseph.  Their  children  were: 
Wentworth,  who  became  a  sea-captain  and  died  at  sea ;  Michael, 
Jane  and  one  other  daughter.  Joseph  died  in  New  Brunswick, 
where  he  had  made  his  home. 

John  Grant  Parker  married  Mary  Potter. 

Of  the  children  of  the  half  blood :  Wentworth  became  a  clerk 
with  the  firm  of  W.  A.  &  S.  Black  (my  mother's  father  and  uncle) 
at  Halifax,  and  died  there  of  smallpox,  in  early  life. 

Maria  married  James  Smith,  son  of  James.  The  father  was 
a  Scottish-born  Loyalist  refugee  from  Rhode  Island,  who,  during 
the  American  Revolutionary  War,  settled  in  Newport,  Hants 
County,  and  lived  on  what  became  the  Bennett  property,  Poplar 
Grove,  until  his  death  in  1852.  Maria's  husband,  James,  junior, 
was  born  in  1793,  and  died  in  1849,  at  Portland,  Maine,  where 
they  resided.  Maria  became  the  mother  of  eight  children.  Her 
husband's  brother,  Woodbury  Smith,  entered  the  British  Navy  as 
a  purser's  clerk,  at  Halifax,  married  in  England,  and  after  attain- 

40  DANIEL  McNEILL  pakkek,  m.d. 

ing  the  rank  of  a  captain  in  the  Navy,  died  at  Greenwich,  England, 
in  1853,  leaving  no  issue. 

Thomas  Woodbury  Parker  died,  unmarried,  at  the  home  of 
Francis,  my  grandfather,  in  Walton. 

Daniel  Dixon  Parker  was  born  in  1813,  and  when  a  mere  boy, 
went  to  begin  life  for  himself  in  Eastport,  Maine.  There  he  died, 
December  6th,  1830,  at  the  age  of  17. 

Sophia  Parker  died  in  infancy,  January,  16th,  1816. 

Collingwood  Parker  was  lost  at  sea  while  supercargo  of  a  ship 
which  was  never  heard  of  after  sailing. 

Augusta  Parker  married  a  Payson,  of  Weymouth,  Nova  Scotia. 
The  Misses  Payson,  who  formerly  lived  in  Halifax,  were  daughters 
of  her  husband's  brother. 

Charles  Parker  went  to  New  Orleans  to  reside. 

Michael  Parker  once  did  business  in  Wolfville,  N.S.,  and  after- 
wards moved  to  the  United  States.  My  father,  in  1854,  met  him 
at  a  railway  station  while  travelling  in  the  United  States,  but  when 
he  told  me  this,  late  in  his  life,  he  could  not  remember  the  name  of 
the  place.     Michael  then  held  some  office  in  a  railway  company. 

Of  the  children  of  William  Parker,  senior,  other  than  John, — 
my  father's  grand-uncles  and  grand-aunts — there  is  the  following 
record : 

The  second  son,  William  Parker,  junior,  at  the  age  of  21  years, 
married,  November  25th,  1793,  Letitia  Grant,  daughter  of  Captain 
Robert  Grant,  of  Loyal  Hill,  a  younger  sister  of  his  brother  John's 
wife,  Sarah.     They  had  the  following  children: 

Mary  Parker,  born  September  18th,  1794,  who  married  James 
Mitchener,  October  15th,  1815,  and  had  a  son  Abel,  born  August 
25th,  1816.  John  Grant  Parker,  born  January  29th,  1796,  who 
married  Mary  Ann  Terhune.  Sarah  Parker,  born  November  20th, 
1797,  who  married  John  Shaw.  Elizabeth  Parker,  born  October 
1st,  1799;  died  March  27th,  1872.  Thomas  Parker,  born  June 
25th,  1801.  Stephen  Parker,  born  December  18th,  1803,  who 
maried  a  Miss  Ryan.  Timothy  Parker,  born  January  23rd,  1806, 
died  May  9th,  1882,  Rachel  Parker,  born  September  22nd,  1808 ; 
died  December  12th,  1815.  William  Parker,  born  August  28th, 
1810.     Letitia  Parker,  born  January  23rd,  1813. 

Letitia  (Grant)  Parker  died  at  Petite,  January  23rd,  1813, 
in  giving  birth  to  her  last  child  and  namesake. 

William  Parker,  junior,  died  at  Petite,  May  8th,  1857,  aged 
85  years. 

The  third  son  of  William  Parker,  senior,  Thomas,  married  at 
Newport,  January  31st,  1804,  Anne  Mumford.  They  had  the 
following  children : 

Mary  Parker,  born  December  10th,  1804.  George  Parker, 
born  March  7th,  1807.     William  Parker,  born  November  22nd, 


1808.  Benjamin  Parker,  born  December  25th,  1810.  Thomas 
Hardaker  Parker,  born  February  2nd,  1813 ;  died  December  23rd, 
1815.  Phoebe  Ann  and  Sarah  Letitia  Parker  (twins),  born  May 
10th,  1815.  Francis  Parker,  born  June  29th,  1818.  Eunice 
Jane  Parker,  born  July  5th,  1820. 

Mary,  only  daughter  of  William  Parker,  senior,  married 
Timothy  Dimock,  of  Rawdon,  December  29th,  1795,  at  the  age  of 
19.     They  had  issue  as  follows : 

Shubael  Dimock,  born  November  27th,  1796,  who  married 
Hannah  Baker  (born  January  6th,  1799).  Thomas  Dimock,  born 
August  2nd,  1798;  died  April  26th,  1805.  William  Dimock, 
born  August  28th,  1800,  who  married  Elizabeth  Parker,  his  cousin, 
daughter  of  Francis  Parker,  July  24th,  1828.  Hannah  P.  Dimock, 
born  January  18th,  1803,  who  married  March  26th,  1827,  James 
Higgins.  The  only  child  of  this  marriage  was  Dr.  Daniel  Francis 
Higgins,  for  many  years  Professor  of  Mathematics  in  Acadia 
College.  Her  husband  died  July  8th,  1829.  She  afterwards 
married  William  Whittier,  December  2nd,  1834,  and  had  another 
son,  James  Whittier.  Joseph  Dimock,  born  October  4th,  1804, 
who  married  Hannah  Dimock,  September  3rd,  1829.  John 
Dimock,  born  February  22nd,  1807,  who  married  Sarah  Dimock, 
January  24th,  1833.  Daniel  Dimock,  born  September  16th,  1809 ; 
died  November  24th,  1813.  Timothy  Dimock,  born  March  25th, 
1811;  died  December  22nd,  1815.  Francis  Knowlton  Dimock, 
born  April  5th,  1813  ;   died  the  day  of  his  birth. 

Timothy  Dimock  died  at  Rawdon,  December  21st,  1838,  aged 
69  years.  Mary  (Parker)  Dimock  died  at  Rawdon,  December 
30th,  1863,  aged^86. 

The  fourth  son  of  William  Parker,  senior,  Joseph,  married 
Anne  McLalan  (or  McLennan)  at  Rawdon,  December  26th,  1805. 
Of  this  marriage  there  were  the  following  children : 

Jane  Parker,  born  March  3rd,  1807.  Alexander  Parker,  born 
February  16th,  1809. 

Anne  (McLellan)  Parker  died  at  Rawdon,  February  24th, 

Joseph  was  married  a  second  time,  to  Catherine  Terhune,  on 
February  7th,  1810.  The  following  were  the  children  of  this 
marriage : 

Ananias  Parker,  born  December  26th,  1810.  Hiram  Parker, 
born  March  24th,  1826;  died  June  29th,  1898,  at  Windsor,  N.S. 
Catherine  Parker,  born  January  16th,  1828. 

The  fifth  son  of  William  Parker,  senior,  Francis,  married 
Sarah  Bond,  at  Rawdon,  February  12th,  1805.  They  had  the 
following  children : 

Elizabeth  Parker,  born  January  4th,  1806,  who  married  Wil- 
liam Dimock,  her  cousin,  son  of  Timothy  and  Mary   (Parker) 

42  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

Dimock,  July  24th,  1828.  Phoebe  Maria  Parker,  born  February 
29th,  1808,  who  married  Charles  S.  Dimock,  June  17th,  1834. 
Sarah  Ann  Parker,  born  September  7th,  1810,  who  married  John 
Doyle.  William  John  Parker,  born  November  11th,  1812,  who 
married  Harriet  Nowel  Masters,  December  2nd,  1834. 

Sarah  (Bond)  Parker  died,  February  1st,  1815.  Francis  was 
married  again  to  Anne  Lomer,  October  5th,  1820. 

Having  thus  completed  the  genealogical  line  of  William  Parker, 
senior,  the  immigrant  brother  through  whom  my  father's  descent 
is  derived  (except  as  contained  in  my  monograph  on  Daniel 
McNeill  and  his  descendants),  I  extend  the  record  to  the  other 
immigrant  brothers,  Francis  and  Joseph,  my  father's  great-grand- 
uncles,  and  their  families.  By  so  doing  I  hope  to  contribute  to 
the  perpetuation  of  all  the  information  which  the  brief  chronicle 
of  my  father's  great-grandfather  affords ;  but  little  remains  to  be 

The  eldest  of  the  three  immigrant  brothers,  Francis,  resided 
always  at  Shubenacadie,  where  he  had  first  settled,  and  he  died 
there,  May  3rd,  1800,  at  the  age  of  62.  He  was  married  before  he 
left  England,  but  the  maiden  name  of  his  wife,  Mary,  has  not  been 
recorded.  She  was  born  in  Yorkshire  in  1737,  and  died  at  Shuben- 
acadie on  October  17th,  1809.  They  had  a  son,  Francis  R.,  born 
in  Shubenacadie,  who  resided  there  and  attained  great  age — I 
think,  96  years.  He  was  the  leading  man  in  that  locality  for  many 
years,  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  widely  known  and  respected  as  a  man 
of  high  character  and  excellent  qualities  of  mind  and  heart.  About 
the  year  1892  I  had  occasion  to  examine  him  as  a  witness  in  a  law 
suit  concerning  the  old  Shubenacadie  canal,  before  a  Referee  of 
the  Exchequer  Court  of  Canada.  The  meeting  for  this  purpose 
took  place  at  his  house.  Unfortunately  I  took  no  notes  of  a  con- 
versation we  had  on  family  history.  He  was  about  twenty  years 
old  when  his  uncle,  my  father's  great-grandfather,  died,  and  knew 
and  remembered  him  well.  Though  totally  blind  when  I  met  him, 
he  was  robust  in  body,  still  of  a  fine  physique,  a  burly,  florid,  dis- 
tinguished-looking old  gentleman,  who  seemed  rather  of  the  eigh- 
teenth than  the  nineteenth  century,  and  would  have  made  a  fine 
model  for  my  idea  of  a  typical  old-time  Yorkshire  farmer.  I  could 
not  resist  the  notion  that  in  him  there  was  reproduced  before  my 
eyes  a  sort  of  composite  portrait  of  my  father's  English  fore- 
fathers. To  meet  with  him  was  like  stepping  back  a  century.  His 
now  sightless  eyes  had  seen  my  ancestors  of  four  generations  past. 
In  general  appearance  he  resembled  Francis,  my  grandfather. 
Like  him,  he  ^vas  always  "  Squire  Parker  "  to  everyone.  His 
mental  faculties  were  alert  and  keen,  so  that  he  made  an  excellent 
witness  in  the  law  suit,  as  to  things  he  had  seen  and  known  thirty 
to  forty  years  before.     To  attest  the  family  traditions,  not  only  of 


longevity,  but  of  obedience  to  a  certain  injunction  laid  upon  the 
patriarchs,  he  had  then  a  rather  young  wife  and  a  son  of  about 
twelve  or  fourteen  years  of  age.  This  wife  was  of  the  Etter  family, 
and  a  remote  collateral  relative  of  my  mother,  on  the  maternal 
side  of  the  Black  family. 

Of  the  remaining  immigrant  brother,  Joseph  Parker,  and  his 
family,  who  were  settled  in  Newport,  the  most  meagre  information 
has  come  down  to  us.  Like  his  brothers,  he  married  in  England 
before  coming  to  this  Province.  His  wife's  maiden  name  is  not 
known,  but  she  was  of  Yorkshire  birth,  and  her  given  name  was 
Elizabeth.  She  died  at  Newport,  where  Joseph,  as  already  stated, 
died  on  the  9th  of  September,  1815.  Whether  they  left  children  or 
not  the  records  at  present  available  do  not  disclose. 

For  further  information  of  the  Parker  family,  in  the  direct 
line  of  my  father,  and  through  the  two  Parker-McNeill  marriages, 
reference  may  be  had  to  the  Daniel  McNeill  monograph  of  the  year 

To  the  record  of  William  Parker,  senior,  as  continued  by  his 
daughter,  I  have  added,  in  the  lines  collateral  to  my  father's 
descent,  only  a  few  names  of  descendants,  from  information  which 
I  chanced  to  have.  To  bring  the  record  down  to  date,  in  all  its 
branches,  would  be  a  most  voluminous  undertaking. 

chapter  ii. 
the  McNeill  family. 

"  'Tis  opportune  to  look  back  upon  old  times,  and  contemplate  our 

— Sir  Thomas  Browne. 

The  Clan  MacNeil  was  divided  into  two  septs,  those  of  Gigha, 
and  others  of  Barra,  two  islands  off  the  coast  of  Argyle,  says  the 
author  of  "  The  Scottish  Clans  and  their  Tartans  " ;  and  he  adds : 
"  The  name  of  MacNeil  first  appears  in  a  charter  by  Robert  I.  of 
lands  in  Wigton  to  John,  son  of  Gilbert  MacNeil ;  but  the  oldest 
charter  to  the  name  for  the  Isle  of  Barra — confirmatory  of  one 
from  Alexander,  Lord  of  the  Isles — is  dated  1427,  and  is  granted 
to  Gilleonon,  son  of  Roderick,  son  of  Murchard,  the  son  of  Neil. 
The  Gigha  branch  were,  so  far  back  as  1472,  keepers  of  the  Castle 
of  Swen,  in  North  Knapdale,  under  the  Lords  of  the  Isles."  This 
branch,  or  sept,  had  also  proprietary  rights  of  ancient  date  in  Kin- 
tyre  (Cantyre),  as  evidenced  by  a  sale  by  Neil  MacNeil  to  James 
MacNeil,  the  exact  date  of  which  is  buried  in  obscurity.  There 
were  also  MacNeils  in  the  Isle  of  Colonsay,  and  many  of  the  name 
occupied  the  western  portion  of  the  mainland  of  Argyle.  In  the 
course  of  time,  and  through  changes  in  locality,  the  name  has 
acquired  several  variations  of  spelling,  but  the  families  who  came 
to  North  Carolina  have  spelt  it,  almost  uniformly,  "  McNeill." 

The  war-cry  of  the  clan  is  "  Buaidh  no  Bas  " — "  Victory  or 
Death."  The  clan  pipe  march  is  "  Spaidsearachd  Mhic  Neill  " — 
"  MacNeill's  March."  The  clan  badge  is  "  Machall  Monaidh." 
— Dryas. 

When,  in  the  summer  of  1745,  Prince  Charles  Edward  landed, 
first  on  the  Island  of  Eriskay,  between  the  islands  of  Barra  and 
South  Uist,  and  a  little  later  at  Borodale  on  the  mainland,  he  was 
in  the  immediate  neighborhood  of  the  MacNeills,  and  many  of  the 
clan  answered  the  summons  to  his  standard.  The  autumn  of  the 
following  year,  which  saw  the  Stuart  Prince  hunted  through  the 
western  isles,  brought  to  his  Highland  followers  dire  disaster. 
After  the  cause  was  forever  lost  upon  Culloden  Muir,  the  MacNeills 
were  among  the  victims  of  the  atrocities  suffered  by  the  clansmen 
at  the  hand  of  that  royal  butcher,  the  Duke  of  Cumberland. 
Wearied,  at  length,  of  hangings,  slaughters,  and  the  less  merciful 
barbarities  perpetrated  upon  the  prisoners  taken  at  Culloden  and 


the  McNeill  family  45 

long  afterwards  in  Argyle  and  the  adjacent  islands,  this  odious 
brother  of  George  the  Second  gave  to  many  remaining  in  his  power 
the  privilege  of  taking  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  Brunswick 
King  and  then  removing  with  their  families  to  the  American  plan- 
tations, as  an  alternative  to  expiating  their  rebellion  by  death. 
Several  families  of  MacNeills  availed  themselves  of  this  "  saving 
grace."  For  some  reason  these  were  permitted  to  linger  on  at 
home,  under  surveillance,  suffering  the  penalties  of  proscription, 
extortionate  exactions  and  of  persecution,  until  the  year  1748;  in 
which  year,  but  after  their  departure,  the  Act  was  passed  for  dis- 
arming the  Highlanders,  abolishing  the  national  dress,  and  impos- 
ing other  punitive  disabilities  upon  this  proud  and  sensitive  people. 

There  had  been  some  few  Scottish  settlers  on  the  Cape  Fear 
in  North  Carolina  as  early  as  1729.  "  Black  "  Neill  McNeill,  the 
earliest  known  progenitor  of  our  branch  of  the  McNeills,  came  first 
to  America,  from  Argyle,  in  the  year  1742,  or  1743.  He  seems  to 
have  been  then  well  advanced  in  life,  probably  about  70  years  old. 
In  1747  he  explored  the  Cape  Fear  country  with  a  view  to  founding 
a  colony  of  his  distressed  clansmen  and  other  fellow-sufferers. 
Whether  he  had  revisited  Scotland  in  time  to  participate  in  the 
Forty-Five  is  uncertain,  but  tradition  says  that  his  son  Lauchlin 
and  his  grandson  Archibald  fought  at  Culloden.  At  all  events, 
after  his  second  voyage  to  America  and  his  tour  of  exploration  in 
North  Carolina  in  1747,  he  returned  once  more  to  Argyle  and  the 
next  year  brought  out  his  family  and  a  colony  of  Highlanders, 
variously  estimated  at  from  three  hundred  to  six  hundred  souls. 
All  the  men  of  fighting  age  among  them  had  been  out  in  the  Stuart 
rising,  and  they  brought  their  arms  among  their  treasured  pos- 
sessions. The  claymore  was  to  drink  blood  in  another  royal  cause, 
which  was  to  be  lost  upon  another  continent. 

With  them  came  Flora,  or,  as  she  wrote  her  name,  "  Florey," 
McDonald,  and  her  future  husband,  a  McDonald.  When  through 
her  compassionate  courage  and  sagacity  Prince  Charles  Edward 
was  enabled  to  escape  from  South  Uist  to  Skye,  thence  to  the  Isle 
of  Easay,  back  to  Skye,  and  finally  to  the  mainland,  from  which 
he  sailed  to  France,  tradition  says  that  some  of  these  McNeills, 
knowing  well  the  intricacies  of  the  islands  and  their  approaches, 
were  rendering  assistance  to  the  fugitives.  That  she  chose  to  cast 
in  her  lot  with  Black  Neill's  colonizing  party,  and,  after  first  sett- 
ling at  Cross  Creek  (Fayetteville),  removed  to  Little  River  to 
reside  in  the  immediate  neighborhood  of  the  Bahn  McNeills,  are 
circumstances  which  lend  color  to  the  tradition,  well  established  in 
the  Cape  Fear  region,  that  our  immigrant  ancestors  were  among 
the  friends  of  Flora  McDonald,  a  name  ever  to  be  numbered  in  the 
illustrious  roll  of  heroic  women. 

Black  Neill  placed  his  colony  at  Cross  Creek,  now  within  the 


town  of  Fayetteville,  at  the  head  of  navigation  (except  for  small 
boats)  on  the  Cape  Fear  River,  120  miles  by  water  above  Wilming- 
ton. This  settlement  they  called  "  Campbellton,"  in  honor  of 
Farquhard  Campbell,  who,  from  the  Highland  point  of  view,  was 
the  principal  personage  among  them.  The  town  became  "  Fayette- 
ville "  after  the  Revolutionary  War,  a  tribute  at  once  to  the  popu- 
larity of  La  Fayette  and  to  the  detestation  of  the  Loyalist  or 
"  Tory  "  Highlanders. 

It  was  from  this  point  that  my  father,  in  1861,  and  I,  in  1898, 
began  our  tours  of  investigation  and  our  visits  to  the  North  Caro- 
lina kinsfolk. 

From  there,  as  a  centre,  the  Scottish  settlements  spread,  until, 
in  a  few  years,  they  extended  down  to  the  sea,  along  the  river,  far 
up  the  Cape  Fear  and  Deep  Rivers  and  thence  back  to  the  Pedee. 
The  Deep  River  flows  into  the  Cape  Fear  about  29  miles  above 
Lillington.  All  this  region,  known  as  "  the  Cape  Fear,"  is  still 
very  largely  inhabited  by  the  descendants  of  these  original  settlers, 
who  preserve  a  remarkable  survival  of  the  clan  spirit  and  racial 
pride ;  which  has  been  fostered  by  intermarriage,  by  the  retention 
of  immense  tracts  of  land  in  families,  and,  to  a  certain  extent,  by 
slavery — the  two  latter  circumstances  tending  to  the  exclusion  of 
other  settlers. 

With  Black  Neill  McNeill  came  his  son  Lauchlin  and  Mar- 
garet, his  wife,  whose  maiden  name  was  Johnstone;  also  Neill's 
grandson,  Archibald  McNeill,  son  of  Lauchlin.  Other  children 
of  Lauchlin  were  of  the  party,  but  their  names  do  not  enter  into 
the  record.  Hector,  a  son  of  Lauchlin,  who  will  hereafter  appear, 
made  his  peace  with  the  British  government  by  entering  the  army, 
and  did  not  appear  in  North  Carolina  until  after  1763. 

Soon  after  the  arrival  of  the  colonizing  party  in  1748,  Archi- 
bald married  Jennet  (Janet)  Smith.  Her  father,  John  Smith, 
a  lowland  Scotsman  of  that  ilk,  had  emigrated  to  the  Cape  Fear 
country  with  the  earlier  Scottish  settlers  in  1729.  His  wife,  Mar- 
garet, whose  maiden  name  was  Gilchrist,  had  died  on  shipboard 
during  their  voyage.  They  had  two  children  born  in  Scotland, 
Malcolm  Smith  and  Jennet.  Archibald  McNeill  and  Jennet  were 
both  born  about  the  year  1720.  She  died  in  1791,  and  he  on  June 
26th,  1801. 

Archibald  and  Jennet  (Smith)  McNeill  were  my  father's 
great-grandparents;  Lauchlin  and  Margaret  (Johnstone)  McNeill 
were  his  great-great-grandparents,  and  Black  Neill  McNeill,  whose 
wife's  name  has  not  been  transmitted  to  her  descendants,  was  his 
great-great-great-grandfather;  while,  on  the  maternal  side,  my 
father's  great-great-grandparents  were  John  and  Margaret  (Gil- 
christ) Smith.  From  my  children  to  Black  Neill  McNeill  there 
are  (inclusively)  eight  generations. 


Black  Neill  must  have  been  born  in  the  reign  of  Charles  the 
Second.  He  was  a  Covenanter,  and  the  son  of  a  Covenanter. 
His  memory  would  go  back  to  the  insurrection  of  1679,  the  bloody 
work  of  Claverhouse,  and  the  fierce  fighting  at  Drumclog  and 
Bothwell  Brig,  where  his  father  may  have  borne  his  part.  He 
himself  was  then  probably  a  lad  of  six. 

That  his  family  should  support  the  Stuart  cause  in  1745  is  not 
strange  to  a  student  of  the  times  and  Highland  character.  The 
McNeills  of  the  Isles  remained  Catholic.  Those  on  the  mainland 
of  Argyle,  though  the  Campbell  influence  had  brought  them  into 
the  Covenant,  could  not  be  parted  from  their  clan  in  a  war  declared 
for  Scottish  kingship. 

I  have  alluded  to  Daniel  McNeill  Parker's  Quaker  ancestry, 
on  his  father's  side,  with  its  spiritual  inheritance.  May  we  not 
discover  in  this  heritage  of  the  Covenanter  blood,  through  the 
maternal  line,  some  further  explanation  of  those  strong  spiritual 
characteristics  which  distinguished  him  ?  The  Quaker  and  Cov- 
enanter blend  might  well  in  after  years  produce,  now  and  then, 
a  composite  type  of  character  like  my  father's. 

In  accordance  with  the  blunt  and  quaintly  significant  fashion 
of  the  Scots  to  designate  individuals  by  physical  or  temperamental 
peculiarities,  in  order  to  distinguish  them  from  others  of  their 
name,  Jennet  McNeill  became  known  as  Jennet  "  Bahn  "  (fair- 
complexioned  and  light-haired),  and  Archibald,  I  regret  to  say, 
acquired  the  appellation  of  "  Scorblin  "  (or  "  Scrubblin  "),  mean- 
ing no  good,  or  worthless.  To  this  day  in  North  Carolina,  even 
in  family  Bibles  and  other  records  which  I  have  examined,  they 
remain  "  Jenny  Bahn  "  and  "  Archie  Scrubblin  " ;  and  to  add 
the  surname  would  be  deemed  redundant.  But  it  has  been 
explained  to  me  that  Archibald's  designation  is  not  to  be  taken  too 
literally,  and  may  mean  merely  that  he  was  a  man  of  little  force 
of  character  and  unsuccessful  as  a  planter.  And,  again,  he 
appears  to  have  suffered  by  comparison  with  his  wife,  who  seems 
to  have  been  a  woman  of  strong  intellect,  deep  sagacity  of  the 
practical  sort,  and  of  untiring  energy — a  veritable  queen  bee  in 
the  community.  The  shortcomings  of  Archie  were  amply 
redressed  by  his  spouse,  and  though  we  find  other  "  Scrubblins  "  in 
the  family  tree,  they  prove  to  be  sons-in-law  of  the  clan  and  not  his 

The  descendants  of  Archibald  and  Jennet  have  always  been 
known  as  the  Bahn  McNeills,  by  which  prefix  they  are  still  dis- 
tinguished in  the  "  Old  North  State  "  from  the  McNeills  descended 
from  the  same  ancestor,  Black  Neill,  through  other  children  of 
Lauchlin,  and  also  distinguished  from  other  McNeills  not  of  Black 
Neill's  stock.  To  be  a  Bahn  NcNeill,  or  to  be  allied  to  one  by 
marriage  or  descent  has  yet  a  certain  social  and  even  political 


significance  of  a  favorable  kind,  at  least  in  the  Counties  of  Cumber- 
land and  Harnett. 

Archibald  and  Jennet  had  the  following  children: 

Hector,  known  as  "  One-Eyed "  Hector,  to  distinguish  him 
from  his  uncle  and  other  kinsmen  of  that  name.  He  married 
Susanna  Barksdale  and  had  nine  children. 

Archibald,  who  was  killed  in  childhood  by  falling  from  a  tree. 

Malcolm,  who  married  Jennet  McAllister  and  had  seven 

Lauchlin,  who  died  unmarried,  November  11th,  1795. 

Neill,  who  married  Grissella  Stewart  and  had  four  children 
who  left  descendants,  and  several  others  who  died  in  infancy. 

Colonel  Archibald  S.  McNeill,  who  was  my  father's  host  at 
McNeill's  Ferry  (formerly  Sproul's  Ferry)  in  1861,  was  a  son 
of  Neill.     Colonel  "  Archie  "  was  born  in  1804  and  died  in  1876. 

Daniel,  born  in  1752,  died  May  5th,  1818.  He  was  my 
father's  grandfather,  and  is  still  distinguished  in  the  family  as 
"  Nova  Scotia  Dan'l." 

John,  known  as  "  Cunning  John,"  for  reasons  which  will 
appear  later.     He  married  Agnes  Shaw,  and  had  one  son. 

Margaret  ("Peggy"),  who  married  John  McNeill,  "  Scrub- 
blin,"  and  had  nine  children. 

Mary  (or  Maron)  who  died  at  the  age  of  15. 

The  order  of  birth  of  these  grand-uncles  and  grand-aunts  of 
my  father  is  not  known,  but  John  is  thought  to  have  been  the 
youngest  son. 

The  various  families  of  the  McNeills  early  became  prominent 
and  influential  in  the  Counties  of  Bladen,  Cumberland,  Moore, 
Chatham  and  Randolph.  Archibald  and  Jennet  resided  in  various 
places,  but  their  principal  homestead  and  the  one  upon  which  they 
were  living  during  the  Revolutionary  War  was  the  plantation  at 
Anderson's  Creek,  Lower  Little  River,  in  Cumberland  County. 
This  county  was  afterwards  divided  into  two,  and  the  northern 
part  of  it,  comprising  the  Little  River  settlement,  became  Harnett 
County.  Jennet  seems  to  have  been  a  remarkable  woman,  with 
a  versatility  of  talent  which  scorned  the  ordinary  limitations  of 
her  sex.  One  shrinks  from  speculating  on  what  she  might  have 
been  if  she  had  been  projected  out  of  the  pioneer  period  forward 
into  a  civilization  which  has  evolved  the  has  bleu  and  the  suf- 
fragette. As  to  her  personality,  she  was  small  in  stature,  resem- 
bling in  that  respect  her  granddaughter,  Mary  Janet,  my  father's 
mother ;  of  her  complexion  and  hair  I  have  already  spoken.  The 
following  traditionary  account  of  her,  illustrative  of  her  business 
capacity,  shrewdness  and  canny  ways,  I  received  from  some  of  her 
descendants  amid  the  scenes  of  her  activities.  She  acquired  large 
herds  of  cattle,  and  had  cattle-pens  and  grazing  grounds  in  many 

the  McNeill  family  49 

widely  scattered  localities.  Accompanied  by  a  band  of  trusty 
slaves,  she  would  roam  over  several  counties,  visiting  and  herding 
her  cattle,  exploring  for  fresh  pasturing  lands,  driving  her  beasts 
sometimes  as  far  as  Campbellton  to  market,  and  camping  at  night, 
all  the  time,  wherever  night  might  overtake  her.  While  she  was 
bearing  rule,  dictating  the  policy  of  the  entire  family  connection, 
transacting  business,  such  as  procuring  grants  of  land,  squatting 
on  other  Crown  lands  through  her  servants  and  tenants,  entering 
upon  and  surveying  after  her  own  fashion  large  tracts  of  valuable 
timber  lands,  and  directing  the  management  of  several  extensive 
plantations — all  in  addition  to  the  cattle  business,  Archie,  "  Scrub- 
blin,"  who  seems  to  have  been  a  steady,  plodding,  hard-working 
sort  of  man,  remained  at  home  and  took  care  of  the  family,  while 
directing  affairs  generally  at  the  homestead  plantation.  Jenny 
Bahn  had  an  original  system  of  surveying  the  lands  which  she 
acquired  for  her  husband,  whether  by  Crown  grant,  purchase,  or 
by  the  simpler  process  of  mere  entry  and  possession.  She  would 
guess  at  the  points  of  the  compass  and  run  lines  through  the 
forest  by  sending  in  slaves  on  various  imaginary  courses,  with 
instructions  to  walk  on  and  blaze  the  trees  until  she  rang  a  bell. 
Following  behind,  by  a  code  of  signals  with  her  bell  she  controlled 
the  movements  of  the  negroes,  and  would  enclose,  "  in  black  and 
white,"  as  it  were,  by  this  idyllic  method  of  surveying,  tracts  which 
would  aggregate  a  principality.  By  virtue  of  such  mystic  rites 
of  engineering  she  would  sometimes  assert  claims  to  portions  of 
the  earth  with  a  complacency  that  was  not  altogether  shared  by 
her  neighbors.  Nor  have  the  consequences  of  her  achievements 
"  along  these  lines  "  been  appreciated  by  some  of  her  successors  in 
title ;  though  it  must  be  said  that  lawyers  have  risen  up  and  called 
her  blessed.  It  is  to  be  feared  that,  as  a  "  woman  of  affairs,"  her 
ethical  standards  were  not  superior  to  our  present-day  code,  sum- 
marized in  the  phrase,  "  Business  is  business."  Yet  despite  the 
speculative  inquiry  which  I  have  suggested  on  a  preceding  page, 
tradition  says  that,  in  her  family  life,  she  was  altogether  feminine, 
a  model  wife  and  mother,  and  not  at  all  what  one  would  call  a 
mannish  woman  or  she-man.  Her  sharpness  in  making  bargains 
is  illustrated  in  the  incident  of  her  purchase  of  McNeill's  Ferry 
and  the  440  acres  to  which  the  ferry  was  appurtenant,  from  the 
original  grantee  of  the  land  and  ferry  franchise,  one  Sproul,  or 
Sproal.  The  owner,  an  immigrant,  discouraged  in  mind  and  sick 
in  body,  said  to  her  one  day  when  she  "  cried  in  "  upon  him  during 
one  of  her  cattle-driving  expeditions,  that  he  had  half  a  mind  to 
sell  out  and  go  home  to  Scotland.  With  feigned  indifference  she 
listened  to  the  recital  of  his  troubles  and  failure  in  the  new  life, 
and  laying  due  stress  upon  the  utter  lack  of  purchasers  for  such 
an  unpromising  property,  and  her  own  condition  of  being  "  land 


poor,"  she  gradually  led  her  poor  fellow-countryman,  homesick 
for  Scotland  and  fearful  of  death  in  the  wilderness  alone,  into 
making  an  improvident  bargain  with  her.  Nor  did  she  resume 
her  journey  until  she  was  able  to  carry  with  her  a  written  agree- 
ment for  the  sale  at  a  small  figure  of  what  was  really  a  possession 
of  great  value.  The  Ferry  property  and  franchise  remained  in 
the  family  until  about  the  year  1905,  and  until  the  era  of  railway 
extension  which  came  to  that  section  of  country  some  twenty  years 
after  the  War  of  Secession,  the  ferry  franchise  itself  was  always 
very  remunerative.  It  lies  on  what  used  to  be  the  great  North  and 
South  highway  of  travel  and  commerce.  Over  the  ferry  passed 
enormous  quantities  of  cotton  and  tobacco,  going  north.  It  is  an 
historic  spot.  Washington's  continental  army  of  the  South  crossed 
and  recrossed  it;  and  there  Sherman,  returning  from  the  march 
through  Georgia,  crossed  the  Cape  Fear  with  his  triumphant 
forces.  In  the  Revolutionary  War  it  was  the  centre  of  stirring 
incidents  in  the  southern  campaigns. 

Some  idea  of  Archibald's  and  Jennet's  possessions  in  land  may 
be  gathered  from  his  will.  I  shall  give  this  document  in  its  place. 
But  they  seem  to  have  acquired  quantities  of  land  for  speculative 
purposes,  which  was  profitably  sold  to  later  settlers,  in  their  life- 
time. Their  sons,  too,  were  rich  in  land ;  or,  rather,  poor,  because 
they  had  so  much  of  it.  We  can  trace  certain  of  these  sons,  the 
grand-uncles  of  my  father,  in  North  Carolina  histories  and  his- 
torical sketches  relating  to  the  Revolutionary  period.  Anecdotes 
of  them  still  pass  current  among  their  descendants  and  further 
illustrate  the  men  and  their  times.  In  such  reminiscences  their 
exiled  Tory  brother,  Daniel,  finds  a  place. 

In  my  monograph  on  Daniel  McNeill  and  his  descendants, 
research  beyond  the  time  of  his  coming  to  Nova  Scotia  was  not 
called  for.  Since  that  paper  was  written,  investigation  has 
revealed  something  of  his  earlier  career ;  and  I  have  found  mate- 
rials to  supplement  this  in  some  notes  concerning  him,  made  from 
traditionary  sources  when  I  was  among  the  North  Carolina  kins- 
folk. In  the  following  account  of  the  McNeills  in  the  Revolu- 
tionary War,  history  and  tradition  are  combined,  omitting  such 
of  the  latter  as  I  consider  to  be  against  probability,  or  lacking  in 
corroboration  by  dates  and  contemporaneous  circumstances.  The 
member  of  the  family  most  frequently  mentioned  by  Wheeler, 
Caruthers,  Foote,  Moore,  Fanning  and  other  writers  of  North 
Carolina  history,  is  Hector  McNeill  (senior),  who  was  a  brother 
of  Archibald  (Scrubblin)  and  an  uncle  of  my  great-grandfather, 
Daniel.  As  I  have  already  stated,  the  elder  Hector  had  entered 
the  British  service  about  the  time  his  family  emigrated.  It 
appears  that  he  served  in  one  of  the  Highland  regiments  added 
to  the  army  through  the  sagacity  of  Pitt  at  the  commencement  of 

the  McNeill  family  51 

the  terrible  contest  known  as  the  Seven  Years'  War,  to  which  regi- 
ments, twenty  years  later,  when  Earl  of  Chatham,  in  one  of  those 
remarkable  speeches  in  the  House  of  Lords  urging  conciliation 
towards  America,  the  great  statesman  thus  alluded :  "  I  remember, 
after  an  unnatural  rebellion  had  been  extinguished  in  the  northern 
parts  of  this  island,  that  I  employed  these  very  rebels  in  the 
service  and  defence  of  their  country.  They  were  reclaimed  by 
this  means ;  they  fought  our  battles ;  they  cheerfully  bled  in 
defence  of  those  liberties  which  they  attempted  to  overthrow  but  a 
few  years  before." 

The  name  of  Hector's  regiment  and  the  particulars  of  his 
European  military  career  have  not  been  recorded.  By  valor  and 
distinguished  services  in  action  he  had  obtained  an  ensign's  com- 
mission before  the  peace  of  1763,  and,  sometime  later,  retiring 
from  the  army  as  a  half-pay  captain,  he  sought  out  his  family  in 
North  Carolina  and  settled  in  Bladen  County,  where  he  had  become 
a  colonel  of  militia  before  the  Revolution. 

When  the  long-smouldering  embers  of  rebellion  were  flaming 
into  declared  and  open  war,  North  Carolina  was  the  first  of  all  the 
American  provinces  to  declare  by  a  Provincial  Congress  for  abso- 
lute independence  of  the  mother  country.  Yet  among  the  people 
there  was  a  strong  dissenting  minority,  which  was  very  largely 
represented  in  the  Cape  Fear  and  other  Scottish  settlements,  where 
public  sentiment  was  almost  altogether  Royalist.  Any  form  of 
government  but  the  monarchical  was  scarcely  conceivable  to  the 
minds  of  these  Highland  folk,  permeated  by  the  still  fresh  mem- 
ories and  traditions  of  their  Old- World  descent,  and  by  their  nat- 
ural habit  of  thought  on  matters  of  State,  which  postulated  the 
conditions  of  chieftainship  and  kingship.  The  seeds  of  repub- 
licanism could  not  easily  germinate  in  such  soil.  Again,  before 
their  emigration  the  elders  among  them  had  taken  the  oath  of 
allegiance  to  the  British  Crown,  represented  in  the  person  of 
George  II. ;  and  though  taken  in  many  cases  under  duress,  this 
oath,  they  believed  and  taught  their  sons  and  grandsons,  was  bind- 
ing on  themselves  and  on  their  posterity.  The  covenant  idea  of 
the  ancient  Scottish  Presbyterian  cast  of  mind  appears  in  this. 
The  benefit  of  their  sworn  allegiance,  to  their  minds,  descended 
to  the  next  ruler  of  the  Hanoverian  dynasty,  George  III.,  and  the 
burden  of  it  descended  to  their  children.  This  argument  of  the 
oath  proved  unanswerable  to  any  who  might  otherwise  waver  in 
choosing  sides,  and  unto  the  second  and  third  generation  it  pre- 
vailed. The  general  result  was  that  the  Stuart  rebels  of  the  Forty- 
Five  in  Britain,  with  their  descendants,  fought  for  the  House  of 
Hanover  against  the  rebels  in  America. 

Caruthers,  the  fierce  North  Carolina  Whig  partisan  writer, 
after  denouncing  these  Scottish   Tories  for  their  course  at  this 


time,  reluctantly  admits  that  they  were  the  flower  of  the  popula- 
tion, and  he  pays  the  following  significant  tribute  to  them  and 
their  fellow-countrymen  overseas :  "  The  Scotch  people,  taken  as 
a  whole,  have  generally  been  regarded  as  feeling  more  solemnly 
bound  by  their  oath  than  any  others,  and  I  have  been  told  by  native 
Scotchmen,  who  were  pretty  well  acquainted  with  Scottish  history, 
that  in  the  High  Court  of  Edinboro',  notwithstanding  all  the  vigil- 
ance and  careful  enquiry  into  the  matter  on  the  part  of  the  court, 
only  four  cases  of  perjury  had  been  known  in  a  hundred  years." 
Caruthers  wrote  in  the  years  1851  and  1852. 

Goldwin  Smith,  in  his  "  Political  History  of  the  United 
States,"  says  that  these  Highlanders  of  North  Carolina  were 
among  the  better  elements  of  population  in  the  Province.  Moore, 
in  his  "  History  of  North  Carolina,"  says :  "  These  Scotch  people 
were  brave,  industrious  and  frugal,  and  North  Carolina  has  always 
esteemed  them  as  a  part  of  her  best  population." 

As  early  as  1775  began  the  bitter  persecution  by  the  "  Regu- 
lators "  and  other  Whig,  or  rebel,  partisans,  against  those  who 
were  well  affected  towards  the  government.  This  could  be  effec- 
tually met  and  checked  only  by  reprisals  in  self-defence,  even  by 
Tory  sympathizers  who  desired  simply  the  privilege  of  holding 
their  own  opinions  while  remaining  neutral  in  conduct.  There 
were  many  such,  who,  goaded  by  the  fiendish  excesses  of  the 
"  patriots,"  exacted  a  terrible  toll  of  compensation  and  revenge. 
The  Loyalists  became  the  victims  of  domiciliary  visits  by  self- 
constituted  committees  or  bands  of  their  Whig  neighbors.  They 
were  whipped,  tarred  and  feathered,  dragged  through  horse-ponds, 
ridden  on  rails  with  the  word  "  Tory  "  on  their  breasts,  plundered, 
shot  from  ambush,  and  openly  murdered.  Their  young  men  were 
drafted  or  impressed  as  soldiers  in  the  continental  army.  The 
Tories  of  the  Cape  Fear,  as  elsewhere,  organized,  as  a  matter  of 
course,  and  retaliated  in  kind  as  the  one  means  of  defending  their 
homes,  their  families  and  themselves.  When  the  Highland  blood 
was  up,  and  the  Scots  went  into  the  business  of  "  regulating  "  for 
themselves,  things  happened,  and  happened  quickly.  They  were 
aided  by  the  better  class  of  the  original  Regulators,  who  had  taken 
the  oath  of  allegiance  after  their  organization  had  been  shattered 
for  a  time  by  the  prompt  measures  of  Martin,  the  last  of  the  Pro- 
vincial governors  under  the  colonial  regime.  The  most  frightful 
type  of  civil  war  ensued — an  irresponsible,  scattered  guerilla  war- 
fare of  divided  communities,  and  even  families,  comparable  to  the 
Italian  vendetta  or  to  the  ancient  clan  feuds  recorded  in  the  history 
of  Scotland.  Society  was  dissolved.  Law  was  transmuted  into 
the  primitive  code  of  "  an  eye  for  an  eye ;  a  tooth  for  a  tooth." 
When,  late  in  the  course  of  this  inhuman  war  of  factions,  during 
the  discussion  of  a   proposed  cessation  of  hostilities,   the  rebel 

the  McNeill  family  53 

Colonel  Balfour  declares  that  there  could  be  "  no  resting-place  for 
a  Tory's  foot  on  the  earth,"  and  the  desperado  Tory  Colonel  Fan- 
ning shoots  him  on  sight  for  saying  so,  we  get,  as  in  the  lightning's 
flash,  a  vivid  illustration  of  the  men  and  the  spirit  of  these  times. 

Out  of  the  resistance  to  the  "  Patriots'  "  persecutions  grew  and 
was  organized  the  Tory  Army  of  North  Carolina,  composed  of 
such  portions  of  the  Provincial  militia  as  remained  loyal,  various 
volunteer  corps,  and  irregular  or  guerilla  forces  such  as  the  des- 
perate band  led  by  the  notorious  Colonel  Fanning.  This  com- 
posite Provincial  force,  which  comprised  one  corps  of  Highlanders 
armed  only  with  the  claymore  and  dirk,  survivals  of  Culloden, 
amounted  in  the  whole  to  about  two  thousand  men  as  early  as  Feb- 
ruary, 1776.  Flora  McDonald  rendered  valuable  services  in  their 
organization  at  Campbellton,  the  place  of  rendezvous.  Two  Brit- 
ish officers,  of  the  42nd  Highland  regiment,  Donald  McLeod  and 
Donald  McDonald,  had  been  sent  into  the  Province  to  rouse  and 
enlist  the  Scots  of  the  Cape  Fear  country ;  and  they  undertook  the 
organization  of  the  Tory  army.  Hector  McNeill  became  asso- 
ciated with  McLeod  in  North  Carolina's  civil  war  some  time  before 
the  arrival  from  Charleston  of  the  regular  British  troops  under 
Lord  Cornwallis  in  the  spring  of  1780.  Like  McNeill,  Donald 
McLeod  became  a  colonel  of  Loyal  Militia. 

Commanding  the  Loyal  Militia  of  Bladen  County,  Colonel 
Hector  McNeill,  during  the  earlier  part  of  the  war,  was  engaged 
on  detached  service  against  the  Whig  volunteers  or  militia,  between 
Wilmington  and  Deep  River.  In  many  successful  skirmishes  and 
minor  engagements  he  proved  himself  a  daring  and  resourceful 
commander  and  won  the  devotion  of  his  troops.  In  the  course  of 
these  operations  he  took  a  great  many  prisoners  of  war,  whom  he 
sent  or  personally  conducted  to  Major  Craig,  the  Commandant  of 
the  British  base  at  Wilmington.  The  Colonel's  nephew,  Neill  Mc- 
Neill, of  Little  River,  in  Cumberland,  brother  of  Daniel  McNeill, 
and  a  grand-uncle  of  my  father,  was  a  captain  in  this  regiment  of 
his  uncle. 

Near  Little  River,  in  July,  1781,  Colonel  Hector,  having  then 
with  him  only  300  men,  was  about  to  be  attacked  by  the  rebel 
Colonel  Wade  with  660  men,  encamped  at  McFall's  Mills.  The 
redoubtable  guerilla  leader,  Fanning,  was  in  the  forest  not  far 
away,  and  had  received  information  of  the  intended  attack  on 
McNeill.  In  his  narrative,  Fanning  writes :  "  I  instantly  des- 
patched an  express  to  know  his  situation,  and  offering  assistance ; 
in  three  hours  I  received  for  answer  he  would  be  glad  to  see  me 
and  my  party.  I  marched  direct,  and  by  daylight  arrived  there 
with  155  men."  More  trustworthy  authorities  say  that  he  brought 
only  his  usual  complement  of  about  forty  men,  but  they  were  all 
well  mounted  and  of  the  best  fighting  material. 


Readers  of  Farming's  narrative  must  largely  discount  his 
account  of  the  fight  which  followed,  and  of  all  his  performances 
in  the  war.  The  purpose  of  his  egotistical  story,  written  in  New 
Brunswick  after  the  war,  was  to  support  his  application  to  the 
British  government  for  some  reward  for  his  services  and  com- 
pensation for  his  losses.  From  his  narrative  one  would  gather 
that  he  was  the  head  and  front  of  all  the  Loyalist  military  achieve- 
ments in  which  he  participated,  and  in  others  where  it  is  well 
established  that  he  had  no  part  whatever.  He  makes  scant  mention 
of  other  commanders,  except  where  it  is  necessary  to  find  some 
one  upon  whom  the  blame  for  his  reverses  might  be  cast.  He  was 
a  man  of  very  bad  character,  notoriously  untruthful,  savage  and 
brutal,  guilty  of  the  most  atrocious  crimes  in  his  mode  of  warfare. 
Such  was  the  estimation  in  which  he  was  held  after  the  peace, 
that  the  State  of  North  Carolina  specially  excepted  him  from  its 
Act  of  Oblivion,  and  the  British  government  declined  to  enter- 
tain his  claims  for  reward  and  compensation.  Yet  the  Scottish 
leaders  recognized  and  employed  his  marvellous  sagacity,  daring, 
and  a  certain  genius  for  generalship  which  possessed  him;  and 
they  often  gave  him  the  chief  command  in  action,  especially  when, 
as  at  McFall's  Mills,  his  bush-ranging  adventures  had  made  him 
well  acquainted  with  the  ground.  The  terror  which  the  very 
name  of  Fanning  inspired  in  the  rank  and  file  of  the  Whigs  was 
something  to  conjure  with,  and  often  compensated  for  a  dis- 
parity of  numbers  in  battle.  Thus,  Colonel  Hector  McNeill 
gave  to  his  unsavory  ally  the  chief  command  in  this  "  battle," 
as  the  local  histories  term  it. 

Not  waiting  for  Wade  to  make  the  attack  he  had  planned, 
the  Tories  took  the  offensive  in  a  spirited  attack  upon  his  posi- 
tion on  a  hill.  After  an  hour  and  a  half  of  brisk  fighting  the 
event  was  decided  by  a  charge  of  McNeill's  Highlanders,  which 
swept  Wade's  Whigs  from  the  summit  of  the  hill.  The  affair 
then  became  a  chase,  which  the  victors  gave  over  after  a  pur- 
suit of  seven  miles.  The  Whigs  lost  about  fifty  men.  The  Tory 
loss  was  trifling.  They  captured  many  prisoners,  who  were 
sent  to  Wilmington,  and  250  pack  horses  laden  with  plunder 
from  many  Loyalist  homes  in  the  neighborhood  which  Wade  had 

Colonel  Hector  fought  a  great  many  of  such  small  engage- 
ments, and  he  was  never  defeated. 

At  McFall's  Mills  he  and  Fanning  separated.  Afterwards 
they  co-operated  at  times,  as  occasion  required,  but  Fanning,  at 
such  times,  commanded  only  his  roving,  free-booting  corps,  which 
averaged  forty  or  fifty  men,  all  pretty  much  of  his  own  stamp. 
David  L.  Swain,  when  Governor  of  North  Carolina  in  1834, 
delivered  a  series  of  lectures  on  the  British  invasion  of  that  State, 

the  McNeill  family  55 

which  were  afterwards  published  in  the  University  Magazine. 
He  says  that  "  when  Fanning  and  McNeill  united  for  the  pur- 
pose of  striking  sudden  and  effective  blows,  at  remote  and  effec- 
tive points,  they  commanded  alternately  day  by  day."  Caruthers, 
in  referring  to  this  statement,  and  to  Fanning,  says :  "  but 
according  to  the  most  reliable  traditions  I  have  heard,  it  was 
not  a  general  or  frequent  thing;  for  I  am  told  that  the  Scotch 
would  not  fight  under  him,  nor  be  commanded  by  him.  They 
disliked  his  character,  and  all  the  better  part  of  them  abhorred 
his  atrocities.  In  those  days,  'tis  said,  they  would  not  fight  under 
any  other  than  a  Scotch  commander;  and  on  this  occasion  (the 
capture  of  Governor  Burke)  they  merely  co-operated  with  him 
for  the  purpose  of  accomplishing  the  object." 

On  the  17th  of  August,  1781,  Hector  McNeill,  commanding 
a  brigade  composed  of  his  own  regiment  and  those  of  Colonels 
Ray  and  Slingsby,  took  the  town  of  Campbellton  (now  Fayette- 
ville),  which  was  held  by  a  Whig  garrison  under  Colonel  Emmet. 
Slingsby  was  an  Englishman  who,  after  settling  in  Bladen  County, 
had  married  Mrs.  McAllister,  a  widowed  sister  of  Hector,  named 
Isabella.  At  midnight,  between  the  16th  and  17th,  McNeill 
contrived  to  get  into  Emmet's  hands  a  delusive  message  that 
Fanning  with  180  men  had  crossed  the  river,  late  in  the  evening, 
below  the  town  and  had  encamped  for  the  night  at  Lower  Camp- 
bellton. Ignorant  of  the  proximity  of  a  real  enemy  in  the 
opposite  direction,  for  the  Tories  had  arrived  with  great  rapidity, 
by  forced  inarches,  Colonel  Emmet  fell  into  the  trap.  So  eager 
was  he  to  destroy  or  capture  the  devastating  Fanning,  whom  he 
supposed  to  be  upon  one  of  his  dreaded  raids  down  the  river, 
that  he  at  once  inarched  out  of  the  town  to  surprise  Fanning's 
camp  in  a  night  attack,  with  a  large  part  of  the  garrison.  Of 
course  he  failed  to  find  Fanning,  who  was  not  in  the  expedition 
at  all ;  and  on  returning  from  his  "  fool's  errand  "  in  the  morning, 
he  found  the  town  occupied  by  the  Tory  force,  which  had  beaten 
his  reduced  garrison.  After  some  resistance  he  surrendered  to 
McNeill,  along  with  Captain  Winslow  and  many  other  leading 
Whig  officers.  The  garrison  was  despatched,  prisoners  of  war,  to 
Wilmington.  Colonel  Emmet's  report  to  the  Whig  Governor  of 
the  Province,  Thomas  Burke,  is  found  in  Swain's  contributions 
to  the  University  Magazine. 

Early  in  September  following  this  exploit,  there  was  a 
general  muster  of  the  Loyalist  forces  near  Crane's  Creek,  in  the 
lower  side  of  Moore  County,  on  the  Cape  Fear,  when  a  plan  was 
formed  for  an  attack  on  Hillsborough  in  the  northern  County 
of  Orange,  where  the  rebel  governor,  Burke,  had  established  his 
seat  of  government,  far  enough,  as  he  thought,  from  the  region 
of  conflict  to  be  safe  as  to  his  own  skin  and  dignities.     He  held 

56  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

the  rank  of  general,  and  was  protected  by  a  garrison,  with  artillery. 
Referring  to  this  Loyalist  muster  of  troops,  Caruthers  says: 
"  Colonel  McNeill  was  there,  and  had  the  command  of  the  whole. 
It  belonged  to  him,  according  to  military  usage,  as  the  senior 
officer;  but  it  would  have  been  conceded  to  him  out  of  respect 
as  the  oldest  man,  for  he  was  now  advanced  in  life,  and  had  the 
full  confidence  of  all  who  knew  him.  Colonel  Duncan  Ray, 
young,  talented  and  enterprising,  was  also  present;  and  Colonel 

McDougall Much  the  largest  body  of  Tories 

was  now  assembled  that  appeared  in  arms  at  any  one  time  after 
independence  was  declared."  The  strength  of  this  assemblage  is 
not  recorded,  but  it  has  been  estimated  at  three  thousand.  On  the 
march  to  Hillsborough,  which  was  conducted  with  marvellous 
rapidity,  Fanning  joined  near  Deep  River,  with  what  he  himself 
calls  "  950  men  of  my  own  regiment."  His  figures  are  ques- 
tioned by  all  other  writers  on  the  events  of  these  times,  and  it 
seems  clear  that  he  never  had  a  "  regiment."  His  account  of 
this  expedition,  and  of  the  battle  at  Cane  Creek  which  followed, 
is  cunningly  contrived  in  such  an  equivocal  manner  that  the  casual 
reader  would  infer  that  he  was  in  command  of  the  entire  forces ; 
and,  of  course,  he  appropriates  to  his  own  use  the  whole  credit 
of  these  achievements  as  valuable  material  for  his  impudent  and 
preposterous  appeal  to  the  British  government,  which  has  already 
been  referred  to.  All  other  writers,  and  the  traditions  which  I 
have  found  well  established  throughout  the  Cape  Fear  region  in 
my  personal  investigations  there,  are  in  accord  with  Caruthers 
as  to  the  facts  of  these  events,  and  the  following  quotations  relat- 
ing to  them  and  to  Colonel  Hector  McNeill  are  from  this  author. 

Early  in  the  march  to  Hillsborough  there  was  a  smart  skirm- 
ish at  Kirk's  farm  between  the  advanced  guard  and  a  strong  party 
of  the  enemy,  who  were  unaware  of  this  Tory  movement.  About 
one-third  of  the  Whigs  were  killed,  and  the  rest  dispersed;  but 
McNeill  lost  some  important  officers.  An  account  of  this  fight 
is  preserved  in  historical  memoranda  left  by  one  McBride,  a  rebel 
partisan  who  was  present. 

"  The  capture  of  the  governor  was  one  of  the  most  remark- 
able feats  of  the  Tories  during  the  war,  and  one  of  the  most 
memorable  events  in  North  Carolina." 

Orange  County,  of  which  Hillsborough  was  the  county  town, 
was  one  of  the  strongest  Whig  neighborhoods.  A  regiment  of 
continental  regulars,  under  Colonel  Robert  Mebane,  and  a  large 
embodiment  of  rebel  militia  lay  encamped  not  far  off,  all  com- 
manded by  General  John  Butler.  There  was  no  suspicion  that 
a  single  Tory  existed  within  a  hundred  miles  of  the  town.  It  was 
therefore  a  complete  surprise  for  the  governor  and  his  garrison 
when,  a  little  before  daybreak  on  September  12th,  the  Loyalists 

the  McNeill  family  57 

stealthily  entered  Hillsborough  in  three  divisions  by  separate 
roads  and  took  possession  of  the  principal  streets,  with  the  public 
buildings,  including  the  quarters  of  the  governor  and  his  staff. 
They  received  the  fire  of  sentries  and  the  main  guard,  and  a 
desultory  fire  of  musketry  from  various  houses  was  maintained 
for  some  time.  But  there  was  not  time  to  get  the  garrison  regularly 
under  arms  before  their  quarters  were  surrounded.  The  rebels 
had  fifteen  killed,  twenty  wounded,  and  some  hundreds  of  prisoners 
were  taken.  A  multitude  of  ordinary  prisoners  was  not  desired. 
There  was  better  game  in  hand;  so,  many  of  the  Whig  troops 
were  allowed  to  take  to  the  woods.  The  Loyalists  took  what  pieces 
of  cannon  there  were,  and  abundant  military  stores.  The  town 
was  looted.  Among  the  prisoners  taken  were  the  governor,  all 
the  members  of  his  Council,  several  colonels,  captains  and  sub- 
alterns of  the  continental  army  (regulars),  and  seventy-one  con- 
tinental soldiers  who  had  occupied  a  church  for  defence.  Thirty 
Loyalists  and  British  soldiers  were  released  from  the  gaol,  one 
of  whom  was  to  have  been  hanged  that  day.  The  invaders'  Joss 
was  one  man  wounded. 

"  But  to  remain  long  there  was  neither  policy  nor  interest." 
An  encounter  with  Butler  and  Mebane  on  the  long  march  to 
Wilmington,  burdened  with  the  care  of  so  many  prisoners  and  a 
heavy  baggage  train  of  plunder,  was  to  be  avoided,  if  possible. 
So,  in  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day  the  victors  set  out  upon  their 
return.  However,  fugitives  from  Hillsborough  had  quickly  carried 
the  news  to  General  Butler's  camp,  and  he  instantly  took  measures 
to  intercept  the  returning  Tory  force  and  to  bring  it  to  action  in 
some  favorable  position.  With  celerity  and  good  judgment  he 
chose  his  ground  at  a  point  on  Cane  Creek  commanding  the  only 
road  in  that  rugged  and  swampy  locality  by  which  his  enemy 
could  pass  southward.  Here  he  was  able  to  conceal  his  troops 
behind  elevated  ground  and  to  set  an  ambuscade  in  advance  of  his 
main  position.  He  was  re-inforced  by  Colonel  Alexander  Mebane, 
an  escaped  prisoner  from  Hillsborough  who  had  returned  to  his 
home,  spread  the  alarm  among  the  Whigs  of  Orange,  and  collected 
a  considerable  volunteer  force  of  riflemen  with  which  he  joined 

Authorities  and  traditions  alike  are  at  variance  as  to  the 
numbers  engaged  at  the  Battle  of  Cane  Creek,  and  speculation  is 

McNeill  commanded  the  advance  guard  of  his  force.  He  was 
too  experienced  and  wary  a  leader  to  fall  into  the  ambuscade  pre- 
pared for  him.  Detecting  it,  he  fell  back  across  the  creek  for 
the  night  and  prepared  to  attack  next  morning. 

That  night  the  old  Colonel's  mind  was  possessed  by  "  a  pre- 
sentiment, or  what  he  regarded  as  a  presentiment  of  his  death 

58  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

Officers   of  high   standing  in   their   profession, 

and  of  undoubted  courage,  have  often  had,  on  the  eve  of  a  battle, 
such  a  presentiment  or  impression  of  their  approaching  fate,  as 
to  become  depressed  in  spirits  and  comparatively  inactive.  Several 
such  instances  occurred  on  both  sides,  during  the  revolutionary 
war,  and  with  men  who  could  not  be  charged  with  idle  fears  or 
superstitious  notions.  Col.  McNeill,  on  this  occasion  felt  con- 
strained to  disclose  the  state  of  his  mind  to  some  of  his  friends, 
who  tried  to  laugh  or  reason  him  out  of  his  sombre  mood,  but  in 
vain.  The  brave  old  Hector,  who  had  witnessed  more  appalling 
scenes  than  the  one  now  before  him  and  had  stood  firm  when  a 
thousand  deathful  balls  were  flying  around  him,  quailed  when 
summoned,  and  so  distinctly,  as  he  supposed,  to  appear  in  the 
presence  of  his  Maker,  that  there  was  no  possibility  of  escape. 
He  was  not  a  man,  however,  who  would  bear  the  charge  of  coward- 
ice, nor  would  he  shrink  from  what  he  considered  his  duty  on 
such  an  occasion  ....  In  the  morning,  old  Hector,  like 
Ahab,  King  of  Israel,  when  going  up  to  battle  at  Ramoth  Gilead, 
laid  aside  his  regimentals  and  appeared  at  the  head  of  his  men 
in  disguise,  clothed  in  a  hunting  shirt  and  other  parts  of  dress 
corresponding,  very  much  like  a  common  soldier;  but  his  time 
was  come  and  his  destiny  could  not  be  changed." 

As  the  Tories  were  crossing  the  Creek  and  deploying  on  a  strip 
of  low  ground  beyond,  the  Whigs,  who  during  the  night  had 
advanced  their  whole  strength  to  the  crest  of  the  opposing  slope, 
where  they  were  well  covered  among  forest  trees,  delivered  a 
tremendous  volley  with  withering  effect  upon  McNeill's  formation 
of  his  advance  guard  for  the  attack.  Seeing,  at  a  glance,  that 
if  they  continued  to  advance  in  a  frontal  attack,  it  would  involve 
an  unwarranted  sacrifice  of  life,  Colonel  McNeill  ordered  a  retreat 
for  the  purpose  of  carrying  out  a  flanking  movement  which  he 
had  planned  as  an  alternative  mode  of  attack  if  he  should  discover 
the  enemy  too  strongly  concentrated  in  his  immediate  front. 
The  troops  were  falling  back  in  good  order,  accordingly,  when 
Colonel  McDougall,  commanding  a  Scottish  regiment,  a  violent, 
hot-headed  fighter,  but  with  no  more  notion  of  tactics  than  a 
maddened  bull,  rode  up  to  McNeill,  cursing  his  commanding 
officer  and  taunting  him  with  cowardice  for  retreating.  Had  he 
been  in  a  normal  state  of  mind,  the  latter  would  have  sent 
McDougall  to  the  rear,  a  prisoner ;  but  "  the  presentiment  "  had 
upset  his  natural  balance  for  the  time.  Stung  by  the  taunt  and 
scorning  to  make  any  explanation,  sacrificing  his  better  judgment 
to  the  vehement  but  ignorant  zeal  of  his  insubordinate  inferior 
officer,  the  gallant  and  infuriated  McNeill  halted  and  reformed 
his  men  for  a  second  advance.  Of  course  the  result  was  the  same 
as  in  the  first ;  but  this  time  the  presentiment  (was  it  the  "  second 

the  McNeill  family  59 

sight"  of  the  Highlands?)  was  fulfilled.  Leading  a  charge  to 
certain  death,  Colonel  MeNeill  fell  at  the  first  volley,  with  three 
balls  through  his  body  and  five  through  his  horse.  "  When  he 
fell  someone  thoughtlessly  cried  out :  '  The  Colonel  is  dead.'  '  It's  a 
lie !'  exclaimed  McDougall,  in  a  bold,  strong  voice,  '  Hurrah, 
my  boys,  we'll  gain  the  day  yet !  '  His  death  was  very  prudently 
concealed,  for  many  of  the  Scotch  declared  afterwards  that  had  it 
been  known  at  the  time,  they  would  not  have  fired  another  gun, 
but  would  have  sought  safety  in  any  way  they  could." 

The  retreat  was  not  orderly  this  time.  In  hasty  council  the 
officers  chose  the  rash  but  brave  McDougall  to  take  the  command, 
and  the  proposed  flanking  movement  of  McNeill  was  forced  upon 
him.  The  invincible  Fanning  was  the  better  man  to  succeed 
McNeill,  but  the  Scots  refused  to  move  if  he  led.  Yet,  though 
"  regarded  merely  as  a  co-adjutor,  responsible  only  to  himself  and 
having  the  command  of  none  except  his  own  men,"  he  it  was  who 
retrieved  the  fortune  of  the  day  amid  all  this  disaster  and  con- 
fusion among  the  Tories.  Rallying  his  own  men  and  such  others 
as  would  follow  him,  he  cut  loose  from  the  blundering  McDougall, 
outflanked  the  Whigs,  and,  taking  them  in  the  rear,  wrought 
such  havoc  that,  as  a  Whig  narrator  naively  puts  it,  "  General 
Butler  ordered  a  retreat  and  commenced  it  himself."  The  loss 
on  both  sides  was  heavy.  The  Tories  got  off  to  Wilmington  with 
their  Hillsborough  prisoners,  Governor  and  all.  The  captured 
cannon  were  sunk  in  a  mill-pond  before  the  engagement.  Not 
long  afterwards,  a  Tory  soldier  composed  a  inarching  song  of 
doggerel  rhymes  commemorative  of  the  Hillsborough  and  Cane 
Creek  successes, — from  which  effusion  the  following  lines  are 
culled : 

"...    We  took  all  their  cannon  and  colors  in  town, 
And  formed  our  brave  boys  and  marched  out  of  town 
But  the  rebels  waylaid  us  and  gave  us  a  broadside, 
That  caused  our  brave  colonel  to  lie  dead  on  his  side; 
The  flower  of  our  company  was  wounded  full  sore, 
'Twas  Captain  McNeill  and  two  or  three  more." 

The  Colonel  here  referred  to  is  old  Colonel  Hector,  and  the 
Captain  is  Daniel  McNeill's  brother  Neill.  The  song-writer 
seems  to  have  been  a  member  of  Neill's  company. 

In  the  original  edition  of  Fanning's  narrative,  the  American 
editor  has  a  note  on  Colonel  Hector  which  indicates  his  reputation 
among  his  rebel  neighbors  for  military  experience  and  capacity, 
at  the  outbreak  of  hostilities.  This  editor  says :  "  In  the  first 
military  elections  after  the  Royal  Government  was  at  an  end,  he 
received  a  commission  from  the  Whigs.  But  in  1776  he  appeared 
in  arms  against  them,  and  was  taken  prisoner  and  confined  in  jail. 
Subsequently  he  held  the    rank    of    colonel    on    the  side  of  the 

60  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

Crown He  is  represented  to  have  been  a 

man  of  good  moral  character,  and  as  brave  as  a  lion.  He  fell  at 
the  head  of  his  command  a  day  or  two  after  the  capture  of  Hills- 
borough, at  the  battle  of  Cane  Creek,  pierced  by  five  or  six  balls." 
The  elections  here  referred  to  were  held  subsequent  to  July  4th> 
1776.  The  commission  was  tendered  but  refused.  Hence  the 
illegal  imprisonment,  of  which  I  find  no  other  account.  An  earlier 
Whig  writer,  in  describing  his  death,  terms  him  "  the  veteran 
soldier  and  brave  officer  Col.  Hector  McNeill." 

Leaving  this  most  conspicuous  military  member  of  the  family 
in  his  soldier's  grave  beneath  the  towering  pines  which  fringe 
Cane  Creek,  his  nephew,  the  successor  in  the  command  of  his 
regiment,  next  claims  attention. 

The  clansmen  had  had  enough  of  Colonel  McDougall  at  Cane 
Creek,  and  they  would  not  tolerate  him  as  leader  any  longer. 
Before  resuming  their  march  to  Wilmington,  the  army  (as  it  was 
called)  chose  Hector  McNeill,  a  brother  of  Captain  Neill  McNeill, 
and  of  Captain  Daniel  McNeill,  to  succeed  to  the  command  of  the 
whole  force  for  the  remainder  of  the  campaign.  No  doubt  the 
name  "  Hector  "  had  a  sentimental  influence  upon  this  choice. 
His  uncle's  regiment  at  the  same  time  elected  him  to  fill  the 
vacant  colonelcy.  He  had  been  a  captain  in  this  expedition,  but 
whether  in  old  Hector's  regiment  or  another,  does  not  appear 
by  any  record.  Though  lacking  the  experience  of  his  veteran 
uncle,  for  whom  he  was  named,  he  made  a  good  officer  and  a 
fearless  leader. 

The  younger  Hector,  according  to  the  Scottish  methods  of 
nomenclature,  was  distinguished  from  all  others  of  the  name  as 
"  One-eyed  Hector."  After  delivering  his  important  prisoners 
to  Major  Craig,  commanding  at  Wilmington,  who  shipped  them  off 
to  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  the  young  colonel  operated  chiefly 
in  the  region  between  the  Cape  Fear  and  Pedee  Rivers;  and 
when  too  hard  pressed  by  superior  numbers,  as  he  often  was,  found 
refuge  in  the  Raft  Swamp,  and  occasionally  by  passing  into  South 
Carolina.  In  these  enforced  evasive  movements  and  in  appearing 
unexpectedly  at  the  right  time  and  at  well  chosen  places  to 
deliver  swift  and  effective  blows  to  the  enemy,  he  displayed  quali- 
ties of  generalship  of  no  mean  order. 

There  is  no  historical  record  to  show  that  the  regiment  and 
the  larger  forces  in  which  the  two  Hectors  and  Neill  McNeill 
served  co-operated  directly  with  the  regular  troops  of  Lord  Corn- 
wallis  in  the  North  Carolina  campaigns  which  he  conducted 
between  the  12th  of  May,  1780,  and  the  month  of  April,  1781,  in 
which  month  Cornwallis  set  out  from  Wilmington  upon  his  march 
to   Virginia,   where  his  career  terminated   in  the   surrender   at 

the  McNeill  family  6i 

Yorktown  on  the  19th  of  October  following.  These  local  forces 
seem  to  have  been  occupied  during  these  campaigns,  as  before 
and  afterwards,  with  their  own  Whig  and  Tory  warfare,  of  which 
the  incidents  already  related  are  typical.  But  there  is  a  strong 
probability  that  they  were  among  the  numerous  Loyalist  auxiliaries 
who  did  unite  with  the  British  troops  in  important  engagements, 
at  Bamsour's  Mills,  Camden,  King's  Mountain,  Cowpens  and 
Guildford  Court  House. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  account  for  the  lamentable  lack  of  any 
information,  save  tradition,  as  to  this.  Well  nigh  all  who  have 
written  upon  the  revolutionary  events  in  North  Carolina  have 
merely  served  up  for  the  "  patriotic "  palate  of  their  fellows 
certain  "  fearfully  and  wonderfully  "  constructed  glorifications  of 
the  Whig  "  patriots,"  biographical-apocryphal  sketches,  in  that 
familiar  style  so  dear  to  the  United  States  reader  in  the  earlier 
years  of  the  republic.  Others,  though  more  sane  in  their  method 
of  writing,  had  not  enough  of  the  historical  sense  to  preserve  for 
future  historical  material  anything  more  than  the  most  meagre 
statement  concerning  the  achievements  on  the  Loyalist  side;  and 
these  accounts  are  spoiled  by  such  silly,  childish  bias,  and  such 
palpable  distortion  of  facts,  as  not  only  to  discount  their  value, 
but  to  be  ludicrous  to  any  intelligent  reader,  however  anti-British 
in  sentiment  he  might  be.  The  true  history  of  the  civil  war  of 
this  period,  in  the  two  Carolinas  and  Georgia,  would  make  a 
volume  of  thrilling  interest.  But  the  Loyalists  of  these  Provinces, 
proscribed,  plundered,  and  banished  when  the  cause  was  lost, 
have  had  no  historian,  and,  in  the  nature  of  things,  they  cannot 
find  one  now.  The  material  for  such  a  work  was  effaced  with 
themselves  by  unforgiving  neighbors  and  former  familiars,  who 
hated  as  never  man  hated.  There  was  to  be  no  more  resting 
place  on  the  face  of  the  earth  for  historical  truth  than  there  was 
to  be  for  "  a  Tory's  foot."  Justice  and  Truth  alike  were  abolished, 
on  the  principle  of  the  rebel  doctrinal  dictum  of  Colonel  Balfour. 
But  before  returning  from  this  digression  to  One-eyed  Hector's 
brief  story,  it  is  but  fair  to  say  that  the  Scottish  folk  of  the 
Cape  Fear  to-day  are  very  proud  of  their  Tory  forbears,  and  cling 
fondly  to  all  the  traditional  accounts  of  these  patriots  of  "  the 
other  side." 

After  Lord  Cornwallis  had  set  out  for  Virginia,  and  when 
there  were  no  British  regular  troops  left  in  North  Carolina  except 
four  or  five  hundred  in  garrison  at  Wilmington,  the  Whig  local 
forces,  aided  by  several  regiments  of  continentals,  were  attaining 
the  ascendancy.  Cornwallis  had,  at  least,  been  fought  to  a  stand- 
still, and  large  numbers  of  Loyalists,  already  able  to  foresee  the 
end,  began  to  come  to  terms  with  their  Whig  neighbors  in  order 
to  save  their  lives   and  their  property.     Many  of  the   Scottish 

62  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

Tories  were  getting  "  skeery  "  about  the  consequences  of  being 
found  in  arms  against  the  rapidly  growing  majority  now  confident 
of  success  and  loud  in  declaring,  through  their  State  government, 
the  policy  of  trials  for  high  treason  and  confiscations  of  property, 
which  was  afterwards  carried  out.  A  story  is  told  which  will 
illustrate  the  difficulty  which  Colonel  Hector  McNeill  had  in  hold- 
ing his  men  together  at  this  juncture.  He  had  paraded  a  body 
of  men,  one  day  in  October,  1781,  in  a  clearing  on  the  edge  of  a 
swamp,  and  was  drilling  them.  Just  then  his  brother  Neill, 
commanding  a  company  under  him,  rode  in  and  told  him  that 
the  Whigs  had  received  intelligence  of  the  surrender  of  Lord 
Cornwallis  on  the  19th,  "  and,"  said  Neill,  "  it's  all  over  now." 
This  message  was  overheard  in  the  ranks.  Hector  rode  off  a  short 
distance  with  Neill  to  discuss  the  eventful  news.  When  he 
turned  to  ride  back  and  resume  drill,  his  squads  had  vanished, 
taken  to  the  swamps,  and  he  was  alone  with  his  brother.  Tableau ! 
Hector  was  a  profane  man  under  quite  ordinary  circumstances, 
but  his  comments  on  his  situation  are  left  to  the  imagination. 
However,  with  the  greater  part  of  his  force,  he  continued  a 
guerilla  warfare  for  some  time  afterwards,  with  varying  success. 
Such  men  as  he  could  not  believe  that  the  British  would  give 
up  the  struggle  with  the  surrender  of  the  army  of  Cornwallis. 
"  One-eyed  "  Hector  was  noted  for  his  herculean  frame  and 
strength.  He  had  a  widespread  reputation  as  a  champion  wrestler 
and  fighter  in  his  earlier  years,  and  he  fought  many  a  hard  battle 
in  what  would  now  be  called  the  amateur  ring,  to  maintain  his 
supremacy  over  men  from  many  counties,  who  would  travel  far 
to  meet  him  in  attempts  to  strip  him  of  his  laurels.  This  sort 
of  thing  had  won  for  him,  when  he  was  a  young  man,  the  dis- 
tinctive designation  of  "  Hector  Bully,"  by  which  he  was  always 
known  until,  in  consequence  of  losing  an  eye  in  one  of  these 
encounters,  Scottish  custom  dropped  the  more  invidious  suffix  to 
his  name  and  established  him  as  the  Polyphemus  of  the  Cape  Fear. 
Of  course,  once  a  descriptive  suffix  to  his  given  name  came  into 
usage,  the  surname  of  McNeill  was  never  used.  He  lost  his  eye 
by  foul  play  at  the  hands  of  a  gigantic,  half  savage  mountaineer 
from  the  Western  borders  of  the  Province,  who  had  challenged 
him  to  one  of  the  "  rough  and  tumble  "  contests  usual  in  those 
rough  times  in  such  localities,  when  athletic  sport  gave  no  law, 
and  the  code  of  the  Marquis  of  Queensberry,  like  himself,  was  as 
yet  unborn.  His  powerful  opponent  had  thrown  him,  and  kneeling 
on  his  chest,  cried :  "  Yield,  McNeill,  or  I'll  gouge  you !  " 
"  Gouge  and  be  damned !  "  shouted  Hector,  "  I'm  Hector  Bully ! " 
His  agony  under  the  operation  of  "  gouging  "  lent  him  a  quick 
accession  of  strength  to  throw  off  the  mountaineer  and  reverse  the 
situation.     This  brutal  combat  was  about  to  end  in  the  death  of 


Hector's  antagonist  when  the  spectators  intervened  and  saved  his 
life.  Disreputable  as  this  incident  may  be,  it  is  given  here  to 
illustrate  the  men,  and  something  of  the  spirit  of  a  fighting 
McNeill,  in  the  revolutionary  times.    Autres  temps,  autres  moeurs. 

The  following  incident,  too,  is  characteristic  of  this  rough 
period.  A  neighbor  and  close  friend  of  Hector,  Duncan  Murchison, 
grandfather  of  Colonel  Kenneth  Murchison,  who  long  afterwards 
married  one  of  Hector's  granddaughters,  became  a  pronounced 
"  Patriot,"  and  he  could  not  be  won  over  to  the  Loyalists  by  any 
force  of  argument.  As  the  head  of  a  large  and  influential  family 
connexion,  it  was  most  desirable  to  have  him.  After  having  dealt 
long  and  faithfully  with  his  erring  neighbor  to  the  limit  of  his 
argumentative  and  persuasive  powers,  Hector,  one  evening,  in 
a  state  of  exasperation  with  Murchison's  stubborn  adherence 
to  Whiggery,  closed  a  heated  discussion  by  seizing  him,  binding 
him  hand  and  foot  to  a  stout  pole  and  throwing  him  into  his  own 
calf-pen.  There  he  lay  all  night,  and  was  found  in  a  soiled  and 
sorry  plight  by  his  wife  next  morning.  Murchison  joined  the 
rebels;  but  he  attempted  no  reprisal  for  the  indignity. 

It  seems  apposite  here  to  make  a  parting  reference  to  Fanning. 
In  1823,  Duncan  Murchison  visited  St.  John,  New  Brunswick, 
and,  incidentally,  ran  down  the  unsavory  record  of  this  man  from 
the  time  of  his  settlement  in  that  Province  after  the  war  until 
his  removal  to  Digby,  where  he  died  in  1825.  It  is  to  be  regretted 
that  Judge  Savary,  of  Annapolis,  should  have  undertaken  the 
unenviable  task  of  trying  to  rehabilitate  such  a  character  as 
Fanning,  in  the  Canadian  Magazine,  and  in  the  annotated  edition 
of  the  ridiculous  and  lying  "  Narrative,"  to  which  it  has  been 
necessary  to  refer  before  in  these  pages.  It  would  almost  appear 
that  merely  to  have  been  a  Loyalist,  and  to  have  lived  and  died 
in  Digby,  entitled  the  unspeakable  Fanning  to  the  mantle  of 
charity  which  the  Judge  has  sought  to  throw  about  him, — a  sort 
of  cloak  which  is  said  to  cover  a  multitude  of  sins.  But  charity 
"  rejoices  in  the  truth."  However  prejudiced  against  Fanning 
North  Carolina  historians  may  be  with  reference  to  his  savage 
barbarities  during  the  war,  and  his  immoral,  or  rather  unmoral, 
career  in  general,  enough  is  admitted  in  the  "  Narrative "  by 
Fanning  himself  to  sustain  their  indictment  on  the  first  count, 
while  as  to  the  latter,  the  truth  remains  of  record  that  in  a  New 
Brunswick  Court  of  Justice  he  was  sentenced  to  death  for  a  crime 
which  cannot  here  be  named,  and  escaped  from  the  gallows  to 
Digby,  only  through  the  machinations  of  freemasonry  in  high 
quarters,  which  resulted  in  a  pardon.  The  published  researches 
on  this  matter  of  a  man  with  the  reputation  of  Duncan  Murchison 
in  North  Carolina,  cannot  be  called  in  question. 

Colonel  Hector,  he  of  the  one  eye,  died  in  a  ripe  old  age,  at  his 

64  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

plantation  on  the  northern  side  of  the  Cape  Fear  River,  a  mile  or 
more  on  the  road  from  McNeill's  Ferry.  The  house,  a  large 
square  brick  structure,  stands  yet  on  the  place  next  to  Dr.  William 
M.  McNeill's  plantation.  The  doctor's  father-in-law,  Dr.  Henry 
M.  Turner,  attended  the  old  man  in  his  last  illness  and  used  to 
relate  how,  having  put  up  medicine  for  the  Colonel  in  the  copious 
quantities  of  that  day,  with  directions  for  a  dose  three  times  daily, 
the  irascible  and  impatient  patient,  when  the  hour  for  the  first 
dose  arrived,  fiercely  seized  the  pint  bottle  and  drained  it  at  a 
draught.  "  Let  the  damned  stuff  work  all  thegither,"  said  Hector, 
"  I'll  nae  be  disturbed  by  wee  bit  fule  drinks  o'  doctor  stuff  every 
twa,  tree  'oors."  Whether  the  Colonel's  death  was  hastened  by 
this  remains  an  open  question  with  Dr.  McNeill,  who,  when  the 
writer  enjoyed  a  sojourn  at  his  house,  formerly  the  home  of 
Dr.  Turner,  told  this  story,  with  some  witty  and  instructive  com- 
ments on  the  practice  of  medicine  in  North  Carolina  during  the 
early  decades  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

Dr.  Turner  married  Caroline,  daughter  of  Capt.  Neill  McNeill, 
and  Dr.  William  M.  McNeill  married  their  daughter,  Julia 

Dr.  McNeill's  father  was  Daniel  McNeill  (born  December 
27th,  1788;  died  January  17th,  1835)  son  of  One-eyed  Hector, 
and  who  was  named  for  my  father's  grandfather,  Hector's  brother. 
The  doctor's  father  and  my  father's  mother  were  first  cousins. 
I  can  never  forget  the  welcome  I  received,  when  dismounting  at 
his  door '  in  the  dusk  of  an  April  evening,  a  stranger  with  no 
credentials  but  my  own  word,  he  admitted  me  himself  and  on  my 
self-introduction  threw  his  arms  about  me,  exclaiming :  "  What, 
sir !  You  a  great-grandson  of  Nova  Scotia  Dan'l !  Come  in, 
come  in."  When  I  had  recovered  my  breath,  and,  hesitating 
about  the  disposal  of  my  horse,  enquired  for  a  lodging-place, 
he  seized  my  valise  and  said  indignantly :  "  There  are  no  hotels 
in  this  country,  sir,  for  Nova  Scotia  Dan'l's  kin !  "  The  good 
doctor  was  a  distinguished-looking,  tall,  heavily-built  old  gentle- 
man, full  bearded,  with  a  slight  resemblance  to  General  Robert 
E.  Lee.  He  had  served  as  surgeon  and  corps  commander,  together, 
in  a  cavalry  regiment  during  the  civil  war.  He  proved  to  be  one 
of  the  most  interesting  men  I  have  met. 

My  father's  granduncle,  John  McNeill,  though  a  mere  boy, 
served  as  ensign  in  Hamilton's  Royal  North  Carolina  Regiment, 
in  which  his  brother  Daniel  was  a  captain.  Toward  the  close  of 
the  war  these  two  brothers  were  at  home  on  leave  while  their 
regiment  lay  inactive  for  a  time  at  Charleston,  South  Carolina. 
During  this  visit  they  bore  a  hand  in  an  exploit  which  is  typical 
of  the  kind  of  guerilla  fighting  then  being  carried  on  by  the  men 
of  Little  River  and  its  vicinity,  including  some  of  their  brothers. 


In  the  accounts  of  local  historians  John  figures  prominently  in 
the  story  of  the  night  surprise  at  the  Piney  Bottom,  in  the  region 
of  Little  River,  the  exploit  just  referred  to. 

The  Whig  Colonel  Wade,  whom  old  Colonel  Hector  McNeill 
had  defeated  at  McFall's  Mills,  had  been  out  on  a  successful 
foray  north  of  the  Cape  Fear  River,  in  the  course  of  which  he 
had  damaged  the  Tory  cause  and  had  accumulated  a  baggage 
train  heavy  with  the  spoils  of  devastated  Tory  homes.  On  their 
homeward  march,  Wade's  party  "  crossed  the  Cape  Fear,  at  Sproal's, 
now  McNeill's  ferry,  in  the  afternoon,  and  after  going  a  few  miles, 

took  up  camp  for  the  night In  the  course  of 

that  night,  John  McNeill,  son  of  Archd,  and  Jannet  (Bahn) 
McNeill,  then  living  on  Anderson's  Creek,  having  learned  where 
this  company  of  Whigs  were,  started  out  his  runners  to  collect  the 
Tories,  many  of  whom  were  lying  out  in  the  swamps  and  other 
places,  with  directions  for  them  to  rendezvous,  the  next  night,  at 
Long  Street,  and  pursue  Wade.  Next  morning  John  McNeill 
went  over  to  Colonel  Folsome's  (Whig)  and  remained  until  sun- 
down. He  then  mounted  a  very  fleet  horse,  joined  the  Tories 
at  or  a  little  beyond  Long  Street,  and  about  an  hour  before  day, 
came  up  with  Wade  and  company  encamped  on  Piney  Bottom, 
a  branch  of  the  Rockfish,  and  apparently  all  asleep  except  the 
sentinel.  They  consulted  and  made  their  arrangements,  got  into 
order  and  marched  up.  The  sentinel  hailed  them,  but  received 
no  answer.  He  hailed  them  again,  but  received  no  answer. 
Duncan  McCallum  cocked  his  gun,  and  determined  to  shoot  at  the 
flash  of  the  sentinel's  gun.  The  sentinel  fired,  and  McCallum 
shot  at  the  flash.  One  of  Wade's  men  had  his  arm  broken  by  a 
ball,  and  Duncan  McCallum  claimed  the  honor  of  breaking  it. 
Then  they  rushed  upon  the  sleeping  company  just  as  they  were 
roused  by  the  fire  of  the  sentinel's  gun,  and  shot  down  five  or 
six  of  them,  but  the  rest  escaped,  leaving  everything  behind  them. 

There   were    two    or   three    hundred    Tories. 

All  the  McNeills  (Bahns)  were  there  except  Malcolm."  All  Wade's 
plunder  was  recaptured  and  his  own  baggage  and  camping  equip- 
ment became  the  spoils  of  war.  The  Tories  did  not  pursue,  being 
doubtful  of  his  strength. 

In  a  few  days  the  Whigs  returned,  in  force,  and  exacted 
"  a  capable  and  full  revenge,"  in  their  customary  manner  of 
burning  isolated  houses  in  the  outlying  districts,  slaughtering 
their  Loyalist  occupants  and  looting  their  household  goods.  The 
particulars,  which  luminously  indicate  the  vindictive  spirit  and 
the  deeds  of  reckless  cruelty  which  were  then  common  all  over 
the  country  among  the  Whigs, — triumphant  now  and  gathering 
the  strength  of  numbers  as  the  ultimate  success  of  the  rebellion 
was  attaining  certainty — are  better  left  to  the  imagination  than 



During  the  reprisals  for  the  affair  at  Piney  Bottom,  the 
McNeill  homestead  was  visited  by  a  party  of  revengeful  Whigs 
in  search  of  the  "  boys."  The  only  members  of  the  family  then 
at  home  were  the  parents,  their  daughter  Margaret  and  their  son 
Daniel.  The  other  sons  were  away,  either  in  a  war  party  or 
hiding  out.  in  the  woods.  Situated  in  the  heart  of  the  Scottish 
Tory  territory,  this  McNeill  home  had  hitherto  enjoyed  immunity 
from  hostile  visitation.  But  the  neighoring  rebels  were  now  grown 
stronger  and  bolder  in  their  prosecution  of  the  civil  war.  As  the 
unwonted  intruders  appeared  in  the  distance,  the  keen  eye  of  the 
watchful  Jenny  Bahn  caught  the  glint  of  sunlight  upon  steel  in 
an  opening  of  the  pine  woods  on  a  hill  side,  far  away.  Divining 
the  errand  of  an  armed  force  in  that  direction,  she  warned  Daniel, 
who  was  on  the  roof  of  the  house  assisting  his  father  in  making 
some  repairs.  Daniel  slipped  over  the  ridge  of  the  roof  and 
dropped  to  the  ground  in  rear  of  the  house.  Hastily  seizing  his 
arms  and  enough  food  for  a  few  days'  rations,  he  lost  no  time 
in  betaking  himself  to  the  swamps  along  the  Little  River. 
The  wily  Jennet  cordially  received  the  unwelcome  soldiery.  The 
boys  were  all  away — she  didn't  know  where.  Some  of  them  were 
Tories,  she  supposed,  and  some  of  them  were  Whigs.  How  could 
a  woman,  in  such  a  time  as  this,  know  anything  about  politics 
and  a  pack  of  crazy  men-folks  ?  Archie  "  Scrubblin  "  discreetly 
kept  out  of  sight.  The  most  minute  search  of  the  premises  dis- 
covered no  male  McNeills.  Jennet  then  set  before  her  deluded 
visitors  such  ample  store  of  tempting  meat  and  drink  that  the 
party,  wearied,  hungry  and  thirsty,  could  not  resist  the  tempta- 
tion to  lose  an  hour  in  the  enjoyment  of  this  unwonted  hospitality 
in  a  Tory  home;  and  tradition  says  that  their  enjoyment  of  a 
certain  Scottish  fluid  form  of  refreshment,  most  liberally  provided, 
neither  quickened  the  wits  nor  the  movements  of  the  soldiers  when 
they  took  up  the  trail  for  the  next  Tory  house.  The  wary  and 
cool  conduct  of  the  mother  probably  saved  Daniel's  life  that  day. 
Soon  after,  he  and  John  set  out  for  the  South  to  rejoin  their 

The  father,  Archibald,  took  no  part  in  the  war.  So  highly 
respected  were  the  old  couple,  and  so  affectionately  regarded  by 
the  partisans  of  the  other  side,  that  they,  at  least,  were  never 
disturbed  on  account  of  their  Toryism ;  nor  were  the  offenses  of 
the  sons  against  militant  Whiggery  ever  visited  upon  the  parents 
and  their  property,  as  often  was  the  case  amid  the  punitive 
excesses  at  the  ending  of  the  war.  On  one  occasion,  however, 
it  was  thought  advisable  to  hastily  bury  the  family  valuables  in 
a  swamp;  and  there  they  remained,  packed  in  chests  and  casks, 
for  a  considerable  time.      The  writer  has  a  saucer  which  was 


among  the  household  stuff  so  hidden,  and  which  was  brought  out 
by  Jennet  Bahn  from  Scotland,  in  the  emigration. 

One  son,  Malcolm,  served  for  a  brief  period  in  a  North 
Carolina  regiment  of  continentals,  which  was  employed  chiefly 
in  the  North.  Whether  he  did  so  on  account  of  his  political 
opinions,  or  by  reason  of  the  astute  diplomacy  of  the  family  chief- 
tain, Jennet  Bahn,  is  hardly  doubtful.  Family  tradition  gives  the 
latter  explanation;  and  certain  conveyances  of  land  which  were 
made  to  Malcolm  lend  color  to  this  view.  Should  the  rebellion 
be  justified  by  success,  Tory  land  would  be  forfeited  to  the  State, 
as  was  well  understood.  So  Malcolm  and  the  outwardly  neutral 
father,  in  the  language  of  modern  high  finance,  became  a  sort  of 
"  holding  company "  for  the  family's  property.  Malcolm  was 
sheriff  of  Cumberland  County  when  the  war  began ;  and  he  found 
in  this  office  a  valid  excuse  for  avoiding  service  in  the  field,  as 
well  as  useful  opportunities  for  protecting  his  family  and  Tory 
friends,  to  whom  he  was  of  greater  assistance  in  his  nominal  hostile 
office  than  if  he  had  renounced  it  to  become  a  combatant  in  the 
Tory  ranks.  My  father's  letter  of  April  10th,  1861,  at  a  later 
page,  touches  upon  Malcolm's  adroit  conduct  in  this  critical  period 
of  the  family  fortunes. 

One  characteristic  Sabbath  day's  work  affords  an  illustration 
of  the  ferocity  of  revenge  with  which  the  rebels  retaliated  for  the 
Piney  Bottom  affair,  and  shows  what  might  have  happened,  under 
different  circumstances,  to  the  McNeill  home  and  its  womenfolk. 
The  sufferers  were  neighbors  of  the  McNeills,  but  their  visiting 
avengers  were  not  the  same  company  that  Jennet  Bahn  had  to 
deal  with. 

On  a  Sunday  morning,  when  David  Buchan  was  not  at  home, 
Captain  Culp,  who  was  Colonel  Wade's  second  in  command  at 
Piney  Bottom,  burned  Buchan's  house  over  the  heads  of  his 
defenceless  family,  and  then  came  to  "  old  Kenneth  Black's." 
He  and  his  sons  were  "  hiding  out."  Both  doors  of  the  house 
being  open,  Culp's  men  "  rode  into  the  house  until  it  was  full 
of  horses,  and  the  family  were  crowded  up  into  the  chimney.  On 
going  upstairs  they  found  and  broke  open  two  large  chests  belong- 
ing to  the  families  of  Captains  Verdy,  Nicholson  and  McRae, 
who  were  in  the  British  army,  and  who  had  left  their  families 
under  the  care  of  Mr.  Black,  as  their  houses  were  not  far  apart. 
One  chest  was  filled  with  chinaware,  which  they  broke;  and  the 
other  was  full  of  books,  which  they  strewed  over  the  floor,  having 
first  cut  open  their  backs,  and  rendered  them  useless."  The  house 
was  then  sacked  and  fired,  and  the  several  families  of  women 
and  children,  after  being  robbed  even  of  their  clothing  and  bedding, 
were  driven  into  the  woods  and  subjected  to  various  forms  of 
outrage.      Immediately    after   this,    Alexander   Black's   property 


was  similarly  disposed  of,  and  he  was  shot,  while  unarmed,  in 
his  house.  In  the  course  of  the  day  old  Kenneth  Black  and  one 
son  were  discovered  in  their  hiding-place.  "  They  tortured  the 
old  man  Black,  very  much,  by  beating  him  or  slapping  him  with 
their  swords,  and  screwing  his  thumb  in  a  gun-lock  until  the 
blood  gushed  out  on  each  side,  for  the  purpose  of  making  him 
tell  where  his  other  sons  were,  but  they  could  get  nothing  out  of 
him,"  ("but  blood,"  it  might  be  added).  The  reverend  author 
of  this  quotation  has  forgotten  to  say  whether  this  old  man  was 
carried  off  to  be  murdered  with  some  other  Tories  who  were 
bagged  that  Sunday. 

"  At  this  time  the  far-famed  Flora  McDonald  lived  four  miles 
north  of  the  scene  which  we  have  been  describing,  upon  a  planta- 
tion belonging  to  Mr.  Black,  on  Little  River.  Mr.  Black's 
family  having  had  the  smallpox,  two  daughters  of  Flora  came 
over  to  see  their  friends  and  his  family ;  but  to  their  utter  surprise, 
they  found  the  Whigs  there,  who  took  the  gold  rings  from  their 
fingers  and  the  silk  handkerchiefs  from  their  necks;  then  putting 
their  swords  into  their  bosoms,  split  down  their  silk  dresses  and, 
taking  them  out  into  the  yard,  stripped  them  of  all  their  outer 

The  foregoing  account  of  a  rebel  Sabbath  day's  exercises  is 
condensed  from  the  pages  of  that  savage  old  Presbyterian  Whig 
divine,  Dr.  Caruthers.  He  terms  the  common  episode  of  war, 
at  Piney  Bottom,  "  massacre,"  and  "  robbery,"  while,  with  hypo- 
critical and  even  blasphemous  rhetoric  of  the  early  American 
"  patriotic  "  order  which  is  truly  comic,  he  writes  approvingly  of 
such  enormities  as  have  just  been  related,  and  even  of  atrocious 
murders.  The  Tory  partisan,  Fanning,  was  bad.  He  was  an 
exceptional  case  on  that  side;  but  almost  every  Whig  leader  was 
a  Fanning  in  barbarity.  Strange  it  is  to  find,  seventy  years  after 
this  unnatural  and  hideous  warfare  in  North  Carolina,  a  professed 
minister  of  the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  after  devoting  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  pages  to  the  denunciation  of  Fanning' s  evil  deeds, 
possessed  with  the  very  spirit  of  Fanning  himself.  Throughout 
the  book  of  this  dotard  parson  there  is  always  traceable  a  certain 
fanatical  religiosity  of  spirit  which  applies  to  the  Whig  and  Tory 
civil  war  in  "  the  old  North  State,"  the  parallel  of  the  children 
of  Israel  and  the  Canaanites.  C'est  pour  rire;  but  this  disposal 
of  Caruthers  cannot  be  dispensed  with. 

One  reads  in  Caruthers,  not  without  some  sense  of  satisfaction, 
that  Captain  Culp,  the  leader  of  the  Sabbath  day's  work  above 
related,  was  shot  and  killed  at  his  house,  and  his  house  was 
burned,  in  a  summary  application  of  the  lex  talionis,  by  some  free 
mulattoes  named  Turner,  "  who  were  Tories  and  very  wicked," 
as  our  clerical  authority  quaintly  puts  it. 


This  fratricidal  strife,  which  in  the  last  stages  of  a  desultory 
guerilla  war,  had  raged  about  the  home  of  the  McNeills,  endured 
long  after  any  effectual  warfare  on  the  British  side  had  ceased, 
and,  it  is  said,  even  after  the  Treaty  of  Paris,  September  3rd, 
1783 ;  for  those  Scottish  folks  clung  stubbornly,  in  their  isolation, 
to  the  fixed  faith  that  Britain  would  yet  redeem  the  national 
disgrace  of  Yorktown  with  fresh  armies  from  across  the  sea. 

The  diplomacy  of  Jennet  Bahn,  and  the  high  regard  in  which 
the  parents  stood  with  the  Whig  leaders  of  the  Cape  Fear  country, 
saved  the  family  property  from  the  confiscation  laws  passed  by 
the  State,  and  the  sons,  Hector,  Neill  and  Lauchlin,  were  enabled 
to  make  their  peace  with  the  new  government  under  the  terms  of 
the  Act  of  Oblivion. 

With  Daniel  and  John  the  case  was  different.  The  "  Act 
of  Pardon  and  Oblivion "  passed  by  the  Legislature  of  North 
Carolina  in  1783,  contained  this  provision,  which  excepted  them 
from  its  operation :  "  Provided  always  that  this  Act  or  anything 
therein  contained  shall  not  extend  to  pardon  or  discharge,  or  give 
any  benefit  whatsoever  to  persons  who  have  taken  commissions  or 
have  been  denominated  officers,  and  acted  as  such,  to  the  King  of 
Great  Britain." 

Daniel  had  held  three  such  commissions,  and  John,  one. 
To  be  outside  the  benefit  of  this  Statute  meant  death,  for  "  treason." 
The  other  brothers,  save  Malcolm,  had  served  in  the  "  Tory  army  " 
and  in  the  guerilla  forces,  without  having  commissions  from  the 
Crown.  Though  some  officers  in  these  auxiliary  forces  had  held 
commissions.  Hector,  Neill  and  Lauchlin  (who  seems  to  have 
served  as  a  subaltern)  were  elected,  Hector  by  his  regiment,  in 
succession  to  his  uncle  of  the  same  name,  the  others  by  their 

Though  it  was  conceded  by  the  family  that  Daniel  would  have 
to  leave  the  country  to  save  his  life,  they  were  encouraged  by 
Whig  friends  to  believe  that  John,  a  boy  of  about  sixteen  years, 
might  safely  return  home  from  Charleston,  where  his  regiment 
was  when  news  of  the  peace  came. 

But  the  thirst  of  Colonel  Wade  for  vengeance  had  not  yet 
been  slaked  by  the  blood  of  Tory  men  and  the  tears  of  their 
widows  and  orphaned  children.  He  had  become  a  "  General  " 
in  these  days  of  peace,  a  very  considerable  person  indeed.  He  was 
a  doctrinaire  of  the  Balfour  school.  There  must  be  "  no  resting 
place  for  a  Tory's  foot  on  the  earth."  Moreover,  the  youngster 
John  McNeill  was  the  instigator  of  the  night  attack  at  Piney 
Bottom  which  had  disgraced  the  "  General."  Accordingly,  we 
read  in  the  author  last  quoted :  "  After  the  close  of  the  war, 
General  Wade  had  John  McNeill  tried  for  his  life  on  account 
of  the  robbery  and  murders  committed  at  the  Piney  Bottom ;  but 

70  DANIEL  McNEILL  parkek,  m.d. 

he  was  acquitted,  principally  by  the  oath  of  Colonel  Folsome,  who 
testified  that  John  McNeill  was  at  his  house  at  or  about  sundown, 
the  evening  before  the  massacre.  This  made  the  impression  on  the 
minds  of  the  jury  that,  considering  the  distance,  it  was  not  probable 
he  could  have  been  there  by  the  time  the  attack  was  made." 

The  reader  will,  no  doubt,  appreciate  the  unconscious  humor 
in  the  use  of  the  words  "  robbery,"  "  murder,"  and  "  massacre  " 
in  this  passage.  John's  visit  to  the  Whig  Colonel  Folsome  on 
the  eve  of  the  attack  has  been  before  referred  to.  It  is  believed 
in  North  Carolina  that  this  visit  was  designed  with  a  view  to 
the  possible  need  of  an  alibi  at  the  close  of  the  war.  Colonel 
Folsome,  though  a  Whig,  was  an  intimate  family  friend  and 
could  be  relied  on  to  help  a  Bahn  McNeill  in  case  of  need. 

At  Piney  Bottom  John  had  found  among  Wade's  plunder 
stolen  from  a  nearby  Tory  home,  a  peculiar  piece  of  coarse  cloth 
which  had  belonged  to  a  domestic  servant  of  the  family,  named 
Marren  McDaniel. 

"  On  his  way  home  from  the  scene  of  his  nocturnal  slaughter 
and  depredation,  John  McNeill  called  on  his  friend  and  neighbor, 
John  McDaniel,  and  told  him  what  an  exploit  they  had  per- 
formed, how  much  plunder,  money  and  other  things,  they  found, 
and  showed  him  a  large  piece  of  new  cloth  which  he  had  got, 
and  which  he  seemed  to  regard  as  a  valuable  prize.  Poor  Marren 
McDaniel,  being  present,  seized  the  cloth  and  claimed  it  as  hers. 
She  said  she  could  prove  it  by  the  weaver  and  by  old  Daniel 
Munroe,  who  had  paid  the  weaver  for  her.  So  the  poor  girl  had  her 
plundered  web  of  cloth  most  unexpectedly  returned  to  her."  This 
recapture  and  restoration  to  the  Tory  servant-maid  of  property 
of  which  she  was  robbed  by  Wade's  party,  constituted  the  evidence 
in  support  of  the  count  for  "  robbery  "  in  John  McNeill's  indict- 

"  But  neither  old  Daniel  Munroe,  nor  Marren  McDaniel, 
nor  the  weaver  were  called  into  court,  either  because  they  could 
not  be  found,  or  because  it  was  not  known  that  they  were 
acquainted  with  any  facts  involved  in  the  case."  (How  this  latter 
supposition  could  exist,  the  shade  of  Caruthers  alone  can  tell  us.) 
"  They  could  have  testified  that  John  McNeill  had  shown  them 
tne  cloth  next  day,  and  told  them  that  he  got  it  at  the  Piney 
Bottom,  where  they  had  killed  so  many  of  Colonel  Wade's  com- 
pany the  night  before;  and  by  their  testimony  he  must  have  been 
condemned.  Perhaps  he  had  bribed  them,  and  kept  them  con- 
cealed in  some  place  where  they  could  not  be  found,  until  the  trial 
would  be  decided;  but,  however  this  may  have  been,  from  all 
these  circumstances  John  McNeill  was  ever  after  known  by  the 
name  of  'Cunning  John.' " 

Cunning  John,   at  a  somewhat  mature  age,   appears  to  have 

the  McNeill  family  ti 

abandoned  the  life  of  a  planter  and  to  have  sought  some  higher 
education,  as  is  shown  by  a  letter  written  by  him  to  his  brother 
Daniel  which  is  quoted  in  the  monograph  on  Daniel  McNeill  and 
his  descendants. 

Beyond  a  long  catalogue  of  their  descendants,  nothing  more 
of  the  lives  of  Daniel's  brothers  subsequent  to  the  revolutionary 
war  requires  special  mention.  Like  their  father,  they  were  well- 
to-do  in  plantations  and  in  slaves  to  work  them;  and  their  sub- 
sequent lives  were  blessed  in  being  uneventful. 

We  come  now  to  the  grandfather  of  my  father,  the  last  of 
these  sons  of  Archibald  and  Jennet    (Balm)    to  be  mentioned. 

Investigation  of  historical  sources  of  information,  not  required 
for  the  preparation  of  the  earlier  monograph  on  Daniel  McNeill 
and  his  descendants,  and  a  review  of  family  traditions  variously 
received,  have  disclosed  material  sufficient  to  outline  his  career 
during  the  revolutionary  war;  though  no  particulars  of  his  per- 
sonal conduct  or  achievements  can  now  be  discovered,  because 
he  was  outside  the  province  of  those  contributors  to  North  Carolina 
history  who  have  preserved  some  account  of  leaders,  Whig  and 
Tory,  in  the  civil  strife  which  has  been  briefly  pictured  in  these 

Born  in  1752,  at  the  old  homestead  on  Anderson's  Creek, 
Lower  Little  River,  in  the  County  of  Cumberland,  he  was  twenty- 
four  years  of  age  in  1776.  Possessed  of  a  soldierly  instinct,  and 
seeking  a  military  career  to  the  best  advantage,  he  was  not  con- 
tent to  remain  in  the  "  Tory  Army  "  which  organized  at  Cross 
Creek  (Fayetteville)  in  the  early  months  of  1776,  and  which  was 
to  be  confined  in  its  operations  to  the  civil  war  in  the  two  Carolinas. 
So,  after  it  was  known  that  the  armament  of  Sir  Henry  Clinton, 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  British  army,  and  Admiral  Sir  Peter 
Parker,  commanding  the  fleet,  would  be  in  the  Cape  Fear  at 
Wilmington  in  June,  on  its  way  from  New  York  for  the  purpose 
of  reducing  Charleston,  as  the  key  to  South  Carolina,  Daniel 
went  to  Wilmington,  and  much  to  the  surprise  of  his  family  and 
friends,  succeeded  in  obtaining  from  Clinton  a  lieutenant's  com- 
mission in  the  7 1st  regiment,  Highland  Light  Infantry,  to  fill  a 
chance  vacancy.  It  seems  that  only  a  detachment  of  the  regiment 
accompanied  this  expedition.  The  written  commission  is  not 
extant,  but  that  he  obtained  it  and  served  in  this  regiment  aa 
hereafter  related  was  vouched  for  by  the  late  James  Walton 
Nutting,  his  brother-in-law  and  his  closest  friend  in  after  years, 
who  received  from  Daniel  some  account  of  his  career,  and  com- 
municated the  story  to  my  father  and  others. 

The  7 1st  was  the  celebrated  regiment  known  as  Fraser's 
Highlanders,  which  had  earned  a  distinguished  reputation  in  the 
Seven  Years'  War,  had  covered  itself  with  glory  at  Louisburg  in 

72  DANIEL  McNEILL  pakker,  m.d. 

1758,  before  Quebec  in  the  army  of  Wolfe  in  1759,  and  in  the 
subsequent  stages  of  the  war  which  added  Canada  to  the  Empire. 
As  an  American  writer  on  the  revolutionary  war  expresses  it, 
the  regiment  "  was  noted  for  its  firmness  and  efficiency  in  battle." 
It  became  a  sort  of  proverbial  eulogy,  among  the  rebels,  to  say 
of  the  continental  troops  in  the  South,  when  they  displayed 
unusual  steadiness  and  valor  in  action :  '"  they  fought  like  the  71st." 

At  Charleston,  Sir  Peter  Parker's  little  fleet  of  two  fifty-gun 
ships  and  four  frigates,  with  a  gun-boat  or  two,  was  badly 
crippled  in  an  ill-advised  attack  on  Fort  Moultrie,  situated  on 
an  island  in  the  harbor.  When  the  intrepid  Clinton,  on  foot,  led 
the  troops  in  a  gallant  but  costly  attempt  to  storm  the  fort  by 
marching,  shoulder  deep,  along  the  bar  at  low  water,  the  men 
of  the  7 1st  were  close  at  his  heels.  Exposed  to  a  terrific  fire  of 
grape  and  musketry  in  their  slow,  wading  advance,  the  troops 
did  not  fall  back  until  many  had  been  drowned  by  the  rising  tide 
and  those  in  the  front  of  the  attack  were  obliged  to  save  them- 
selves by  swimming. 

Upon  the  failure  of  this  expedition,  Fraser's  Highlanders 
returned  with  it  to  New  York.  The  regiment  was  subsequently 
engaged  in  the  operations  and  battles  on  Long  Island,  at  White 
Plains,  in  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania,  with  the  army  having 
its  headquarters  at  New  York  and  afterwards  at  Philadelphia. 
In  November,  1778,  the  71st  (two  battalions)  was  detached  by 
Clinton  to  form  part  of  the  force  commanded  by  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Campbell  (of  Maclean's  regiment)  which  was  sent  to 
Georgia  to  assist  General  Provost  in  the  reduction  of  Savannah 
and  the  surrounding  country.  In  this  work  and  in  the  defence 
of  Savannah  against  the  French  forces  in  1779  the  71st  bore  a 
conspicuous  part  and  shared  in  much  hard  fighting.  Savannah 
surrendered  to  Prevost  in  December,  1778,  after  which  Georgia 
was  held  by  the  British  against  a  strong  force  of  French  as  well 
as  Americans.  Loyal  sentiment  in  that  Province  was  strong. 
In  April,  1779,  the  regiment  participated  in  Prevost's  invasion 
of  South  Carolina  which,  though  severely  punishing  the  Ameri- 
cans, failed  in  its  objective — the  capture  of  Charleston. 

The  second  and  much  stronger  expedition  of  Sir  Henry 
Clinton  for  the  reduction  of  Charleston  brought  the  7 1st  regiment 
once  more  into  the  Carolinas,  in  the  spring  of  the  year  1780.  The 
armament  of  Clinton  from  New  York  assembled  at  Savannah, 
the  base  of  operations.  There  Prevost  and  Campbell  joined  him, 
and  Fraser's  Highlanders  served  in  the  operations  against  Charles- 
ton, and  throughout  the  campaigns  which  followed  in  the  two 
Carolinas.  Clinton  was  now  equipped  for  a  siege,  and  invested 
Charleston  on  April  2nd.     On  May  12th  the  city  surrendered. 

Shortly  afterwards,   Sir  Henry  Clinton,  leaving  4,000  men 

the  McNeill  family  73 

for  the  Southern  service,  under  Lord  Cornwallis,  returned  to 
New  York.  Fraser's  Highlanders  remajned  with  this  Southern 
force,  which  was  augmented  by  several  North  and  South  Carolina 
and  Georgia  regiments  of  volunteers.  Daniel  McNeill  continued 
a  subaltern  in  Fraser's  until  June  24th,  1780,  when  he  exchanged 
for  a  captaincy  in  one  of  these  regiments  of  North  Carolina 

These  volunteer  regiments  were  raised  by  gentlemen  Loyalists 
of  the  South,  assisted  by  British  officers  and  by  British  service 
funds.  Prior  to  this  period  of  the  war  they  had  already  seen 
much  service,  and  in  point  of  efficiency  and  in  valor  they  were  not 
inferior  to  the  British  regiments  of  the  line  with  which  they  were 
brigaded.  They  were  Royal  Provincial  Fencibles,  as  distinguished 
from  the  loyal  militia  organization  of  the  Provinces,  which  was 
largely  broken  up  by  disaffection  when  the  war  began.  They  were 
also  quite  distinct  from  such  auxiliary  or  irregular  corps  as  the 
Scottish  "  Tory  Army "  of  North  Carolina.  The  men  were 
enlisted  upon  the  same  footing  as  regular  troops.  The  officers 
were  commissioned  by  the  Commander-in-chief  of  the  British  army 
in  America,  or  by  one  of  his  Lieutenant-Generals  when  he  was  not 
accessible  and  the  case  was  urgent.  Thus  the  first  of  Daniel 
McNeill's  commissions  in  the  Fencibles  was  signed  by  Lord  Corn- 
wallis, and  the  second  by  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  as  appears  on  page 
1  of  my  earlier  paper.  Militia  officers  in  North  Carolina,  after 
the  war  began,  were  given  commissions  by  Major  Craig,  the  Com- 
mandant at  Wilmington,  and  often  by  regimental  commanders  in 
the  militia ;  while  among  the  irregulars  the  officers  were  usually 
elected  by  the  regiment  or  company. 

The  terms  of  enlistment  in  the  Provincial  regulars,  or  Fenci- 
bles, are  illustrated  by  the  following  form  of  advertisement  used 
in  1781: 


"  Any  of  His  Majesty's  loyal  and  faithful  subjects,  able  and 
"  willing  to  serve  in  the  Royal  Nr  rth  Carolina  Regiment  com- 
"  manded  by  Col.  Hamilton,  are  hereby  requested  to  repair  to 
"  his  encampment.  The  bounty  allowed  for  each  man  is  three 
"  Guineas ;  and  the  terms  of  the  engagement  are  that  he  shall 
"  serve  during  the  rebellion  and  within  the  Provinces  of  North 
"and  South  Carolina  and  Virginia  only;  that  during  his  service 
"  he  shall  be  entitled  to  clothing,  pay,  provisions,  and  all  the 
"  advantages  of  His  Majesty's  Regular  and  Provincial  Troops. 
"  and  at  the  end  of  the  rebellion,  when  he  becomes  discharged, 
"  of  course,  he  is  to  receive  as  a  reward  for  his  services  during 
"  the  war  a  free  grant  of  land  agreeable  to  His  Majesty's 
"  proclamation." 

Regiments  of  Provincials,  or  Fencibles,  were  not  numbered, 
but  were  distinguished  by  the  names  of  their  commanders,  as  was 
the  case  with  some  of  the  Highland  regiments  in  the  British  army 


for  some  time  after  their  formation, — Fraser's,  for  example.  The 
distinguishing  name  of  the  regiment  in  which  Daniel  McNeill 
commanded  a  company  during  the  campaigns  of  Lord  Cornwallis  in 
North  and  South  Carolina  is  not  now  known.  He  lost  the  original 
commission,  which  would  have  disclosed  his  colonel's  name;  and 
the  only  evidence  of  its  contents  is  the  bare  certificate  of  its  grant 
which  he  subsequently  obtained  to  assist  him  in  obtaining  his 
half-pay  of  a  Captain  in  the  British  army  and  his  share  of  a  grant 
of  land  in  Nova  Scotia.  This  certificate  appears  on  the  first  page 
of  my  earlier  paper. 

The  two  campaigns  of  Cornwallis  in  the  Carolinas  were  char- 
acterized by  rapid  movements,  hard-fought  battles  and  minor 
engagements  following  fast  upon  each  other,  all  stubbornly  con- 
tested on  either  side,  and  with  much  in-fighting,  or  hand-to-hand 
work, — and  all  with  varying  fortune.  They  ended  in  the  retire- 
ment of  Lord  Cornwallis  northward,  upon  what  proved  to  be  his 
last  march,  with  the  American  general,  Greene,  left  in  undisputed 
possession  of  North  Carolina. 

The  battles  of  these  campaigns  in  which  Daniel  McNeill  par- 
ticipated were  the  first  battle  of  Camden,  one  at  Charlotte  (the 
"Hornets'  Nest,"  as  Cornwallis  called  it),  Cowpens  and  Guild- 
ford Court  House.  The  skirmishes,  pursuits,  retreats  and  hand- 
to-hand  struggles  between  small  parties  were  incessant,  and  too 
numerous  for  these  pages  to  detail.  Family  tradition  says  that 
Daniel  received  one  of  his  wounds  in  the  British  disaster  at  King's 
Mountain,  North  Carolina,  at  this  period ;  but  the  writer  is  satis- 
fied that  the  only  British  troops  detached  for  service  at  that  point 
were  150  men  of  a  line  regiment,  who  went  to  the  assistance  of  a 
raw  embodiment  of  local  Loyalists  or  Tory  irregulars  threatened 
by  a  superior  force  of  disciplined  continentals. 

When,  in  April,  1781,  Lord  Cornwallis  marched  into  Virginia, 
Daniel  McNeill's  regiment  remained  with  the  army  of  occupation 
in  the  South,  under  Lord  Rawdon  and  Colonel  Stewart.  Passing 
into  South  Carolina,  this  force  fought  several  engagements  with 
the  army  of  General  Greene  which  followed  it,  much  superior  in 
numbers  to  the  retreating  British.  On  the  25th  of  April  occurred 
the  second  battle  of  Camden,  which  was  won  by  Lord  Rawdon's 
little  army,  but  with  such  severe  loss  that  he  was  obliged  to  retire 
to  "  Ninety-Six,"  an  entrenched  camp,  about  fifty  miles  north-west 
from  Charleston,  and  which  had  long  been  a  British  post,  or  base 
of  operations.  General  Greene  rallied  his  beaten  troops  and 
invested  this  post,  intending  a  siege.  Short,  as  he  was,  in  artil- 
lery and  supplies,  Rawdon  felt  compelled  to  evacuate  "  Ninety- 
Six,"  and  cutting  his  way  through  the  besiegers  in  June,  he 
marched  to  Eutaw  Springs,  nearer  to  Charleston,  and  encamped 
there  to  refresh  his  exhausted  troops  and  to  care  for  his  wounded. 

the  McNeill  family  75 

He  had  some  hope  of  reinforcement  from  Georgia,  but  it  did  not 

On  August  20th,  1781  (the  date  of  his  third  commission),  or 
about  that  time,  Daniel  McNeill  exchanged  into  Hamilton's  regi- 
ment of  the  Royal  North  Carolinas,  Fencibles,  which  was  part  of 
Rawdon's  force.  His  young  brother  John  was  an  ensign  in  Ham- 
ilton's but  the  reason  for  the  exchange  is  not  known.  This  was  a 
regiment  which  had  won  distinction  in  various  Southern  cam- 
paigns. One  incident  in  its  career  is  mentioned  by  Moore.  When, 
on  December  29th,  1778,  the  American  army  of  General  Robert 
Howe  was  driven  from  Savannah,  Georgia,  by  General  Prevost, 
Hamilton's  regiment,  composed  of  North  Carolina  men,  was  con- 
fronted by  the  Second  Regiment  of  North  Carolina  Continentals. 
A  bloody  and  heroic  duel  of  regiments,  at  close  quarters,  ensued, 
embittered  by  the  circumstance  that  it  was  a  struggle  between 
neighbors  and  former  friends. 

On  the  8th  of  September,  Greene  came  up,  with  overwhelming 
strength,  and  the  battle  of  Eutaw  Springs  was  fought.  The 
British  lost  about  1,100  men  in  killed,  wounded  and  prisoners. 
The  Americans  confessed  to  a  loss  as  great.  It  was  a  drawn 
battle,  both  sides  retaining  their  ground  as  at  its  commencement, 
and  neither  general  desirous  to  resume  the  debate.  But  Lord 
Rawdon's  little  force  was  now  so  greatly  reduced,  and  so  burdened 
with  its  wounded,  that  there  was  nothing  for  it  but  to  retreat  to 
Charleston.  Greene  did  not  attempt  to  follow,  and  the  Southern 
campaign  of  1781  was  closed. 

Next  month  the  news  of  Lord  Cornwallis'  surrender  in  Vir- 
ginia came  to  Charleston,  substantially  closing  the  war. 

Greene's  army,  which  had  been  reinforced  by  General  Anthony 
Wayne's  Rangers,  sat  down  before  Charleston,  but  at  a  respectful 
distance.  The  armies  kept  close  watch  upon  each  other;  sorties 
and  minor  skirmishes  were  frequent,  but  no  siege  was  undertaken 
by  the  Americans.  Both  sides  were  awaiting  the  outcome  of  the 
British  fatality  at  Yorktown,  the  reduced  army  of  Rawdon  too 
weak  to  take  the  field,  and  Greene  content  to  await  orders  from 
headquarters.  Thus  passed  for  Daniel  McNeill  the  closing 
months  of  1781  and  the  year  1782,  until  December;  but  it  was 
towards  the  close  of  this  period  of  comparative  inactivity  that,  as 
has  been  related,  he  and  his  brother  John  visited  the  old  home  at 
Lower  Little  River.  Daniel  then  saw  his  parents  for  the  last  time, 
and  his  stay  had  to  be  brief. 

In  December,  1782,  orders  came  from  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  who 
had  superseded  Sir  Henry  Clinton  as  Commander-in-chief,  to 
evacuate  Charleston  and  proceed  to  St.  Augustine,  in  East  Florida, 
in  shipping  sent  from  New  York,  and  to  remove  with  the  troops 
such  Loyalists  as  might  wish  to  leave  the  country.     Large  numbers 


of  non-combatants,  North  and  South  Carolinians  and  Georgians, 
accompanied  the  army,  and  from  Florida  departed  to  make  for 
themselves  new  homes  in  Great  Britain,  the  West  India  Islands 
and  the  British  Provinces  of  North  America. 

From  December,  1782,  to  September,  1783,  Captain  McNeill 
remained  at  St.  Augustine  with  his  regiment.  Commissioners 
from  England  came  to  St.  Augustine  to  determine  the  thousands 
of  claims  for  compensation  made  by  the  Southern  Loyalists  gath- 
ered there,  and  to  distribute  accordingly  the  Southern  allotment 
of  the  sum  of  money,  very  inadequate,  which  was  voted  by  Parlia- 
ment, "  in  support  of  the  American  sufferers  who  have  relinquished 
their  properties  or  professions  from  motives  of  loyalty  to  me  and 
attachment  to  the  mother  country,"  as  the  King's  speech  expressed 
it,  on  the  opening  of  Parliament  in  1782. 

Captain  McNeill  was  recommended  to  the  government  by  the 
commissioners  for  the  half-pay  of  a  captain  in  the  British  army 
during  the  remainder  of  his  life,  which  he  afterwards  obtained, 
and,  with  four  or  five  hundred  officers  and  men  from  his  own 
regiment,  the  Royal  South  Carolina  Regiment,  and  the  King's 
Carolina  Rangers,  he  agreed  to  accept  a  share  in  a  grant  of  land 
in  Nova  Scotia,  offered  by  the  commissioners,  all  the  grantees  to 
receive  full  pay  until  their  settlement  in  that  Province,  with 
transportation  thither  at  the  expense  of  government,  should  be 

Colonel  John  Hamilton,  commanding  Daniel's  regiment, 
retired  to  England,  accompanied  by  Lieut.-Colonel  Archibald 
McKay,  a  Cape  Fear  Scotsman  who  commanded  another  regiment 
of  Royal  North  Carolina  Provincials.  From  the  fact  that  Captain 
McNeill,  in  1785,  was  corresponding  on  intimate  terms  with  Col- 
onel McKay,  then  in  London,  it  may  be  conjectured  that  McKay's 
Royal  North  Carolina  Regiment  was  the  corps  from  which  the 
Captain  exchanged  into  Hamilton's.  I  have  learned  of  only  two 
regiments  of  this  class  raised  in  North  Carolina. 

As  Daniel's  name  is  found  signed  to  a  certificate  ,of  service, 
dated  at  St.  Augustine,  September  20th,  1783,  given  by  Colonel 
Hamilton  and  four  captains  of  his  regiment  to  assist  a  Loyalist  in 
his  claims  for  compensation,  it  must  have  been  soon  after  that 
date  that  McNeill  and  his  brother  officer,  Captain  John  Leggatt, 
came  to  Nova  Scotia  to  attend  to  the  business  of  locating  and 
obtaining  the  land  grant  above  mentioned.  That  he  was  in 
Halifax  in  November- is  attested  by  the  following  receipt  for  a 
slave  whom  he  left  there,  probably  when  he  and  Captain  Leggatt 
were  travelling  about  the  Province  examining  "  the  promised 
land,"  and  sailed  down  the  eastern  coast  to  look  over  the  site  which 
Governor  Parr  and  his  Council  proposed  to  grant,  in  fulfilment 
of  the  award  made  by  the  "  Commissioners  of  American  Claims." 

the  McNeill  family  77 

The  receipt  which  fixes  this  date  reads : 

"Halifax,  29  November,  1783. 
"  These  are  to  certify  that  a  Black  Boy,  by  the  name  of  Bill,  or  Wil- 
liam, The  Property  of  Captain  Daniel  McNeale,  late  of  the  Royal  North 
Carolina  Regiment  Leaves  with  me,  in  trust,  for  six  months  from  the 
date  hereof,  the  said  Black  Boy — on  consideration  of  Feeding  and  Cloth- 
ing the  said  boy.  Witness,  Phi.  Newton." 

By  Daniel  McNeill's  endorsement  on  this  receipt,  it  appears 
that  Philip  Newton  was  a  captain  in  the  British  army.  The 
receipt  was  written  by  him;  hence  the  improper  spelling  of 
McNeill's  name. 

In  the  following  spring  the  exiled  officers  and  soldiers  arrived. 
Before  their  arrival  Captains  McNeill  and  Leggatt  had  much 
arduous  duty  of  detail  to  perform  in  the  preliminary  work  of  pre- 
paring for  the  temporary  shelter  and  victualling  of  such  a  large 
number  of  settlers  at  Country  Harbor,  many  of  whom  were  bring- 
ing with  them  wives  and  families.  To  appreciate  this,  one  must 
remember  that  at  this  time  there  was  no  settlement  whatever  in 
the  whole  of  what  is  now  Guysborough  County,  and  supplies  of  all 
necessaries  had  to  be  taken  by  water  from  Halifax. 

From  this  point,  let  the  reader  turn  to  the  narrative  on  Daniel 
McNeill  and  his  descendants,  to  learn  more  of  what  is  known  of 
his  life  in  Nova  Scotia.     What  follows  here  will  supplement  that. 

In  that  narrative  a  visit  to  North  Carolina  in  the  year  1811 
is  mentioned.  The  recent  discovery  of  a  letter  from  him  to  James 
Walton  Nutting,  when  the  latter  was  a  student  at  King's  College, 
Windsor,  discloses  that  the  Captain  made  an  earlier  visit  to  his 
old  home,  near  the  close  of  the  year  1806,  upon  the  same 
mission.  This  letter  is  dated  at  Halifax  the  29th  of  Novem- 
ber, 1806,  and  begins:  "I  am  still  here  day  after  day 
expecting  the  ship  to  sail.  I  am  much  perplexed  in  mind, 
dare  not  go  home,  fearing  I  should  miss  my  passage.  .  .  ." 
It  is  of  too  personal  a  nature  to  present  in  full.  The 
writer  commits  his  business  affairs  at  home  to  the  care  of 
young  Nutting,  his  brother-in-law,  in  whose  capacity  and  judg- 
ment he  seems  to  have  reposed  great  confidence.  Referring  to 
his  daughters,  he  writes :  "  Dear  James,  should  anything  happen 
to  me  before  my  return,  I  have  a  heart-felt  satisfaction  that  you 
are  so  far  advanced  that  you  will  be  able  to  take  care  of  that  Dear 
Female  family  who  have  no  male  of  any  great  ideas  to  serve  them. 
Make  the  best  of  your  time  where  you  are  at  present.  If  God 
spares  your  mother  and  myself,  I  have  no  doubt  but  we  shall  be 
able  to  complete  your  education  as  you  have  wished.  You  have 
good  ideas,  and  I  hope  you  will  take  care  of  yourself.  Keep  clear 
of  Bad  Company.  Shake  off  your  acquaintance  with  Mrs. 
A.      .      .      ."     Here  follows  salutary  advice,  expressed  in  Ian- 

78  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

guage  pointed  and  direct,  from  a  man  who  knew  the  world  to  a 
young  college  student,  exposed  to  the  temptations  of  the  social 
life  of  the  Windsor  of  that  day.  Of  the  moral  aspects  of  that  life 
the  Captain  evidently  held  strong  opinions,  but  not  complimentary. 
The  letter  concludes :  "I  hope  and  trust  God  that  my  daugh- 
ters will  never  4hink  so  little  of  themselves  as  (to)  mix  with  such, 
even  should  I  never  return.  But  I  hope  in  God  that  I  shall  be 
spared  to  return  and  arrange  my  business  myself.  Be  prudent 
and  make  the  best  of  your  time  there.  You'll  make  my  best 
respects  to  Campbell  and  Family,  and  believe  me  to  be, 
"  Your  very  affectionate  brother, 

"  D.  McNeill." 

The  few  letters  extant,  written  by  him,  indicate  that  Cap- 
tain McNeill  was  a  man  of  action,  quick  to  think,  prompt  in 
decision,  ready  in  resource;  upright  in  character,  and  one  who 
feared  God,  though  not  conspicuous  in  what  usually  passes  for 
piety.  They  indicate  a  habit  of  mind  contemptuous  of  the  shams 
and  humbugs  of  conventional  "  Society."  He  was  evidently  a 
typical  blunt  soldier  of  the  period,  with  little  education  beyond 
that  acquired  in  early  life  from  his  parents  at  his  frontier  planta- 
tion home,  and,  later,  what  military  training  sufficed  for  his  duty 
in  camp  and  field.  We  find  in  his  letters  an  intense  devotion  to 
his  wife  and  daughters,  with  an  overwhelming  solicitude  for  the 
future  of  his  children  when  they  had  become  bereft  of  a  mother's 
care  in  tender  years.  That  he  himself,  in  exile,  was  affectionately 
held  in  mind  by  his  immediate  family  in  North  Carolina,  and  that 
the  memory  of  "  Nova  Scotia  Dan'l,"  as  he  is  called  to  this  day 
in  the  Cape  Fear  country,  was  cherished  for  long  years  among  his 
later  kith  and  kin,  is  witnessed  by  the  scores  of  McNeills  and 
members  of  allied  families,  from  generation  to  generation,  who 
have  borne  the  name  of  Daniel  in  his  honor. 

No  portrait  of  him  exists,  but  he  is  said  to  have  been  of  more 
than  medium  stature,  ruddy  of  countenance  and  smooth-shaven, 
slight  in  youth,  but  with  a  figure  in  later  life  which  we  designate 
as  burly.  A  scarlet  tunic  belonging  to  one  of  his  uniforms  was 
treasured  as  a  relic  by  Colonel  Archibald  McNeill  (Neill's  son) 
when  he  entertained  my  father  at  McNeill's  Ferry  in  1861.  My 
father  tried  it  on  and  it  fitted  his  figure  fairly  well,  though  rather 
scantily.  Nothing  would  induce  this  nephew  of  Captain  Daniel 
to  relinquish  the  "  Tory  coat  "  in  favor  of  a  grandson.  It  was 
consumed  when  Colonel  Archibald's  house  was  burned  in  1870. 

The  object  of  the  Captain's  two  visits  to  North  Carolina,  in 
1806  and  1811,  was  to  recover  his  share  in  his  father's  estate.  At 
the  risk  of  being  thought  tedious,  I  embody  in  this  narrative  a 
copy  of  the  will  upon  which  his  prolonged  litigation  with  the 


executors  arose.  The  Supreme  Court  of  North  Carolina  appears 
to  have  decided  that  devises  and  bequests  to  a  Loyalist  outside  the 
protection  of  the  Act  of  Pardon  and  Oblivion  were  void.  Which 
of  his  brothers,  if  any,  raised  this  question,  or  whether  his  brother 
Neill  and  the  other  executor  felt  it  to  be  their  duty,  in  their  fidu- 
ciary capacity,  to  raise  it,  does  not  appear.  There  seems  to  have 
been  a  partial  compromise  in  the  end. 

"  In  the  name  of  God,"    Amen. 

I,  Archibald  MacNeill,  of  Cumberland  County  and  State  of  North 
Carolina,  now  considering  myself  frail  in  body,  tho  of  perfect  mind  and 
memory,  and  well  knowing  that  it  i?  appointed  for  all  men  once  to  die, 
do  make  this  my  last  will  and  testament. 

I  assign  my  soul  to  its  Creator  in  all  humble  hope  of  its  future 
happiness  as  in  the  disposall  of  a  being  infinitely  good.  As  to  my  body, 
my  will  is  that  it  be  buried  decently  beside  my  spouse  in  our  old  bury- 
ing place. 

I  make  and  appoint  my  son-in-law  John  MacNeill  and  my  son  Neill 
MacNeill  or  whichever  of  the  cne  survivor  of  the  other,  sole  executors 
of  this  my  last  will  and  testament. 

As  to  my  worldlye  estate  I  dispose  thereof  as  follows: 

I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  son  John  and  his  wife  during  their  life- 
time, the  plantation  now  occupied  by  them,  and  after  their  decease,  if 
no  lawful  heir  of  John's  own  body  survive  him  or  his  wife,  I  order  said 
plantation  to  be  the  property  of  my  son  Daniel  and  his  heirs. 

I  also  bequeath  to  said  John  and  his  wife  during  their  lifetime  two 
negro  wenches,  named  Tillie  and  Nell,  and  after  their  death  if  said 
negroes  survive  them,  I  order  and  desire  said  negroes,  with  their  issue, 
to  be  given  up  to  my  daughter  Margaret  McNeill  and  her  heirs. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  son  Daniel  three  hundred  and  twenty- 
three  acres  of  land,  more  or  less,  lying  in  Chatham  County,  near  the 
mouth  of  New  Hope,  also  a  tract  or  parcel  of  land  lying  on  McKay's 
Creek  in  this  county,  and  in  case  my  son  Daniel,  nor  any  of  his  heirs  in 
Nova  Scotia,  should  never  come  to  claim  the  said  plantations,  I  order  the 
said  plantations  to  be  equally  divided  betwixt  my  son  Hector's  son 
Daniel  and  my  grandson  John  McNeill's  son,  also  named  Daniel. 

Item:  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  son  Hector  one  hundred  acres  join- 
ing his  land  on  Trantom's  Creek,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  acres  on  said 
creek  known  by  the  name  of  the  Black  Smith's  old  field.  I  also  bequeath 
to  him  two  negro  fellows,  Will  and  Bacchus,  junior. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  daughter,  Margaret  McNeill,  a  negro 
wench,  named  Teaner,  together  with  her  children,  and  another  negro 
wench  named  Beth,  and  also  two  negro  fellows,  named  Virgil  and  Angus. 
I  likewise  give  and  devise  to  her,  during  her  lifetime,  two  hundred  acres 
of  land  on  the  North  East  side  of  Cape  Fear  river  below  the  ferry,  com- 
monly known  by  the  name  of  Sproall's  ferry,  and  after  her  decease  I 
order  said  two  hundred  acres  of  land  to  be  the  property  of  my  son  Neill 
and  his  lawful  heirs. 

Item:  I  -?ive  and  bequeath  and  devise  to  her  son  Daniel  the  planta- 
tation  on  Jones'  Creek,  and  the  lands  adjoining  it  now  my  property. 

Item:  I  bequeath  to  her  son  Archibald  a  iplantation  in  Moore  County, 
known  by  the  name  of  Hurd's  old  field,  and  in  Cumberland  County,  one 
hundred  acres,  Survey  known  by  the  name  of  Loften's  island,  also  a 
parcell  of  land  in  the  fork  of  Anderson's  creek,  known  by  the  name  of 
Hodge's  Survey. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  son  Neill  the  ferry  lands  containing 
four  hundred  and  forty  acres,  the  lands  bought  from  James  Patterson, 

so  DxVxiel  McNeill  parker,  m.d. 

and  all  the  lands  belonging  to  me  in  the  waters  of  Lower  Little  River, 
also  two  negro  fellows  named  Charles  and  Cupid,  and  the  four  negro 
wenches  named  Judith,  Nan,  Fanny  and  Flora. 

Item:  I  give  and  bequeath  to  his  daughter  Janet  the  little  negro 
wench  named  Abitha. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  granddaughter  Janet  Shaw  the  negro 
girl  named  Judith,  and  after  said  Janet's  death,  I  order  the  negro  girl 
Judith  and  her  issue  to  be  equally  divided  among  the  lawful  heirs  of 
said  Janet's  own  body. 

Item:  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  grandson  John  McNeill,  John 
Scrubblin's  son,  one  hundred  acres  of  land,  more  or  less,  lying  on  the 
bear  branch,  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  Peggy  Black  old  field,  and 
likewise  another_piece  of  land  close  to  it,  known  by  the  name  of  King's 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  two  grandchildren,  Daniel  Hector's 
son  and  Lauchlin  Neill's  son,  to  be  equally  divided  betwixt  them,  a  lot  in 
the  town  of  Fayetteville. 

Item:  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  son  Hector  two  hundred  and  fifty 
acres  on  the  flat  land  from  the  meadow  to  the  old  place.  Also  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  acres  joining  the  old  survey,  that  was  the  property  of 
Roger  MacNeill.  Also  one  hundred  and  fifty  acres  on  the  Blue  branch 
and  Trantom's  Creek,  likewise  fifty  acres  lying  between  the  old  lands  of 
McKay  and  McNair. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  grandson  Coll  MacNeill  two  hundred 
acres  on  Stewart's  creek. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  son  John  two  hundred  acres  on 
Anderson's  Creek  joining  the  old  place.  Fifty  acres  on  the  ford, 
Carver's  Creek,  I  bequeath  to  my  son  John. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  son  Neill  the  plantation  I  bought 
from  Rob't  McKay  and  the  lands  adjoining  it. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  granddaughters,  Malcolm's  children, 
Janet,  Flora  and  Isabel,  five  shillings  sterling  each. 

Item:  I  bequeath  to  my  son  Daniel  twenty  milch  cows  out  of  my 
stock,  to  be  sold  and  the  money  put  to  interest  for  the  benefit  of  Daniel 
and  his  heirs. 

Item:  I  bequeath  to  my  son  Neill's  daughter  Janet  my  flock  of  sheep. 

Item:  I  give  and  devise  to  my  son  Neill  the  remainder  of  my  stock 
of  cattle  and  wild  horses  on  condition  he  will  not  interfere  with  my  son 
Hector's  stock,  also  my  stock  of  hogs.  Also  a  still  to  be  equally  divided 
between  Neill  and  my  grandson  Archibald  John  Scrubblin's  son. 

The  rest  of  my  household  furniture  and  worldly  property  I  give  and 
devise  to  my  son  Neill  in  hopes  he  will  make  good  use  of  it. 

If  my  daughter  Margaret  should  in  a  short  time  after  this  be  taken 
away  by  death,  I  order  that  her  children  while  they  keep  together  be 
allowed  by  my  son  Neill  to  live  at  Sproall's  Cowpen  on  Thornton  Creek. 
I  also  order  that  she  during  her  lifetime  remain  on  the  place  where  she 
and  her  family  now  live. 

This  my  last  Will  and  testament  written  this  17th  of  April,  A.D. 
1801,  and  signed  in  presence  Revd.  Angus  McDairmid  and  Hector 
McNeill,  both  living  on  Little  River. 

(Sgd.)     Archibald  MacNeill. 

(Sgd.)  Angus  MacDaxrmid  Witnesses. 
Hector  MacNeill. 

From  the  omission  of  Malcolm's  name  in  the  will  it  may  be 
inferred  either  that  he  died  before  his  father,  or  that,  out  of  the 
land  "  deals  "  in  war  time,  to  which  reference  has  been  made,  he 
had  received  his  share  of  the  paternal  estates.  Coll,  named  in  the 
will,  was  one  of  his  four  sons.  The  others  are  not  named,  and 
his  three  daughters  were  "  cut  off "  with  five  shillings  apiece. 

the  McNeill  family  si 

Malcolm  was  the  Whig  or  rebel  son  of  this  Tory  family.     There 
is,  in  these  circumstances,  some  indication  of  a  "  family  jar." 

The  son-in-law  John  McNeill,  named  an  executor,  had  married 
Margaret,  commonly  called  Peggy,  the  testator's  daughter.  He 
bore  the  suffix  "Scorblin"  or  "  Scrubblin "  (no  good).  The 
date  of  Archibald's  death  was  June  26th,  1801.  Examination  of 
his  will  shows  that  he  specifically  devised  more  than  four  square 
miles  of  land,  the  acreage  of  which  is  expressed,  besides  five  or  six 
other  plantations,  the  extent  of  which  is  not  defined,  and  several 
detached  parcels  or  lots  of  land  as  well,  while  the  residuary  devise 
to  his  son  Neill  may  have  included  more  land.  Sixteen  domestic 
slaves  are  given  by  the  will,  but  there  were  doubtless  many  planta- 
tion hands  to  go  with  the  residuary  estate  to  Neill.  In  1861 
Neill's  son,  Colonel  Archibald,  a  first  cousin  of  my  father's 
mother,  had  seventy  slaves  on  the  Ferry  plantation  alone,  and  he 
owned  two  otheri  plantations,  from  which,  with  his  timber  gangs, 
he  could  muster  three  hundred  and  fifty  slaves  for  getting  in  his 
cotton  crops. 

There  were  thirty-two  first  cousins  of  my  father's  mother, 
exclusive  of  a  number  who  died  young  and  whose  names  are  not 

The  genealogical  chart  of  the  Balm  McNeills,  referred  to  in 
the  Introduction  to  these  Memoirs,  is  too  voluminous  for  inser- 
tion here.  The  manuscript  may  be  copied  by  any  descendant  of 
my  father  having  sufficient  interest  and  patience. 

In  concluding  this  account  of  the  family,  it  will  not  be  amiss 
to  refer  to  a  suggestion  made  to  me  by  Judge  Savary,  that  the 
McNeills  of  Digby  County,  a  numerous  progeny,  derive  descent 
from  a  branch  of  the  North  Carolina  family  collateral  to  that  of 
Archibald  and  Jennet  Bahn.  If  this  be  so,  there  would  be  a 
common  origin  either  in  Archibald's  father,  Lauchlin,  or  in  the 
father  of  Lauchlin,  Black  Neill.  Judge  Savary,  who  is  learned 
in  the  history  of  the  Loyalists  and  has  written  much  on  the  sub- 
ject, thinks  that  the  progenitors  of  the  Digby  family  were  North 
Carolinians.  Sabine  leaves  this  in  doubt.  The  ancestors,  un- 
doubtedly, were  Loyalists  who  arrived  at  the  close  of  the  Revolu- 
tion. The  similarity  of  their  names  to  those  of  the  early  Bahn 
McNeills  is  striking.  Neill  McNeill  was  a  Loyalist  captain.  He 
settled  first  at  Wilmot,  Annapolis  County,  and  some  of  his 
descendants  are  there  to  this  day.  He  afterwards  removed  to 
Digby  town,  and  was  buried  in  the  Trinity  Church  cemetery  there. 
He  had  a  son,  Archibald;  and  an  Archibald,  either  Neill's  son  or 
his  brother,  who,  according  to  Sabine,  was  a  captain  in  the  Royal 
Artillery,  settled  on  the  St.  John  River  in  New  Brunswick.  This 
Archibald  married  a  member  of  the  Sears  family,  which  was 
among  the  families  who  first  settled  St.  John,  or  Parr  Town,  as  it 



was  originally  called,  and  had  the  distinction  of  registering  the 
first  birth  in  that  town. 

I  may  here  remark  that  no  connection  can  be  traced  between 
the  North  Carolina  McNeills  and  those  of  the  name  settled  in 
eastern  Nova  Scotia  and  Cape  Breton. 

Of  the  family  life  at  "  Cambridge  "  and  Windsor  no  materials 
now  remain  for  any  attempt  at  description.  The  plantation  was 
not  a  success,  in  a  financial  sense.  Captain  and  Mrs.  McNeill 
appear  to  have  had  a  standing  arrangement  to  spend  the  winters 
in  Windsor,  and  there,  chiefly,  the  daughters  were  educated.  Par- 
ticulars relating  to  the  Crown  grant  of  "  Cambridge  "  are  given  in 
connection  with  the  foregoing  account  of  the  Parker  grants  at 
Walton.  To  complete  the  story  of  Daniel  McNeill's  career,  a 
copy  of  his  will,  probated  at  Windsor,  is  presented  here.  Some- 
thing of  mind  and  character  usually  is  revealed  by  such  an  instru- 
ment. Further,  it  is  of  interest  to  his  descendants  to  know  the 
extent  to  which  fortune  and  endeavor  had  finally  endowed  with 
worldly  possessions  this  plain  soldier,  in  exile  for  the  lost  cause 
of  a  political  ideal.  In  his  case,  at  least,  the  rewards  of  faith  and 
loyalty  are  found  not  to  be  material. 

In  describing  himself  as  of  Newport,  the  testator  refers  to  the 
township  of  that  name. 

In  the  name  of  God,  Amen. 

I,  Daniel  McNeill  of  Newport,  in  the  County  of  Hants  and  Province 
of  Nova  Scotia,  Esquire,  late  captain  in  His  Majesty's  Royal  North 
Carolina  Regiment,  DO  make,  publish  and  declare  this  my  last  Will  and 
Testament  in  manner  and  form  following,  that  is  to  say: 

I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  unto  my  eldest  daughter  Mary  Jenette 
McNeill,  her  heirs,  executors  and  assigns  all  my  lands  tenements  and 
hereditaments  situate,  lying  and  being  in  the  County  of  Sydney*  and 
Province  aforesaid,  viz.,  town  lots  numbers  42,  44,  45,  47,  156,  209,  210, 
211,  212,  in  the  township  of  Stormont,  and  two  other  lots  numbers 
unknown,  one  drawn  by  me  and  the  other  purchased  from  Captain  John 
Matrie,  and  ten  acres  of  cleared  land  back  of  the  town  plot,  beginning 
at  the  lower  corner  of  Broad  Street.  Also  farm  lots  numbers  61  and  67, 
containing  five  hundred  acres  each,  situate  in  Country  Harbour,  pur- 
chased by  me  from  the  said  John  Matrie.  Also  farm  lot,  number  33, 
containing  five  hundred  acres,  partly  drawn,  and  partly  purchased  by  me 
from  Thomas  Bates  and  Roger  Boyd.  Also  farm  lot  number  4  in  Country 
Harbour  aforesaid,  containing  five  hundred  acres,  partly  drawn  by  me 
and  partly  purchased  from  Samuel  Dier.  Also  two  other  farm  lots,  thus 
situate,  one  on  Country  Harbour  Lake,  and  the  other  on  the  west  side  of 
Country  Harbour  marked  on  the  plan.  Also  all  the  lands  purchased  by 
me  from  Major  Daniel  Manson,  from  Thomas  Manson  and  Roderick 
McLeod,  and  a  lot  of  land  granted  me  at  Fisherman's  Harbour,  and  also 
all  my  other  lands,  tenements  or  hereditaments  situate  in  said  County 
of  Sydney.  And  I  also  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  my  said  daughter, 
Mary  Jennette,  all   that  farm  messuage  and  premises  with  the  appur- 

•Now  Guysborough. 


tenances,  known  by  the  name  of  Spring  Hill  Farm,  containing  one  thou- 
sand five  hundred  acres,  more  or  less,  situate  on  the  Basin  of  Minas 
next  lands  owned  by  James  Walton  Nutting.  Also  all  that  lot  of  land 
situate  on  the  south  side  of  the  Petite  River,  purchased  by  me  from 
Leslie,  containing  five  hundred  acres,  more  or  less.  Also  all  the  marsh 
land  whatsoever,  adjoining  said  last  mentioned  tract,  and  also  all  the 
marsh  adjoining  the  lower  half  of  the  tract  of  one  thousand  acres  on  the 
south  side  of  said  river  granted  me  by  Government,  except  as  hereinafter 
excepted.  Also  ten  acres  of  marsh  land  on  the  north  side  of  said  Petite 
River,  purchased  by  me  from  William  Parker,  junior.  Also  all  that  tract 
of  land  situate  on  the  Cock  Magun  River,  together  with  a  right  throughout 
the  township  of  Newport,  purchased  by  me  from  John  Jones,  and  all  my 
other  lands,  tenements  and  hereditaments  whatsoever,  in  said  County  of 
Hants,  except  as  hereinafter  excepted. 

I  also  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  my  said  daughter,  Mary  J.  McNeill, 
all  that  farm  lot  of  land  and  premises  in  Moore  County,  State  of  North 
Carolina  in  the  United  States  of  America,  known  by  the  name  of  Piedd 
Farm  on  Deep  RiveT,  containing  three  hundred  acres,  more  or  less. 
Also  all  that  farm  in  said  North  Carolina  in  the  county  aforesaid,  known 
by  the  name  of  Cane  Brake,  containing  one  hundred  acres,  more  or  less. 
Also  all  that  farm  situate  on  Cape  Fear  River  in  Cumberland  County  in 
the  State  last  aforesaid,  and  all  my  other  lands  and  tenements  in  said 
County.  Also  all  the  share,  title,  right  and  interest  which  I  have  or 
possess  in  a  ferry  on  Cape  Fear  River  called  Sproule's  Ferry.  And  also 
my  other  lands,  tenements  and  hereditaments  whatsoever,  in  the  said 
State  of  North  Carolina  or  elsewhere.  I  also  give  and  bequeath  to  my 
said  daughter  Mary  J.  McNeill,  all  and  singular  my  personal  estate, 
goods,  monies,  effects'  or  credits  which  I  may  die  possessed  of  in  the 
said  Province  of  Nova  Scotia,  in  the  said  State  of  North  Carolina,  or  else- 
where whatsoever.  To  have  and  to  hold  all  and  singular  the  aforementioned 
and  described  lands,  messuages,  tenements,  hereditaments  and  appurten- 
ances and  premises,  unto  my  said  daughter,  Mary  Jennette  McNeill,  her 
heirs  and  assigns,  to  and  for  her,  and  their  only  proper  use,  benefit  and 
behoof  forever. 

And  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  my  youngest  daughter,  Sophia 
Margaret  Terhune,  the  lower  half  of  a  tract  of  land  of  one  thousand 
acres,  granted  by  Government,  situate  on  the  south  side  of  Petite  River 
aforesaid,  said  half  containing  five  hundred  acres,  more  or  less,  with  the 
piece  of  marsh  adjoining  the  same  where  the  Sled  road  now  is, 
being  the  piece  opposite  the  mouth  of  Mill  Creek,  all  the  other 
marsh  adjoining  said  land,  being  hereinbefore  devised  to  my 
eldest  daughter.  To  have  and  to  hold  the  said  half  tract  of  land  and 
premises  to  the  said  Sophia  Margaret  Terhune,  for  her  use  for  and  dur- 
ing her  natural  life,  and  after  her  decease  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath 
the  same  to  the  heirs  of  her  body  lawfully  issuing,  equally  share  and 
share  alike,  to  have  and  to  hold  to  them  and  their  heirs  forever,  but  not 
to  be  divided  until  the  youngest  shall  be  of  age.  And  in  case  my  said 
daughter  should  die  without  heirs,  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  the  same 
to  my  said  eldest  daughter,  Mary  J.  McNeill,  to  have  and  to  hold  to  her 
heirs  and  assigns  forever.  And  I  do  hereby  make,  constitute  and 
appoint  James  Walton  Nutting  to  be  the  sole  executor  of  this  my  last  will 
and  testament. 

In  witness  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal  this 
eighth  day  of  January,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hun- 
dred and  fourteen. 

Attestation  clause.  (Sgd.)   Danl.  McNeill  (L.S.) 

Witnesses : 

(Sgd.)  Jabeo  Ingersoll  Chlpman, 


W.  Hill. 


daniel  McNeill  parker,  m.d. 


"  I,  Daniel  McNeill,  the  testator  named  in  the  foregoing  will,  do 
hereby  make,  publish  and  declare  the  following  as  a  Codicil  to  my  said 
Will  and  in  revocation  of  such  part  thereof  as  is  hereinafter  mentioned, 
that  is  to  say,  I  hereby  revoke,  set  aside  and  make  void  the  clause  in 
my  said  will  whereby  I  have  devised  to  my  youngest  daughter,  Sophia 
Margaret  Terhune,  and  her  heirs,  the  tract  of  land  and  premises  therein 
mentioned,  being  the  lower  half  part  of  a  tract  of  land  of  one  thousand 
acres  granted  me  by  Government,  I  having  by  deed  made  over  to  my  said 
daughter  and  her  heirs  a  certain  other  tract  of  land  containing  five  hun- 
dred acres  more  or  less  purchased  by  me  from  —  'Leslie,  situate  on  the 
south  side  of  said  Petite  River,  in  said  deed  mentioned  and  described, 
and  under  certain  conditions  and  restrictions  in  said  deed  mentioned. 

"  (Sgd.)  Danl.  McNeill  (L.S.)' 

Attestation  clause. 

"  (Sgd.)   John  Wallace, 
"  J.  W.  Nutting." 

The  date  of  Daniel  McNeill's  death  was  May  5th,  1818. 

The  unequal  division  of  his  estate  by  the  foregoing  testa- 
mentary disposition  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  Captain  highly 
disapproved  of  the  marriage  which  his  younger  daughter,  Sophia, 
had  made  with  Daniel  Terhune  about  five  years  before  her  father's 
will  was  made,  when  she  was  only  sixteen.  Her  father  thought 
she  had  married  beneath  her  station  in  life,  and  too  young.  The 
elder  daughter  married  about  two  years  after  her  father's  death. 

Though  the  will  devises  some  nine  square  miles  (in  the  aggre- 
gate) of  land  in  Nova  Scotia,  beside  eleven  Stormont  or  Country 
Harbor  Townsite  lots,  its  maker  in  reality  was  "  land-poor  " ;  for 
much  of  this  property  was  of  little  if  any  value  then, 
or  for  many  years  afterwards,  and  he  had  paid  much 
too  dearly  for  that  part  of  it  which  he  had  purchased.  He 
had  inherited  the  Cape  Fear  Scot's  proclivity  for  multiplying 
his  landed  possessions,  with  the  notion  that  mere  acreage  would 
be  wealth.  Hisj  executor  and  his  son-in-law,  Francis  Parker,  did 
what  they  could  to  realize  on  the  Country  Harbor  properties,  but 
there  was  no  sale  for  them,  and  gradually  they  passed  into  the  pos- 
session of  land-grabbing  settlers.  To  eject  the  squatters  would 
have  cost  more  than  the  land  was  worth,  and  nothing  was  ever 
derived  from  these  properties  after  the  Captain's  death.  The 
grant  of  1784  was  finally  escheated  to  the  Crown  about  the  year 
1888,  in  order  to  make  title  to  part  of  the  land  for  gold-mining 

The  original  name  of  "Cambridge"  given  to  Captain  McNeill's 
homestead  property  became  attached  to  the  community  about  it; 
so  we  find  the  homestead,  in  the  will,  called  by  its  later  name, 
"  Spring  Hill  Farm." 

There  is  pathos  in  the  unavailing  devise  of  the  lost  plantations 


in  North  Carolina  to  the  daughter  Mary  Janet.  These  comprised 
about  five  hundred  acres.  At  no  time  could  the  proscribed  Loy- 
alist reasonably  hope  that  his  children  would  be  forgiven  for  the 
father's  loyalty  to  the  British  Crown.  Yet,  to  the  last,  the  old 
soldier  clung  to  the  idea  that  somehow,  sometime,  his  daughter 
might  succeed,  where  he  had  failed,  in  obtaining  natural  justice, 
albeit  nothing  but  legislation  by  the  State  of  North  Carolina  could 
have  redressed  the  father's  and  the  daughter's  wrongs.  To  think 
of  regaining  these  properties  in  1814,  or  afterwards,  was  a  futility, 
but  surrender  claim  and  hope  the  Captain  would  not.  A  will 
speaks  from  the  testator's  deathbed.  The  transmission  of  his 
righteous  claim  was  but  a  dying  father's  cry  for  justice  to  his 
helpless  child  from  a  relentlessly  vindictive  government  which 
visited  upon  the  children  the  so-called  sin  of  their  fathers:  the 
loyal  patriotism  of  gallant  men  converted  into  political  sin  by  suc- 
cessful rebellion. 


"  Faber  quisque  fortunae  suae." 

— Sallust. 

By  way  of  preface  to  this  account  of  my  father's  life,  I  shall 
quote  from  a  tribute  to  the  memory  of  his  father,  written  at  the 
time  of  the  latter's  death,  for  The  Christian  Messenger,  by  Rev. 
Jeremiah  Bancroft,  the  Baptist  pastor  at  Walton  for  many  years. 
The  extracts  here  given  will  justly  fill  out  the  portrait  of  my  grand- 
father briefly  sketched  in  my  earlier  paper,  while  throwing  some 
light  upon  the  early  home  life  and  influences  which  .contributed 
to  the  moulding  of  my  father's  character  in  the  plastic  time  of 
youth.     Mr.  Bancroft  wrote: 

"  Francis  Parker,  son  of  the  late  John  and  Sarah  Parker,  was 
born  at  Walton,  February,  1797.  When  about  sixteen  years  of 
age  he  went  as  clerk  to  the  late  Benjamin  DeWolf,  of  Windsor. 
In  consequence  of  his  faithfulness  in  that  department  he  was  some 
years  after  taken  into  the  firm.  After  some  time  he  moved  to 
Cambridge,  and  finally  to  Walton.  He  received  a  Magistrate's 
Commission  at  an  early  day.  He  here  engaged  in  extensive  busi- 
ness and  did  much  toward  the  improvement  of  the  place,  and  the 
encouragement  of  industry  in  agriculture,  plaster  and  shipbuild- 
ing. Naturally  generous  and  obliging,  he  sometimes  divided  his 
last  barrel  of  flour  with  those  who  were  destitute,  and  the  last  loaf 
of  bread  has  been  by  him  divided  while  supplies  were  being 
expected.  In  times  of  prosperity,  although  not  a  professor  of 
religion,  he  erected  a  house  for  worship.  After  finishing  the 
outside  so  far  as  to  make  it  comfortable  for  service,  the  Episco- 
palians aided  him  in  finishing  the  building,  which  he  donated  to 
them,  with  land  adjoining  for  a  burying-ground.  Possessing  a 
benevolent  disposition,  his  house  was  a  home  for  all  Protestant 
ministers  visiting  Walton.  The  writer  first  visited  the  place  in 
December,  1848,  under  the  direction  of  the  Baptist  Missionary 
Board,  and  was  invited  to  make  Mr.  Parker's  house  his  home  when 
there.  This  continued  till  June,  1850.  The  Episcopal  clergy- 
man, the  Wesleyan  and  the  Baptist  were  each  in  turn  made  wel- 
come every  four  weeks.  Other  ministers  visiting  the  place  partook 
of  his  hospitality  and  found  not  only  a  resting-place,  but  a  home. 
This  continued  while  he  kept  house.     In  the  summer  of  1860,  the 



Rev.  Mr.  Scott  visited  Walton  as  a  missionary,  through  whose 
efforts  (encouraged  by  Mr.  Parker)  a  Baptist  meeting-house  was 
undertaken  and  finished  the  winter  following,  the  late  J.  W. 
Nutting,  Esq.,  of  Halifax,  giving  the  ground.  When  the  house 
was  completed  (after  Mr.  Parker  paying  all  his  subscription) 
there  was  due  him  on  the  building  eighty  pounds,  which  was  never 
called  for.  When  enquired  of  by  the  writer,  after  the  house  was 
dedicated,  as  to  how  this  sum  was  to  be  raised,  he  said,  '  I  have 
concluded  to  let  it  stand.'  This  act  of  generosity  was  most  advan- 
tageous to  the  Baptist  interest  here.  During  the  winter,  while 
the  house  was  being  finished,  young  men  from  Acadia  College 
and  others  visiting  the  place,  preached  and  held  protracted  meet- 
ings. As  a  result  a  number  were  baptized  by  Rev.  D.  G.  Shaw, 
who,  with  the  late  Rev.  George  Dimock,  had  attended  for  that 
purpose,  among  whom  were  F.  Parker,  Esq.,  and  his  amiable  wife, 
a  truly  pious  woman  who  was  an  ornament  to  society  and  to  the 
Church  as  well.  In  March  following  the  house  was  dedicated,  and 
in  April,  four  weeks  from  the  dedication,  a  church  was  organized, 
consisting  of  fourteen  members.  Brother  Parker  was  ordained  to 
the  office  of  Deacon,  which  he  creditably  filled  till  called  home. 
Brother  Parker  was  also  requested  to  act  as  church  clerk,  which  he 
did  till  1880,  when  he  tendered  his  resignation  .  .  .  The 
consistent  faithfulness  of  our  departed  brother  in  church  matters 
was  most  satisfactory,  and  on  trying  occasions  convinced  those 
present  of  the  reality  of  his  profession.  He  was  gentle  and  un- 
assuming, yet  faithful  under  trials ;  he  also  possessed  decision  and 
perseverance  in  carrying  out  what  he  thought  was  right.  . 
His  was  a  peaceful,  happy  end;  .the  state  of  his  mind  may  be 
understood  by  his  requesting  others  to  meet  him  in  Heaven,  and 
suggesting  the  reading  of  the  twenty-third  Psalm,  when  prayer 
at  his  request  was  about  being  offered.  His  mind  was  clear  and 
his  faith  strong;  thus  the  righteous  hath  hope  in  his  death.  He 
died  on  the  evening  of  the  twenty-fourth  of  August,  in  his  eighty- 
sixth  year.  .  .  .  Mr.  Parker's  first  wife  was  removed  by 
death,  June  14th,  1866.  She  was  faithful  through  life  and  peace- 
ful in  death.  In  June,  1868,  he  was  again  united  in  marriage 
with  Anna,  widow  of  the  late  Dr.  Boyington,  of  Portland,  Maine. 
She  also  departed  this  life,  November,  1876,  at  Halifax,  N.  S.,  on 
her  return  from  Portland,  Maine." 

I  am  unable  to  fix  the  time  when  Francis  Parker  removed  from 
Windsor  to  Cambridge,  where  he  resided  for  a  time  at  Spring  Hill 
Farm,  at  the  commencement  of  his  business  operations  in  Walton ; 
but  my  father  was  then  very  young,  probably  three  years  old.  His 
earliest  recollection  gathered  about  a  serious  accident  which  befel 
him  at  Cambridge,  when  he  was  in  his  fifth  year.  Straying  into 
the  pasture  where  his  father's  favorite  old  mare,  "  Maggie,"  was 


at  large,  he  approached  from  behind  to  drive  her  by  the  tail,  when 
the  animal  flung  out  her  heels  and  the  front  of  one  shoe  caught  the 
child  on  the  forehead,  hurling  him  many  feet  away.  An  Irish 
farm  hand  who  was  near  by  picked  him  up  for  dead,  and  holding 
him  by  the  ankles,  to  protect  his  own  clothing  from  the  streaming 
blood,  carried  the  little  inanimate  form  to  the  house,  where  he 
deposited  his  burden  on  the  kitchen  floor  before  the  mother, 
exclaiming,  "  He's  kilt,  marm,  he's  kilt  entirely !"  There  was 
no  doctor  nearer  than  Windsor;  but  the  mother's  resourcefulness 
was  equal  to  the  emergency,  and  "  Maggie,"  with  the  father 
behind  her,  atoned  for  her  offence  that  day  by  fetching  the  far- 
away doctor  at  a  speed  which  established  a  record  for  the  distance. 
The  terrific  blow  indented  the  boy's  skull.  Had  the  frontal  bone 
been  hardened  by  a  few  more  years'  growth,  it  would  have  been 
fractured.  All  who  knew  him  will  recall  the  imprint  of  that 
mare's  shoe  over  my  father's  right  eye,  for  he  carried  this  mark 
to  the  grave. 

At  a  tender  age  he  had  a  second  narrow  escape  from  death, 
when  he  fell  out  of  a  boat  into  the  Petite  Eiver.  Two  of  his 
brothers  were  with  him,  and  one  seized  him  by  the  feet  as  he  was 
disappearing,  head  downwards,  beneath  the  surface.  Then  keep- 
ing his  head  under  water  by  holding  fast,  each  to  a  foot,  both 
brothers  screamed  lustily  for  help,  finding  that  they  were  not 
strong  enough  to  pull  him  back  into  the  boat.  Their  father 
chanced  to  be  near  by,  and,  plunging  into  the  river,  he  brought  the 
drowning  child's  head  to  the  surface  and  forcibly  released  the 
frantic  grip  of  the  others  upon  the  feet.  It  was  done  barely  in 
time,  for  there  was  much  ado  to  resuscitate  the  victim  of  this  novel 
method  of  his  little  brothers,  who  were  drowning  him  in  their 
endeavor  to  save  him. 

Daniel  was  still  a  small  boy  when  his  father  built  the  well- 
remembered  house  overlooking  the  river  in  the  central  part  of 
Walton  village,  set  into  the  slope  of  the  hill  with  its  access  from 
the  rear  above,  and  its  large  general  country  store  and  counting- 
house  beneath  forming  the  first  floor  on  a  level  with  the  main 
street.  This  became  at  once  the  homestead  and  the  centre  of 
Walton's  business  activity  when  it  was  the  thriving  community 
which  Francis  Parker  made  it. 

The  intensity  of  my  father's  love  for  this  old  home  of  his 
boyhood  and  of  his  filial  affections  can  be  attested  by  his  children, 
who  from  time  to  time  accompanied  him  on  his  visits  to  Walton ; 
while  in  his  last  years  his  conversation  with  them  showed  that  his 
mind  was  continually  reverting  tenderly  to  this  scene  and  the 
times  of  his  earliest  recollection,  in  which  his  father  and  his 
mother  were  the  central  figures  about  whom  his  thoughts  revolved. 

His  first  school-teacher  was  Michael  Cody,  a  Eoman  Catholic 


Irish  immigrant  who  had  settled  at  Walton  and  established  a 
boarding  and  day  school  for  boys.  He  was  an  intelligent  man, 
of  fairly  good  education,  and  a  successful  teacher.  His  daughter, 
Margaret,  widow  of  Henry  Conlon,  now  eighty-two  years  of  age, 
still  resides  in  Walton,  and  has  a  clear  recollection  of  "  Doctor 
Dan  "  as  a  little  schoolboy.  She  recalls  also  that  she  was  present 
in  his  home  in  1845  when  his  mother  read  from  The  Nova  Scotian 
a  paragraph  announcing  that  he  had  won  a  gold  medal  at  Edin- 
burgh. He  was  about  six  years  old  when  he  entered  this  Walton 
school,  and  he  attended  it  for  about  six  years.  The  school  dic- 
tionary, a  tattered  volume,  well  thumbed  by  the  boys  and  doubtless 
handled  often  by  my  father,  is  now  a  relic  in  our  family. 

Francis  Parker  was  a  believer  in  "  the  gospel  of  work."  The 
country  schoolboys  of  those  days,  who  innocently  knew  not  foot- 
ball, baseball,  hockey,  or  any  other  "  sports  "  as  the  all-absorbing 
occupation  of  youth,  though  their  games  held  due  place  in  the 
economy  of  their  lives,  took  their  natural  part  in  the  work  of  the 
home  and  of  their  fathers'  occupations.  Accordingly,  the  boy 
Daniel,  with  his  brothers,  when  at  home  throughout  his  schoolboy 
career,  shared  the  labor  of  the  lumber  woods,  the  quarry  and  the 
shipyard  to  the  best  of  a  schoolboy's  time  and  strength. 

In  the  year  1834,  when  he  was  twelve  years  of  age,  the  boy 
was  sent  to  the  Collegiate  School  in  connection  with  King's 
College  at  Windsor;  but  his  stay  there  was  brief,  in  consequence 
of  his  revolt  against  the  system  by  which  the  College  students 
fagged  the  Academy  boys.  He  was  appropriated  as  a  fag  by 
a  collegian,  a  man  nearly  thirty  years  old  and  of  low  character. 
For  refusing  to  black  this  fellow's  boots  the  little  fag  was  soundly 
beaten  by  him  and  then  thrust  headlong  into  a  large  wood-stove 
in  one  of  the  class-rooms,  with  the  stove  door  fastened  behind  him. 
It  was  late  on  a  winter's  afternoon,  and  the  embers  of  the  day's 
lire  still  glowed  among  a  mass  of  stifling  ashes.  He  contrived 
to  kick  the  door  out  of  the  stove  and  to  escape  to  his  room,  after 
the  bully  had  left  him  to  shift  for  himself.  A  few  minutes 
sufficed  to  pack  up  his  wardrobe  and  books.  With  these  in  a 
bundle  on  his  back,  the  enraged,  high-spirited  child  set  out  in  the 
dusk  of  evening  to  walk  the  twenty-five  miles  to  his  home.  But 
as  he  passed  through  the  college  gate  he  was  confronted  by 
Dr.  Porter,  the  College  President,  riding  in,  and  who,  divining 
his  intention  to  run  away,  asked  him  where  he  was  going. 
Reluctantly  he  was  obliged  to  tell  his  story.  "  Come  back  with 
me,"  said  the  angry  doctor,  and  he  rode  up  to  the  front  of  the 
College,  followed  by  the  runaway.  Just  then,  unluckily  issued 
from  a  door  the  object  of  the  President's  wrath,  the  perpetrator 
of  the.  outrage.  Leaping,  in  a  passion,  from  his  horse,  the  doctor, 
a  large,  powerful  man,  charged  him  with  what  he  had  done,  and 

90  DANIEL  McNEILL  pakkek,  m.d. 

hardly  waiting  for  an  answer,  administered  to  the  bully,  in  full 
view  of  College  and  Academy,  a  tremendous  thrashing  with  a 
heavy  dog-whip  which  he  used  when  riding.  The  innocent  cause 
of  this  disturbance  of  the  scholastic  calm  of  King's  was  ordered 
to  return  to  his  studies,  but  it  is  easy  to  understand  how  by 
petty  persecution,  secretly  conducted,  this  disgrace  of  a  public 
flogging  endured  by  a  grown  man,  and  for  such  a  reason,  was 
avenged  upon  the  unwilling  cause  of  it,  and  why,  at  the  end  of  the 
school  year,  the  youngster  who  had  the  spirit  to  challenge  the 
fagging  system  and  to  persist  undaunted  in  his  defiance  of  it 
while  he  remained  at  Windsor,  was  removed  from  that  school 
by  his  father.  The  late  Alfred  Haliburton,  Sergeant-a't-Arms 
of  the  House  of  Assembly,  a  schoolmate,  backed  my  father  in  this 
campaign  for  liberty,  and  being  a  redoubtable  pugilist  for  his  age, 
more  than  once  thrashed  a  collegian  at  Windsor  on  his  behalf. 

While  there,  Daniel  used  to  be  a  visitor  at  "  Clifton,"  the 
home  of  Judge  Thomas  Chandler  Haliburton,  who  was  then 
publishing  in  the  Nova  Scotian  his  famous  "  Sam  Slick " 
papers.  Francis  Parker  was  an  intimate  friend  of  this  founder 
of  the  school  of  American  humor.  I  have  a  book  on  "  Parish 
Law  "  (published  in  1743)  which  the  judge  sent  by  our  young 
schoolboy  as  a  present  to  his  father  in  1835.  The  book  had 
belonged  to  Judge  Isaac  Deschamps,  noted  in  Provincial  history 
for  the  charges  of  maladministration  of  law  preferred  against 
him  in  the  year  1778 ;  and  it  had  been  purchased  from  him  by 
W.  H.  0.  Haliburton,  "  Sam  Slick's  "  father,  who  was  a  judge 
of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas.  The  title  page  bears  the  auto- 
graph of  both  these  former  owners. 

During  his  school  days  at  Windsor  my  father  made  occasional 
visits  home,  when  he  would  usually  walk  the  whole  way,  taking 
short  cuts  through  the  Newport  woods.  On  one  of  these  walks  he 
encountered  a  wildcat  which  disputed  his  passage;  but  after 
a  brief  encounter  he  succeeded  in  driving  off  the  beast  with  a 
cudgel  and  came  out  unhurt.  To  point  a  moral,  he  was  wont 
to  tell  how,  driving  home  from  Windsor  for  a  vacation  with  an 
Irish  servant  of  his  father,  he  made  his  first,  and  last,  attempt 
at  smoking.  The  Irishman  treated  him  to  a  cigar  which  made 
him  in  a  few  minutes  so  horribly  ill  that,  as  he  lay  groaning 
in  the  bushes  by  the  road  side,  expiating  the  offence  against 
his  stomach,  he  resolved  never  to  try  smoking  again;  and  he 
never  did. 

In  the  autumn  of  1835,  or  early  winter,  he  went  to  Horton 
Academy,  at  Wolfville,  where  he  was  a  student  until  November, 

The  Rev.  John  Pryor  was  Principal  of  the  school.  In  a 
letter  to  one  of  the  Presidents  of  Acadia  College,  written  in  1899, 


referring  to  the  old  Academy,  my  father  says :  "  Isaac  Chipman, 
whose  life  was  so  sadly  ended  in  the  Basin  of  Minas,  was  one 
of  the  Assistants.  I  became  much  attached  to  him,  and  he  was 
a  valued  friend  during  my  sojourn  at  the  Academy,  and  was  one 
of  my  Nova  Scotia  correspondents  at  a  later  period  while  I 
was  pursuing  my  professional  studies  at  the  University  of  Edin- 
burgh. He  was  a  quiet,  unassuming  Christian  man,  of  marked 
ability,  and  a  born  naturalist." 

Among  his  school-fellows  there  were,  James  Forman,  who 
became  a  distinguished  engineer;  P.  C.  Hill,  for  some  years 
Provincial  Secretary  and  leader  of  the  government;  his  brother, 
George  Hill,  long  rector  of  St.  Paul's,  Halifax;  John  P.  Mott 
and  William  J.  Stairs,  who  both  attained  distinction  and  wealth 
among  the  merchants  of  Halifax;  Alexander  James,  who  became 
Judge-in-Equity  of  Nova  Scotia;  and  Charles  Tupper,  distin- 
guished in  the  foremost  rank  of  Canadian  statesmen. 

We  recall  the  close,  affectionate  and  life-long  friendship 
between  these  men  and  my  father,  founded  upon  the  strong  bond 
of  school  associations  and  schoolboy  experiences.  He  retained 
many  other  such  school-bred  friendships  with  men  in  humbler 
walks  of  life,  and  not  different  in  kind  or  strength. 

William  B.  C.  A.  Parker,  of  Crimean  fame,  whose  memory, 
conjointly  with  that  of  Welsford,  is  conserved  by  the  monument 
in  St.  Paul's  Cemetery  at  Halifax,  was  another  fellow-student 
at  Horton  Academy. 

While  at  Horton  he  bore  an  active  part  in  planting  those 
now  venerable  ornamental  trees  which  have  since  adorned  the 
grounds  of  Acadia  College.  The  boys  of  the  Academy  (the 
College  was  not  yet  founded)  brought  the  trees  in  a  scow  or 
flatboat  down  the  Cornwallis  River  from  points  near  Kentville. 
Some  of  the  fruits  of  these  labors  perished  in  the  fire  which 
destroyed  the  old  College  building  in  1877,  many  have  been 
cut  down  since  in  the  process  of  what  is  thought  to  be  "  improve- 
ment," but  a  few  yet  remain  as  monuments  to  the  memory  of 
those  Academy  boys  of  William  the  Fourth's  reign.  The  College 
fire  consumed  the  old  Academy  building,  which  formed  the 
central  section  of  the  College  structure,  and  the  old  Academy 
boarding-house,  in  which  my  father  lodged,  went  down  in  a  later 
fire.    Both  were  very  familiar  to  the  writer. 

Though  always  of  studious  habits,  my  father,  while  at  Horton, 
indulged  much  in  his  favorite  pastimes,  shooting  and  fishing. 
Game  was  then  abundant  in  the  vicinity.  The  late  Judge  James 
and  he  were  usually  companions  of  the  order  of  the  gun,  and 
they  kept  the  Academy  larder  stocked  with  the  various  victims 
of  their  prowess. 

The  course  at  Horton  closed  his  academic  education,  so  far 

92  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

as  schools  were  concerned,  and  there  he  completed  the  subjects 
necessary  for  matriculation  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh. 
There  was  no  graduation  ceremony  or  granting  of  degrees  in 
those  days  at  this  school.  The  testamur  closing  his  studies  was 
merely  this  certificate: 

"  This  may  certify  that  the  bearer,  Daniel  Parker,  has  been 
for  some  length  of  time  a  pupil  in  the  Horton  Academy.  And, 
being  now  about  to  leave,  I  have  much  pleasure  in  testifying 
to  the  good  advancement  he  has  made  in  his  studies,  as  well  as 
to  his  uniformly  attentive,  obedient,  and  studious  habits  and  his 
correct  moral  deportment,  while  under  my  care. 

"  Sgd.      John  Peyok,  A.M., 

"  Principal  Horton  Academy. 
"  November,  1837." 

The  reader  familiar  with  the  history  of  the  old  Granville 
Street  Baptist  Church,  Halifax,  and  Daniel  Parker's  share 
in  it,  may  find  something  pathetic  in  this  certificate. 

The  choice  of  medicine  as  a  profession  seems  to  have  been 
made  during  the  course  of  study  at  Horton, — at  an  early  age, 
for  he  was  but  fifteen  when  he  left  school.  That  he  was  more 
than  ordinarily  mature  for  his  years  seems  probable.  But  youth 
seems  to  have  ripened,  as  a  general  thing,  more  rapidly  then 
than  now,  when  the  distractions  surrounding  and  worked  into  our 
schools  of  learning  too  easily  tempt  the  student  and  retard  his 
progress  toward  knowledge  and  manhood ;  when  play,  degenerated 
into  "  sport,"  appears  too  often  to  usurp  the  place  of  first  import- 
ance and  threatens  the  reversal  of  the  old  adage  into  the  form: 
"  All  play  and  no  work  makes  Jack  a  dull  boy." 

Two  months  or  more  were  now  spent  at  home,  after  which, 
early  in  the  year  1838,  medical  studies  were  begun  in  Halifax  with 
Dr.  William  Bruce  Almon,  a  man  distinguished  in  the  profession. 
Pharmacy  occupied  much  of  the  junior  student's  time  in  those 
days,  and  it  was  acquired  practically  in  the  drug  store;  for 
every  physician  was  then  his  own  apothecary.  Dr.  Almon's  shop, 
with  his  offices  attached,  was  located  about  midway  in  that  block 
on  the  north  side  of  Duke  Street  which  extends  from  Water 
Street  to  Hollis  Street, — a  little  east  of  the  present  Acadia  Sugar 
Refinery  office.  The  articles  by  which  my  father  was  bound  or 
apprenticed  to  Dr.  Almon  are  here  given.  The  document  will 
not  be  without  interest  to  anyone  for  whom  the  Provincial  his- 
tory of  medical  education,  with  its  changed  customs,  has  attrac- 
tions ;  and  certainly  the  quaint  and  now  obsolete  terms  of  his 
apprenticeship  must  interest  the  descendants  of  the  boy  of  fifteen 
who  by  this  instrument  became  wedded,  as  it  were,  to  the  pro- 
fession of  his  choice. 


"  Indenture  of  Apprenticeship. 

"  This  indenture  made  the  ninth  day  of  February,  in  the  year 
of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-eight,  between 
Daniel  McNeill  Parker,  the  son  of  Francis  Parker,  of  Walton, 
in  the  County  of  Hants,  and  Province  of  Nova  Scotia,  Esquire, 
which  said  Daniel  McNeill  Parker  is  an  infant  of  the  age  of 
fifteen  years  of  the  first  part,  William  Bruce  Almon,  of  Halifax, 
Nova  Scotia,  Doctor  of  Medicine,  of  the  second  part,  and  the 
said  Francis  Parker,  of  the  third  part,  witnesseth  that  the  said 
Daniel  McNeill  Parker  at  the  desire  and  with  the  consent  and 
approbation  of  the  said  Francis  Parker  hath  and  by  these  presents 
doth  put  himself  apprentice  to  the  said  William  Bruce  Almon, 
to  learn  the  science  profession  and  practice  of  a  physician,  and 
the  art  and  mystery  of  a  surgeon,  and  the  trade  and  business 
of  an  apothecary  and  druggist,  and  with  him  after  the  manner 
of  such  an  apprentice  to  remain,  continue  and  serve,  from  the 
day  of  the  date  of  these  presents  for,  and  until  the  full  end  and 
term  of  four  years  thence  ensuing  and  fully  to  be  complete  and 

"  And  the  said  Daniel  McNeill  Parker  on  his  behalf,  and 
the  said  Francis  Parker  in  consideration  of  the  promises  herein 
contained,  for  himself  his  executors  and  administrators,  do 
severally  covenant  and  promise  to  and  with  the  said  William 
Bruce  Almon,  his  executors  and  administrators,  that  during  all  the 
term  aforesaid  the  said  Daniel  McNeill  Parker  his  said  master 
faithfully  shall  serve  after  the  manner  of  such  an  apprentice, 
his  secrets  conceal,  his  lawful  and  reasonable  commands,  every- 
where, readily  perform  and  obey,  that?  his  said  master's  goods  or 
estate  of  any  kind  he  shall  not  waste,  embezzle,  purloin  or  lend 
unto  others  and  will  not  suffer  to  be  wasted,  embezzled,  pur- 
loined or  lent  unto  others  without  giving  notice  thereof  to  his 
said  master.  That  he  shall  not  frequent  taverns  or  ale-houses 
or  play  at  any  unlawful  games  or  contract  matrimony  with  any 
person  during  the  said  term,  whereby  or  by  means  of  any  of  the 
said  matters  his  said  master  shall  or  may  sustain  any  damage, 
loss  or  injury,  that  he  shall  not  at  any  time  by  day  or  night 
absent  himself  or  depart  from  his  said  master's  service  without 
his  leave,  but  in  all  things  as  a  good  and  faithful  apprentice 
shall  and  will  behave  and  demean  himself  to  his  said  master 
during  all  the  said  term.  And  the  said  Francis  Parker  for  him- 
self doth  further  covenant  and  promise  that  during  the  whole 
of  the  said  term  he  will  find  and  provide  for  the  said  Daniel 
McNeill  Parker  suitabfe  board,  lodging  and  apparel,  will  pay 
all  rates,  taxes  and  assessments  made  upon  him,  and  will  well 
and  truly  pay  or  cause  to  be  paid  to  the  said  William  Bruce 
Almon   the   full    and   just   sum   of   one   hundred   pounds    as    an 


apprentice  fee  for  the  instruction  which  is  hereinafter  covenanted 
and  agreed  to  be  given  to  the  said  Daniel  McNeill  Parker.  And 
the  said  William  Bruce  Almon  for  himself,  his  heirs,  executors 
and  administrators  does  covenant,  promise  and  agree  to  and  with 
the  said  Daniel  McNeill  Parker  separately  and  also  with  the  said 
Erancis  Parker,  his  executors  and  administrators,  that  he,  the 
said  William  Bruce  Almon,  shall  and  will  during  the  said  term, 
to  the  best  of  his  power  and  ability,  teach  and  instruct  or 
cause  to  be  taught  or  instructed  the  said  Daniel  McNeill  Parker  in 
the  science  profession  and  practice  of  a  physician,  and  the  art 
and  mystery  of  a  surgeon,  and  the  trade  and  business  of  an 
apothecary  and  druggist  within  the  Township  of  Halifax,  accord- 
ing to  the  manner  in  which  he,  the  said  William  Bruce  Almon, 
now  or  hereafter  during  the  said  term  does  or  shall  practice,  user 
or  carry  on  the  said  science,  art  and  business  aforesaid,  and  as 
fully  and  effectually  as  the  said  term  of  four  years  and  the  means 
afforded  or  to  be  obtained  within  the  said  Township  will  permit 
or  allow  the  said  Daniel  McNeill  Parker  to  be  instructed  in  the 
science,  art  and  business  aforesaid. 

"  In  witness  whereof  the  parties  to  these  presents  have  here- 
unto their  hands  and  seals  subscribed  and  set  on  the  day  and 
year  first  above  written. 

"  Signed,,  Sealed  and  Delivered 

"  in  the  presence  of 

"  (Sgd.)     J.  W.  Nutting. 

"  Sgd.     Daniel  McNeill  Parker  (L.S.). 

"    "        Francis  Parker  (L.S.). 

"    "        William  Bruce  Almon,  M.D.   (L.S.). 

"  It  is  understood  and  agreed  that  the  said  Daniel  McNeill 
Parker  shall  at  the  end  of  three  years  with  his  father's  consent 
have  the  option  of  ending  his  apprenticeship  in  order  to  complete 
his  professional  education. 

"  Sgd.     William  Bruce  Almon,  M.D." 

In  Halifax  the  young  apprentice,  for  the  most  part,  made  his 
home    with   his   great-uncle,    James   W.    Nutting,    who   lived    at 

95  Hollis  Street,  where  the  Nova  Scotia  Building  Society  is 
now  located,  and  for  a  time  he  boarded  in  the  old  house  on  Bedford 
Row  since  occupied  for  offices  by  the  law  firms  in  which  Chief 
Justice  McDonald,  Judges  Rigby,  Meagher  and  Drysdale,  and 
their  successors,  were  members.  It  came  about  that  I  began 
the  study  of  my  profession  in  the  latter  building,  and  for  a  time 
I  occupied  as  an  office  the  room  in  which  my  father  slept  at 
95   Hollis   Street  when   a  boy.      This   room,   strangely   enough, 


became  his  private  office  in  1882,  while  I  was  studying  in  what 
had  been  the  other  bedroom  of  his  boyhood,  on  Bedford  Row. 

The  personal  charm  and  character  of  Mr.  Nutting,  his  fatherly 
solicitude  and  his  instructive  powers  of  conversation,  taken 
together  with  the  influences  of  the  Nutting  home,  were  forces 
which  contributed  to  mould  the  character  and  form  the  mind  of 
my  father.  They  left  indelible  impressions  for  good  upon  him. 
He  loved  and  revered  this  scholarly,  polished,  old  school  gentle- 
man and  devout,  God-fearing  man  as  a  second  father.  In  public 
addresses,  as  in  private  discourse,  I  have  known  him  many  times 
to  quote  the  sayings  of  Mr.  Nutting  and  to  impress  upon  his 
hearers  some  truth  or  lesson  drawn  from  the  life  of  his  great- 
uncle,  who  indeed  was  a  remarkable  man. 

When  Captain  Marryat,  the  novelist  par  excellence  of  the 
navy  and  the  sea,  was  much  in  Halifax  as  midshipman  and 
junior  officer,  he  and  Mr.  Nutting,  then  a  student-at-law,  were 
on  terms  of  intimacy,  and  Marryat,  when  on  shore  leave,  shared 
the  other's  lodgings.  From  Mr.  Nutting  my  father  received 
many  amusing  stories  of  Marryat's  youthful  days,  which  tales, 
together  with  incidents  of  Mr.  Nutting's  association  with  the 
author,  kindled  an  interest  in  the  Captain's  writings  which  was 
never  extinguished.  When  he  was  nearing  his  eightieth  year  I 
found  him  one  day  deeply  engrossed  in  "  Newton  Forster,"  though 
little  given  to  reading  fiction  since  the  times  when  Dickens  and 
Thackeray,   and  even  Scott,  were  new  and  read  by  everybody. 

Dr.  Almon  seems  to  have  had  only  the  one  apprentice  at  the 
period  now  under  review,  but  associated  with  him  in  the  Duke 
Street  apothecary  shop  were  the  late  William  A.  Hendry,  who 
became  well  known  as  a  Crown  Land  Surveyor  in  after  life, 
and  a  little  negro  boy,  singularly  named  Dan  Parker,  who 
carried  out  the  medicines  and  performed  the  menial  offices  of  the 
establishment.  This  ebony  namesake  will  appear  again  in  the 

From  the  reminiscences  of  those  first  years  of  medical  study 
I  select  one,  illustrative  of  examinations  for  admission  to  practice 
seventy  years  ago  in  Nova  Scotia.  The  first  Medical  Act  in  the 
history  of  the  Province,  that  of  1828,  entitled  "  An  Act  to  exclude 
ignorant  and  unskilful  persons  from  the  practice  of  Physic  and 
Surgery,"  was  then  in  force,  under  which  a  Licensing  Board, 
appointed  by  the  Governor  in  Council,  conducted  these  examina- 
tions. This  was  the  system  until  1856.  The  last  members  of 
this  old-time  Board  were  Drs.  Edward  Jennings,  William  J. 
Almon,  and  my  father.  Dr.  W.  B.  Almon  with  two  or  three  other 
senior  medical  men  now  conducted  the  examinations,  in  his  office. 
They  were  altogether  oral,  and  my  father  sometimes  was 
privileged  to  listen  to   them,   for   his   instruction.      There   were 


empirics,  young  and  old,  among  the  candidates;  for  the  efficient 
Statutes  of  the  Province  regulating  matters  relating  to  the  pro- 
fession were  of  later  date  and  registration  was  as  yet  unknown. 

One  evening  there  presented  himself  for  examination  a  middle- 
aged  Irishman,  not  long  off  "  the  sod,"  who  had  been  professing 
to  act  as  a  doctor  in  one  of  the  central  counties,  and  had  been 
summoned  to  Halifax  to  show  his  qualifications.  His  answers 
to  elementary  questions  showed  that  he  knew  nothing  of  any 
medical  or  surgical  subject,  but  his  quick  wit  and  powers  of 
repartee  repaid  the  amused  and  quizzical  doctors  for  spending  the 
evening  in  a;  species  of  professional  farce.  They  drew  from  the 
candidate  many  novelties  in  the  practice  of  physic,  and  some 
discoveries  in  anatomy  that  would  astound  even  a  twentieth 
century  surgeon.  But  his  piece  de  resistance  was  that  he,  of  all 
mankind,  possessed  the  knowledge  of  a  certain  hair  on  the  human 
head  which,  if  pulled,  would  lift  the  palate;  and  he  claimed  that 
this  discovery  of  his  was  so  important  to  the  profession  and  to 
suffering  humanity  at  large  as  to  entitle  him  to  a  license,  by  way 
of  reward.  He  had  a  great  shock  of  hair  himself,  brilliantly  red, 
and  one  examiner  gravely  requested  that  he  select  from  his  own 
abundance  the  hair  required  and  demonstrate  the  discovery  for 
which  medical  science  had  long  been  waiting.  "  Ah,  gintlemen," 
said  he,  "  that  wud  be  tellin !  "  This  saying  of  the  Irishman 
was  often  used  by  my  father  to  illustrate  that  species  of  quackery 
which  professes  the  discovery  of  medical  remedies,  but  declines 
to  divulge  the  formulas,  or  ingredients,  to  the  profession  and 
the  public. 

Beside  being  health  officer  of  the  port,  Dr.  Almon  was  the 
medical  and  surgical  officer  of  the  poor-house  and  gaol,  and 
his  apprentice  would  attend  on  him  at  these  institutions  for 
clinics.*  There  was  no  other  hospital.  Beginning  with  dentistry 
(tooth-pulling)  and  the  letting  of  blood — the  old  school  panacea — 
he  soon  began  to  try  his  'prentice  hand  generally,  in  physic  and 
simple  surgery,  by  way  of  practice  on  the  paupers  and  the  gaol 
population,  who  were  thought  fair  game  for  students.  In  his 
second  year  of  study  he  was  practically  in  charge  there,  as 
medical  attendant.  He  too  briefly  refers  to  his  experiences 
there  in  his  reply  to  the  address  presented  by  the  profession  on 
his  retirement  in  1895. 

When  leaving  the  poor-house  one  day  with  his  master,  an 
attempt  was  made  on  the  latter's  life  by  a  demented  man  who 
cherished  a  grudge  against  Dr.  Almon  for  some  fancied  injury. 

*  The  poor  house  was  on  the  north  side  of  Spring  Garden  Road,  a 
little  to  the  eastward  of  the  site  of  the  present  Baptist  church.  The 
gaol,  or  bridewell,  as  it  was  called,  stood  about  where  the  Baptist  vestry 
now  is  and  opposite  the  old  theatre. 


The  would-be  assassin  fired  a  pistol  at  the  doctor,  but  another 
person  at  that  instant,  while  coming  out  of  the  door,  roughly  jostled 
the  doctor  and  stepped  in  front  of  him,  just  in  time  to  receive 
the  bullet.  This  individual  paid  for  his  incivility  by  being  badly 
wounded ;  but  he  recovered. 

The  term  of  apprenticeship  to  Dr.  Almon  was  prematurely 
ended  by  his  death  after  two  years'  and  four  months'  service 
had  been  performed.  By  this  time  the  apprentice  had  become 
so  necessary  to  the  business  of  the  drug  store  that  the  doctor's 
widow  and  family  pressed  him  to  remain  and  carry  it  on  for  a 
year  or  so,  until  the  son  William  J.  Almon  (afterwards  Dr. 
Almon,  the  Senator),  who  was  then  completing  his  medical 
studies  at  Edinburgh,  should  return  to  take  up  his  father's  practice. 
To  this  earnest  request  he  yielded,  and  beside  successfully  con- 
tinuing the  business  (receiving  one-fourth  of  the  profits)  he 
proved  his  capacity  further  by  adjusting  the  books  and  realizing 
the  credits  of  his  late  master's  estate  for  the  family.  While  con- 
ducting the  drug  store  on  his  own  responsibility  he  lodged  around 
the  corner  on  Water  Street,  in  an  attic  room  overlooking  Black's 
wharf.  This  lodging-house,  save  for  the  present  grog  shop  below, 
remains  as  it  then  was. 

In  the  summer  of  1841,  upon  the  return  of  Dr.  William  J. 
Almon,  who  had  then  obtained  his  degree,  he  severed  relations 
with  the  Almons  and  returned  home  to  study,  chiefly  by  way  of 
review  for  his  matriculation  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh. 
But  he  had  worked  so  assiduously  at  Halifax  that  his  health  had 
become  affected,  and  he  was  threatened  by  a  weakness  of  the 
chest;  so,  under  medical  advice,  most  of  the  winter  of  1841-2  was 
spent  in  the  West  Indies.  He  sailed  from  Halifax  in  a  brigantine 
for  Bermuda,  after  Christmas. 

An  incident  of  the  /voyage  was  the  capture  of  a  large  man- 
eating  shark,  which  he  hooked,  unintentionally,  while  amusing 
himself  fishing  for  a  porpoise  during  a  tedious  calm.  A  quick 
hitch  of  the  line  on  a  belaying  pin,  and  the  boy  fisherman's 
presence  of  mind  barely  saved  him  from  going  overboard.  Then 
followed  a  fight  between  all  hands  and  the  shark.  After  a  long 
struggle,  the  line  which  held  the  monster  was  passed  through  a 
block  aloft,  a  noose  on  another  was  slipped  over  the  thrashing 
tail,  this  line  also  rove  aloft,  and  with  all  the  crew  on  the  falls 
of  both  tackle,  the  shark  was  laboriously  hoisted  on  board  between 
the  masts  and  lowered  to  the  deck,  where  he  was  despatched  with 
firearms  and  axes;  but  not  without  difficulty,  for  he  was  of 
immense  bulk  and  his  convulsive  struggles  about  the  deck  made 
close  approach  dangerous.  The  student  passenger  now  performed 
his  first  post  mortem,  and  in  the  course  of  his  examination  he 
took  from  the  stomach  of  his  subject  several  knives,  forks,  spoons, 


98  DANIEL  McNEILL  pakkek,  m.d. 

a  tin  plate  or  two  and  some  smaller  miscellany,  swallowed,  no 
doubt,  among  refuse  food  thrown  from  vessels  which  this  scavenger 
of  the  sea  had  followed  in  the  course  of  his  business. 

In  trying  to  make  the  harbor  of  Hamilton,  Bermuda,  the 
brigantine  went  ashore  on  a  reef.  The  weather  was  calm,  and, 
as  the  tide  was  low,  the  captain  anticipated  no  difficulty  in 
getting  off  at  high  water.  But  soon  several  boats,  swarming  with 
negroes,  appeared.  The  captain,  familiar  with  the  island,  recog- 
nized these  visitors  as  belonging  to  a  dangerous  class  of  wreckers 
or  land-pirates,  formerly  slaves,  who,  freed  by  British  law  a 
few  years  before,  had  become  a  menace  to  shipping  and  to  the 
lives  of  seamen  becalmed  near  the  coast  or  becoming  wrecked 
upon  it.  The  blacks  offered,  politely  enough,  to  come  aboard  and 
render  assistance.  But,  forewarned  by  the  experience  of  ship- 
masters who  had  suffered  by  this  little  by-product  of  the  "  Eman- 
cipation Act,"  the  Nova  Scotia  master  was  fore-armed,  and 
literally.  When  the  leading  boat  had  ranged  alongside  and  the 
negroes  made  a  show  of  coming  aboard,  willy-nilly,  a  dozen 
muskets  suddenly  rose  over  the  bulwarks  and  looked  the  scoundrels 
in  the  eyes,  and  the  captain  threatened  to  fire  if  they  touched  the 
vessel's  side.  It  was  enough.  The  boats  were  scurrying  to  a 
more  respectful  distance  when  the  captain  recognized  an  elderly 
negro  whom  he  had  known  to  act  as  a  pilot,  and  he  ordered  him 
to  come  on  board,  or  he  would  fire  on  his  boat.  The  order  was 
obeyed,  but  the  boat  was  kept  covered  by  the  muskets  until  it 
drew  off  again.  The  captain  then  very  seriously  and  emphatic- 
ally gave  this  old  rascal  to  understand  that  he  was  to  pilot  the 
vessel  in  at  high  water  and  that  if  she  touched  ground  on  the 
way  he  would  be  shot.  They  got  off  the  reef,  without  damage, 
in  the  afternoon.  With  a  fair  wind,  the  terrified  ex-pilot  took 
them  safely  into  harbor,  having  his  memory  and  other  faculties 
mildly  stimulated  by  an  occasional  application  of  the  captain's 
pistol  in  the  region  of  the  short  ribs,  and  by  exhortations  in  the 
language  pertaining  to  the  sea,  with  which  the  passenger  did 
not  charge  his  memory^ 

After  a  short  stay  in  Bermuda  the  young  voyager  sailed  to 
Jamaica,  where  most  of  the  winter  was  spent.  Obtaining  a 
chance  passage  thither  in  a  British  transport  carrying  troops, 
he  spent  part  of  his  time  in  the  island  of  Nevis.  There  he  lodged 
in  the  house  in  which  Nelson  was  married  thirty-four  years  before, 
Prince  William  Henry,  afterwards  William  the  Fourth,  giving 
away  the  bride.  My  father  was  wont  to  indulge  a  little  in  hero- 
worship,  in  Carlyle's  sense  of  the  term.  Who  that  is  a  man  does 
not  ?  This  house  in  Nevis,  because  it  had  been  much  fre- 
quented by  Nelson,  seemed  to  him,  even  in  later  years,  a  minor 
shrine  to  the  memory  of  one  of  his  few  heroes,  and  the  quarter- 


deck,  great  cabin  and  the  cock-pit  of  the  '"Victory"  major  ones, 
after  he  had  visited  that  historic  ship  at  a  later  period.  Such  was 
his  pride  in  the  achievements  of  Nelson  and  his  emotion  of 
reverence  for  Nelson's  memory  that  I  have  known  his  voice  to 
tremble  and  his  eyes  to  fill  with  tears  when,  recounting  the  death 
scene  at  Trafalgar,  he  would  come  to  the  dying  hero's  request: 
"  Kiss  me,  Hardy." 

While  in  the  West  Indies  much  of  his  time  was  given  to 
study,  and  he  accomplished  much  general  reading.  The  residence 
there  and  the  sea  voyages  had  removed  all  apprehensions  as  to 
his  health  when  he  returned  in  the  spring  of  1842. 

He  had  previously  made  voyages,  during  school  holidays,  to 
Portland,  Boston  and  other  points  on  the  United  States  coast. 
He  was  now  to  cross  the  Atlantic.  Midsummer  found  him  in 
Halifax  making  his  preparations  for  Edinburgh.  His  father's 
capital  being  tied  up  in  the  Walton  enterprises,  it  became  neces- 
sary to  borrow  five  hundred  pounds,  sterling,  for  the  completion 
of  his  education.  It  speaks  something  for  the  friendships  and 
the  reputation  he  had  made  in  Halifax  that  on  applying  to  Mr. 
William  C,  a  young  man  of  independent  fortune,  to  whom  he 
was  well  known,  the  loan  was  obtained,  and  a  greater  amount 
pressed  upon  him,  without  even  the  security  of  a  promissory 
note  which  was  proffered,  satisfactorily  endorsed.  The  security 
was  laughingly  rejected  by  his  friend,  who  remarked :  "  Pay  me 
when  you  have  earned  the  money,  and  say  nothing  more  about  it." 
Nor  would  he  hear  anything  more  about  it.  In  the  sequel,  the 
loan  was  repaid  within  two  years  from  the  commencement;  of 
the  borrower's  practice,  with  interest;  and  such  was  the  lender's 
esteem  for  him  that  upon  Mr.  C.'s  death,  some  years  later,  he 
appointed  his  young  family  physician  the  guardian  of  his  infant 
children,  a  trust  which  continued  for  many  years  and  to  the 
burden  of  which  was  added  tragedy,  when  one  of  the  wards  was 
murdered  by   Indians   in   Colorado. 

A  Halifax  firm  of  merchants  had  a  ship  at  Pictou  loading 
lumber  for  Glasgow,  and  a  passage  was  procured.  No  floating 
hotels  in  the  shape  of  steamships  had  then  reduced  the  Atlantic 
voyage  to  a  trifle  for  trippers.  It  is  true  the  Cunard  line  had 
now  for  two  years  been  running  their  four  pioneer  paddle-wheel 
steamers,  known  as  "  mail  packets,"  on  the  round  route  from  Liver- 
pool to  Halifax,  thence  to  Boston  and  back  to  Liverpool,  but  this 
novelty  was  a  luxury  for  the  rich.  The  voyages,  too,  could  not  be 
termed  speedy.  No  railway  existed  in  Nova  Scotia.  Pictou  was 
two-  days  distant  from  Halifax,  by  coach.  The  medical  students 
who  crossed  to  the  Old  Country  for  their  education  remained  there 
three  years,  the  time  required  for  their  degree.  Vacations  were 
shorter  than  now,  and  if  they  had  been  longer,  this  particular 

100  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

student  could  have  afforded  neither  the  time  nor  the  means  for 
enjoying  them  at  home.  So,  coaching  it  to  Pictou,  he  embarked 
upon  his  three  years'  exile. 

The  ship  sailed  late  in  July.  There  was  only  one  other 
passenger.  The  voyage  was  very  stormy,  with  head  winds, 
and  the  heavily-laden  ship  made  bad  weather  of  it  and  slow  time. 
Off  the  west  coast  of  Ireland  a  gale  was  encountered.  The  vessel 
lost  several  spars  and  sails,  her  upper  works  were  badly  damaged, 
and  the  rudder  was  carried  away.  With  much  difficulty  she  was 
brought,  leaking,  into  an  Irish  bay,  where  temporary  repairs 
had  to  be  made.  The  long  voyage  and  this  mishap  delayed  the 
student  so  that  he  did  not  reach  Edinburgh  until  about  the  end 
of  October. 

The  matriculation  examinations  were  passed  successfully, 
and  the  hard  grind  of  three  years  at  the  University  and  the 
Royal  College  of  Surgeons  was  begun.  In  the  following  letter  to 
Charles  Martyr  Nutting,  written  from  his  first  lodging-place  in 
Edinburgh,  the  student  speaks  for  himself  of  his  new  work  and 
manner  of  life  as  well  as  of  his  first  impressions  in  that  city  which 
afterwards  he  came  to  love.  This  is  the  earliest  of  his  letters 
which  can  be  found,  written  when  he  was  twenty  years  of  age. 
One  detects  in  its  style  a  rather  unusual  maturity  of  mind  for 
that  age.  The  warm  interest  in  the  things  of  home,  and  in  old 
friends,  is  characteristic  of  all  periods  of  his  life. 

f  "  Wilson's  Lodgings,,  19  Salisbuey  Street, 

"Edinburgh,  January  2nd,  1843. 
"  My  dear  Martyr  : 

"  Many  thanks  for  the  short  epistle,  and  newspapers  received  by 
the  two  last  Packets.  I  had  been  nearly  two  months  in  Scotland 
without  receiving  a  single  line  from  home,  and  was  quite  rejoiced 
at  the  sight  of  your  letter  and  those  that  accompanied  it.  Your 
handwriting  is  so  much  improved  that  I  did  not  know  it  and  could 
hardly  believe  my  eyes  when  I  saw  the  signature. 

"  The  war  between  the  Christian  Messenger  and  the  Honorable 
Joseph  has  been  raging,  I  perceive,  to  a  very  great  extent.  I  have 
seen  the  whole  correspondence,  as  Tupper  takes  the  Messenger. 
It  will  have  the  effect  of  opening  the  eyes  of  the  Baptists  of  Nova 
Scotia  as,  to  the  real  character  of  the  worthy  exciseman.  It  must 
be  very  annoying  to  your  father  as  one  of  the  editors  of  the  paper 
to  have  his  name  brought  before  the  public  in  such  a  manner. 

"  I  was  rather  surprised  to  hear  of  Miss  Almon's  marriage. 
Of  course  I  expected  that  it  was  to  take  place,  but  did  not  think 
it  would  be  so  soon.  The  letter  you  spoke  of  was  from  the  bride 
herself.  It  was  a  very  kind  one,  giving  me  a  short  account  of  the 
wedding,  etc. 


"  I  am  extremely  sorry  to  hear  that  Miss  Ella  has  been  obliged 
to  leave  the  Province,  and  hope  shortly  to  hear  more  favourable 
accounts  of  her  health.  The  news  contained  in  my  father's  letter 
was  very  satisfactory.  He  had  just  gained  a  lawsuit  for  rather  a 
large  amount,  of  which  he  felt  somewhat  doubtful  when  I  was 
with  them  in  Walton.  On  Friday,  the  30th,  his  second  came 
to  hand.  They  were  all  well,  at  its  date,  the  weather  was  cold 
and  they  had  more  than  two  feet  of  snow  on  the  ground.  How 
very  different  from  this  climate.  Here  we  have  had  no  ice  as  yet, 
the  fields  are  quite  green,  and  since  my  arrival  there  has  not  been 
one  day  cold  enough  to  make  an  overcoat  necessary. 

"  I  am  glad  to  hear  that  Annand  is  doing  well  in  my  old  place 
of  business;  did  not  know  before  that  he  was  a  married  man. 
D.  Parker  Junr  was  discharged  before  I  left  the  Province. 

"  I  am  now  very  comfortably  situated,  and  have  commenced 

my  studies  in  good  earnest.     It  will  have  to  be  all  hard  work  and 

no  play  with  me  while  the  Session  lasts.     I  have  a  neat  little 

parlour  and  small  bedroom  with  very  good  furniture,  one  piece 

of  which  is  a  piano.    Not  being  at  all  musical,  as  you  are  aware, 

it  has  been  converted  into  a  sideboard.     Living  entirely  by  myself 

was  so  very  different  from  what  I  have  been  accustomed  to,  that  I 

was  very  lonesome  at  the  change  until  a  Portuguese  friend  from 

Madeira  called  Da  Costa  proposed  that  I  should  live  with  him. 

He  has  been  here  more  than  a  year,  but  in  order  to  get  a  better 

knowledge  of  the  language,  lived  for  the  first  twelve  months  in 

a  gentleman's   family    (a   son-in-law  of  Mr.    Innes,   the   Baptist 

minister  to  whom  your  father  introduced  me)    after  which  he 

went  to  lodgings,  and  like  myself  was  not  at  all  pleased  with  the 

change.     He  was  very  desirous  that  I  should  go  with  him,  but  as 

he  was  paying  nearly  a  pound  per  week  for  his  room,  I  told  him 

that  I  could  not  afford  it.     He  then   said  that  as  money  was 

not  so  much  an  object  to  him  he  would  be  very  glad  if  I  would 

go,  and  pay  only  a  proportion  of  the  living.     Not  wishing  to  place 

myself  under  an  obligation  to  a  person  that  I  had  only  known  for  a 

few  days,  I  refused,  but  told  him,  if  he  felt  inclined,  he  could 

join  me  in  my  lodgings.     He  at  first  said  they  were  entirely 

too  small  and,  as  I  thought,  had  given  up  all  idea  of  coming, 

but  after  some  time  told  me  that  he  could  not  live  alone  any 

longer,  so  we  are  now  together.     He  is  a  very  good  fellow,  well 

informed  and  musical.      He  plays  the  guitar,  flute   and   piano, 

all  remarkably  well.     If  I  had  time  to  spare  he  would  teach  me 

the  French  language.     Before  he  came  I  was  paying  6s..  6d.  st'g. 

for  my  rooms.     Now  my  proportion  is  but  4s.  6d.     I  am  living 

very  economically.     How  long  Da  Costa  will  continue  to  like  it 

I  cannot  tell.     The  difference  in  his  lodging  bill  alone  will  be  over 

£30   st'g.    per   annum.      We  breakfast    at  nine   o'clock   and   dine 


at  four,  the  intermediate  time  being  occupied  in  attending  classes 
and  dissecting.  On  the  24th  our  Christmas  recess  commenced, 
which  ends  on  the  3rd  January,  to-morrow.  Last  year  I  spent 
a  much  happier  Christmas  than  this  has  been,  although  my 
friends  are  very  attentive  and  kind.  Still,  I  am  not  in  Nova 
Scotia.  It  is  not  observed  at  all  in  Edinburgh.  Had  it  not  been 
on  Sunday,  the  business  of  the  city  would  have  gone  on  as  usual. 
I  dined  on  that  day  with  Mr.  Hunter  Peters,  the  son  of  the 
Attorney-General  of  New  Brunswick,  who  will  pass  and  go  to 
America  in  August  next.  A  few  evenings  since  I  had  a  small 
party  of  six  Nova  Scotia  students  at  tea.  One  was  Dr.  Gordon, 
of  Pictou,  who  is  married  and  in  practice  here.  Another  was 
James  Forman,  our  old  schoolfellow,  who  is  learning  to  be  a  civil 
engineer  in  Glasgow,  and  came  over  to  spend  a  few  days  with  his 
countrymen.  The  remainder  were  medical  students.  The  enter- 
tainment was,  of  course,  a  primitive  one.  I  meet  a  large  dinner 
party  at  an  English  student's  rooms  this  evening,  which,  as  the 
classes  commence  to-morrow,  will  wind  up  my  gaiety  until  the 
end  of  the  Session,  for  I  find  that  parties  and  studies  cannot, 
with  me,  walk  hand  in  hand. 

"  I  am  much  pleased  with  Edinburgh,  both  as  a  medical  school 
and  a  place  of  residence,  but  have  seen  very  little  of  it  as  yet. 
Knowing  that  I  have  three  years  to  remain  I  am  taking  it  easy 
and  intend  seeing  it  by  degrees. 

"  There  are  yet  seven  months  to  come  before  the  end  of  the  ses- 
sion, at  which  time  I  intend  visiting  the  Highlands,  having  received 
a  very  kind  invitation  from  Dr.  Gray,  formerly  of  Fredericton, 
N.B.,  now  of  Inverness,  to  whom  I  had  a  letter  of  introduction 
from  Mrs.  Almon.  Mr.  Johnston  gave  me  a  letter  to  Dr.  Duncan, 
of  Dumfries,  who  invited  me  to  spend  the  Christmas  recess  with 
him,  but  as  it  would  have  interfered  with  my  studies  and  dis- 
secting I  did  not  go.  Will  you  ask  your  father  to  remember 
me  to  Mr.  J.  and  thank  him  in  my  name  for  that,  as  well  as  the 
other  letters  he  was  kind  enough  to  give  me. 

"  I  perceive  by  the  papers  that  the  Gas  Works  are  progressing. 
Should  I  arrive  in  Halifax  at  night  three  years  hence  I'm  afraid 
it  will  trouble  me  to  recognize  it.  I  burn  gas  in  my  room,  and 
am  so  much  pleased  with  it,  that  I  would  rather  pay  double  than 
be  without  it. 

"  Remember  me  to  Monk  and  give  him  my  address,  tell  him 
to  write.  I  would  commence  the  correspondence  but  have  to  pay 
my  debts  by  this  Packet,  which  will  take  all  my  spare  time.  Will 
you  tell .  Dr.  Almon  that  I  have  entirely  forgotten  the  name  of 
the  paper  he  wished  me  to  send  him,  but  if  he  tells  you,  please 
mention  it  in  your  next.  Tell  him  I  am  much  obliged  for  the 
Times  papers  received  by  the  two  last  steamers.     In  future  he  can 


direct  them  to  19  Salisbury  Street.  You  can  also  mention  when 
you  see  him  that  Bothwick  and  Cutler  and  Kemp  the  Chemist  are 
dead,  and  that  Hilliard  is  now  the  best  surgical  instrument  maker 
in  Edinburgh. 

"  Shortly  after  my  arrival  I  breakfasted  with  Mr.  Innes. 
I  attend  his  church  in  the  morning  and  an  Episcopal  one  in  the 

"  When  you  write,  which  must  be  soon,  do  not  be  afraid  of 
making  the  letter  too  long.  Many  things  that  you  perhaps  may 
think  too  trifling  to  mention  will,  no  doubt,  interest  me  very 
much.  If  you  cannot  fill  a  sheet  of  paper  make  that  lazy  fellow 
Ned  add  something 

"  Please  remember  me  to  the  Almons,  Twinings,  Fergusons, 
Binneys,  Lawsons,  (do  not  forget  Mary)  Miss  Hutchinson,  Mrs. 
John  Johnston,  etc.,  etc.  Those  persons  that  you  are  not  likely 
to  see,  tell  Mary  Ann  that  I  will  thank  her  to  act  for  you  in 
remembering  me  to  them. 

"  I  enclose  this  in  my  father's  letter  as  the  paper  is  so  thin  that 
the  two  weigh  less  than  !/2  oz->  consequently  the  postage  will  be 
the  same  for  hpth  as  one. 

"  When  mentioning  the  Honorable  Joseph  in  the  first  of  this 
letter  I  forgot  to  state  that  my  opinion  of  him  exactly  coincides 
with  your  own.  Please  direct  to  me  in  future  as  at  the  head 
of  the  letter. 

"  I  hope  your  grandmother  enjoys  good  health  this  winter. 
Give  my  love  to  her,  your  father  and  all  the  family,  also  to  Sophia 
and  Letty. 

"  Excuse  haste,  my  dear  Martyr, 

"  And  believe  me  to  be, 
"  Your  affectionate  cousin, 

"  (Sgd.)     D.  McN.  Pakkee," 

A  word  of  explanation  as  to  some  persons  named  in  this  letter 
will  assist  some  readers  to  a  better  understanding  of  it. 

"  The  Honorable  Joseph "  is  Joe  Howe,  the  Nova  Scotia 
Tribune  of  the  Plebs.  "  Tupper "  is  Charles  Tupper,  Howe's 
redoubtable  antagonist  in  Nova  Scotia  politics,  in  days  to  come. 
He  had  preceded  my  father  by  a  year,  at  Edinburgh.  "  Miss 
Almon  "  is  a  daughter  of  Dr.  William  Bruce  Almon.  "  Annand  " 
is  a  medical  student.  "  D.  Parker,  Jun'r "  is  the  negro  boy 
who  has  been  before  mentioned.  "  James  Forman "  (junior) 
became  chief  engineer  of  the  first  public  railroad  built  in  Nova 
Scotia,  and  afterwards  a  consulting  engineer  in  Glasgow. 
"  Monk  "  is  a  brilliant  young  Halifax  lawyer,  who  did  not  live 
to  fulfil  the  promise  of  his  youth.     He  was  a  son  of  Judge  Monk, 


of  the  Supreme  Court.  "  Mr.  Johnston  "  is  James  W.  Johnston, 
the  future  statesman  and  distinguished  Judge-in-Equity.  "  Ned  " 
is  Martyr's  brother.  "  Mary  Ann,"  "  Sophia  "  and  "  Letty  "  are 
three  daughters  of  my  father's  favorite  "  Aunt  Grant,"  a  sister  of 
James  W.  Nutting  and  wife  of  Michael  Bergen  Grant,  who  was 
the  son  of  Captain  Robert  Grant,  of  Loyal  Hill.  These  three 
girls  and  the  children  of  Mr.  Nutting  were  second  cousins  of  my 

Martyr's  "  grandmother "  is  Mrs.  Maclean,  his  mother's 
mother,  a  lady  of  about  eighty  at  that  time.  The  mention  of  the 
well-known  Halifax  families  to  whom  the  writer  desires  to  be 
remembered  indicates  some  of  his  early  friendships  and  the  homes 
which  he  used  to  frequent  during  his  term  of  study  in  that  city. 

When  he  penned  the  casual  reference  to  the  introduction  of 
gas  at  Halifax  the  young  letter-writer  little  dreamed  that  for  many 
years  in  the  dim  future  he  would  be  a  valued  director  of  that 

What  was  the  youthful  Tory's  opinion  of  Howe,  hinted  at  in 
this  letter,  requires  no  speculation. 

There  is  a  story  of  Da  Costa,  who  is  described  in  this  letter, 
which,  with  a  slightly  different  ending,  might  have  affected  the 
political  history  of  Nova  Scotia  and  of  Canada  by  causing  it  to 
be  written  without  the  name  and  achievements  of  him  who  is  now 
The  Right  Honorable  Sir  Charles  Tupper,  Baronet.  Some  time 
after  the  date  of  this  letter  he  joined  the  student  lodgers  at  19 
Salisbury  Street.  Da  Costa  spoke  English  very  imperfectly  and 
was  exceedingly  sensitive  about  his  mistakes.  He  was,  moreover, 
of  a  fiery,  passionate  temperament,  native  to  his  blood,  and  of  a 
jealous,  revengeful  disposition.  He  resented  the  intimacy  between 
Tupper  and  my  father,  but  more  the  ridicule  which  the  former 
habitually  cast  upon  his  ludicrous  blunders  in  English  by  repeating 
them  in  his  presence  for  the  benefit  of  the  other  students,  and  with 
no  small  powers  of  mimicry. 

One  evening  my  father  was  at  work  in  the  study  which  he  and 
the  Portuguese  occupied  in  common,  when  Da  Costa  rushed  in, 
boiling  with  passion,  and  tore  open  a  bureau  drawer  in  which,  as 
my  father  knew,  he  always  kept  a  loaded  pistol,  after  his  kind.  He 
had  complained  bitterly  to  his  room-mate  that  day  of  the  indig- 
nities put  upon  him  by  Tupper,  and  had  been  by  turns  moody  and 
excited ;  therefore  when  Da  Costa,  livid  with  rage,  and  muttering 
Portuguese  imprecations,  rushed  from  the  room,  pistol  in  hand, 
my  father  sprang  to  the  door  after  him  and  was  at  his  heels  when 
he  entered  the  room  where  Tupper  was  seated  at  a  table  with  his 
books.  The  pistol  was  levelled  at  Tupper's  head  when  my  father 
sprang  over  the  assassin's  shoulders  and  seized  the  weapon  by  the 
barrel.     Almost  at  the  same  instant  Tupper,  roused  by  a  warning 


call,  cleared  the  table  at  a  bound  and  grappled  with  the  man.  The 
three  went  down  together  in  a  fierce  struggle.  My  father  wrested 
the  pistol  from  Da  Costa's  grip,  while  Tupper  choked  him  into  sub- 
mission. The  latter  made  the  amende  honorable  for  his  conduct 
which,  unwittingly,  had  brought  about  this  scene ;  the  Portuguese, 
now  thoroughly  ashamed,  was  satisfied,  and  my  father  locked  up 
the  pistol  in  his  trunk.  Next  day,  domestic  relations  with  Da 
Costa  were  severed,  and  he  quit  the  lodgings.  But  his  strong 
affection  for  my  father,  which  had  led  him  to  share  the  humble 
quarters  on  Salisbury  Street  in  preference  to  living  in  the  style 
to  which  he  was  accustomed,  remained  unaffected,  and  the  friend- 
ship between  them  lasted  as  long  as  they  were  fellow-students. 

A  picture  at ' "  Beechwood  "  is  connected  with  an  incident 
which  occurred  at  these  lodgings.  I  refer  to  an  oil  painting,  the 
central  feature  of  which  is  an  ancient  mill  on  a  Highland  stream. 

Upon  the  floor  above  the  student  quarters  there  resided  a  young 
artist  and  his  wife.  He  was  the  son  of  another  Scottish  artist, 
who  had  attained  celebrity  throughout  Britain,  and  he  himself 
was  winning  some  distinction ;  but  he  was  now  falling  into  dissi- 
pated habits,  and  intemperance  was  threatening  the  ruin  of  his 
career.  One  day  my  father  heard*  an  unusual  uproar  overhead 
and  the  violent  screaming  of  a  woman.  He  rushed  upstairs  and 
found  the  young  artist,  crazed  with  drink,  cruelly  beating  his  wife. 
Under  the  impulse  of  the  moment  the  medical  student  saw  no  other 
remedy  for  the  situation  but  a  punitive  one,  for  he  was  himself 
savagely  attacked  for  his  interference ;  so  he  administered  to  the 
husband  a  sound  thrashing.  This  so  far  restored  him  to  his 
senses  as  to  make  him  conscious  of  what  he  had  been  doing.  He 
was  a  gentleman,  and  the  sudden  knowledge  that  he  had  struck  a 
woman,  and  that  woman  his  wife,  of  whom  he  was  very  fond, 
while  it  further  sobered  the  man,  filled  him  instantly  with  deep 
shame  and  contrition.  The  medical  student  used  the  opportunity 
to  follow  the  physical  remedy  with  wholesome,  kindly  counsel  and 
the  offer  of  his  friendship,  both  of  which  were  well  received  by 
the  other,  who  gave  a  remorseful  promise  of  amendment  then  and 
there.  They  had  never  met  before,  but  from  that  day  became 
fast  friends.  The  promise  was  kept,  the  artist's  work  prospered, 
and  the  young  couple  of  the  upper  floor  entered  upon  a  new  and 
uninterrupted  happiness.  Grateful  appreciation  on  the  part  of 
husband  and  wife  ripened,  upon  further  acquaintance,  into  a  warm 
admiration  for  the  student  and  a  devotion  to  his  welfare  and  com- 
fort. Ere  the  latter  left  Edinburgh  the  artist  took  him  into  his 
studio,  hung  with  many  specimens  of  his  art,  and  begged  that  his 
friend,  to  whom  he  confessed  that  he  owed  both  happiness  and 
prosperity,  would  select  what  pictures  he  might  fancy  and  accept 
them  in  token  of  gratitude  and  affection.     As  might  be  expected, 

106  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

despite  the  protests  of  the  painter  and  much  urging  on  his  part, 
the  student  selected  only  one — the  smallest  of  the  collection. 

When  he  lay  in  the  "  Beechwood  "  parlor,  forever  silent,  and 
ready  for  the  tomb,  some  sixty-three  years  afterwards,  this  little 
painting  looked  down  upon  its  owner  in  silent  testimony  to  a 
service  and  an  influence  by  which,  when  but  a  boy,  he  had  been 
the  instrument  of  saving  two  young  lives  from  degradation  and 
sorrow  to  prosperity  and  joy. 

Later  in  his  course  my  father  lodged  on  Rankeillor  Street ; 
but  there  were  too  many  medicals  there  whose  nocturnal  habits 
and  boisterous  conduct  were  incompatible  with  serious  study  by 
their  neighbors.  This  street  was  pre-eminently  a  medical  student 
quarter.  The  gentry  of  that  ilk  dominated  its  life  and  contested 
with  the  police  the  title  to  its  proprietorship.  They  regulated  its 
customs  and  fashions,  even  in  such  minute  details  as  permitting 
no  Rankeillor  Street  cat  to  wear  more  than  one  inch  of  tail.  The 
ambitious  Nova  Scotian,  who  was  there  to  work  to  the  best  of  his 
time  and  ability,  burdened,  too,  with  the  extra  duty  of  clinical 
clerkships  to  Sir  Robert  Christison  and  Sir  James  Y.  Simpson 
in  the  Royal  Infirmary,  thought  it  advisable  now  to  abandon  the 
customary  student  quarter  altogether,  and  as  his  health  was  feeling 
the  effect  of  too  close  application,  he  removed  out  of  town  to  the 
little  hamlet  of  Duddingstone,  by  the  loch  of  that  name.  The 
daily  walk  by  way  of  the  Queen's  Park  afforded  fresh  air  and 
exercise,  of  which  he  had  been  depriving  himself  too  long,  and  the 
change  proved  beneficial  for  work  and  for  health  alike. 

In  1871  he  showed  to  his  children  the  rooms  which  he  had 
occupied  in  these  various  lodging-places,  and  I  well  remember 
his  pleasure  in  revisiting  them. 

The  friendship  with  Charles  Tupper  which  had  been  con- 
tracted at  Horton  Academy  was  further  cemented  by  the  two  years 
which  they  passed  together  in  Edinburgh.  His  friend  graduated 
in  1844.  Their  Sunday  excursions  into  the  delightful  surround- 
ings of  the  city,  teeming  with  historical  associations,  were  often 
recalled  by  my  father  with  delight.  That  such  rambles  were  not 
in  accord  with  the  Scottish  Sabbatarianism  of  the  period  he  used 
to  illustrate  by  telling  how,  when  swinging  down  the  High  Street 
one  fine  Sunday  afternoon,  whistling  as  they  went,  they  were 
rebuked  by  a  small  boy  who,  gazing  at  them  open-mouthed, 
exclaimed,  "What!   whustlin'  on  the  Sawbuth!" 

His  own  career  there  was  not  marked  by  striking  incident  for 
story-telling,  for  he  adhered  most  strictly  to  the  routine  of  work, 
and  in  after  days  could  never  say  with  Justice  Shallow,  anciently 
of  Clement's-Inn :  "  O,  the  mad  days  that  I  have  spent !"  But 
he  had  a  fund  of  anecdote  concerning  his  contemporaries  who 
walked  less  rigidly  in  the  narrow  way  of  serious  study.     How 


some  of  them  set  Edinburgh  in  an  uproar  by  robbing  churchyards 
for  dissecting  purposes  when  the  supply  of  material  from  legiti- 
mate sources  fell  short ;  how  others  desecrated  a  royal  tomb,  which 
he  once  pointed  out  to  me  in  Holyrood  Abbey,  to  procure  some 
specimens  for  osteological  uses,  but  could  get  only  one  whicH  a  rat 
had  carried  out  from  the  depositary  too  strong  for  them, — and 
other  stories  both  gruesome  and  amusing, — it  would  be  going 
beyond  the  record  to  set  out  in  these  pages. 

Some  of  his  vacation  or  recess  time  was  occupied  with  the 
special  work  in  the  Royal  Infirmary,  already  alluded  to.  One 
summer  recess  was  spent  in  recuperation  at  Rothesay,  on  the  Isle 
of  Bute,  in  delightful  travel  among  the  western  isles,  the  original 
homes  of  his  McNeill  ancestors,  and  in  the  Highlands.  This  was 
done  under  medical  advice,  because  of  overwork.  But  he  read 
much  while  he  rested  or  supposed  himself  to  be  resting.  Appli- 
cation to  professional  study  had  become  a  passion  with  him.  That 
it  was  so  always,  and  how  hard  a  thing  it  was  for  him  to  rest  and 
do  nothing,  even  in  periods  supposed  to  be  devoted  by  him  to 
recreation,  we  of  his  family  can  bear  testimony.  The  dolce  far 
niente  was  an  art  he  could  never  acquire. 

Through  the  quality  of  his  work  at  Edinburgh  he  attracted 
the  personal  attention  of  Professors  Simpson,  Christison,  Miller, 
and  others  of  his  teachers.  Sir  James  Y.  Simpson  was  particu- 
larly kind  to  him  in  a  social  way,  and  he  was  a  frequent  visitor 
at  the  home  of  this  great  man  and  greatly  beloved  physician. 
The  friendship  with  the  father  descended,  as  it  were,  to  the 
nephew,  who  likewise  became  a  celebrated  professor  of  the  Uni- 
versity. Entertaining  at  breakfasts  was  then  a  feature  of  Edin- 
burgh social  life,  and  my  father  was  wont  to  meet  at  breakfast  in 
the  Simpson  home,  and  other  like  homes,  with  many  celebrated 
men.  It  was  through  the  introduction  of  Sir  James  that  he  made 
the  acquaintance  of  the  venerable  Dr.  Thomas  Chalmers  and 
became  a  guest  at  his  house,  where  on  one  or  more  occasions  he 
met  at  breakfast  distinguished  Scottish  divines  and  other  celebri- 
ties of  the  day.  It  was  his  rare  privilege  to  witness  the  culmin- 
ating scene  of  the  Disruption  in  the  Established  Church  of  Scot- 
land, in  ^November,  1843,  when  the  kingly  Chalmers  led  out  the 
solemn,  heart-stirring  procession  of  seceding  clergy.  For  Dr. 
Chalmers,  as  the  outcome  of  personal  intercourse  with  him,  he 
cherished  the  strongest  reverence  and  veneration,  as  for  a  prophet. 

At  Edinburgh,  as  before  at  Halifax,  this  medical  student,  at 
the  irnlpressionable  period  of  his  life,  was  fortunate  in  the  social 
circles  where  he  moved.  His  natural  endowments  of  personal 
grace  and  charm  of  manner  were  no  doubt  cultivated  and  enhanced 
by  early  and  close  association  with  that  culture  and  refinement 
which  pertained  to  the  friends  of  those  early  years  and  to  the 

108  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

homes  amid  which  his  lot  in  society  had  been  cast.  Doubtless, 
likewise,  such  youthful  association  with  men  of  large  calibre  and 
elevated  types  of  character,  while  stimulating  his  native  ambition, 
contributed  to  form  his  mind,  to  enlarge  his  conceptions  and  to 
mould  his  character. 

An  illustration  of  the  progress  of  surgery  since  the  early 
forties,  and  another  of  examination  methods  in  the  University 
at  that  period  (happily  of  an  exceptional  character),  and  we  must 
pass  with  him  from  the  years  of  preparation  to  those  of  his  pro- 
fessional career. 

Discussing  the  vermiform  appendix  and  the  clangers  incident 
to  its  situation,  a  very  learned  and  distinguished  surgeon  on  the 
staff  of  the  Royal  College,  in  a  lecture  to  my  father's  class,  raised 
the  question  of  abdominal  surgery,  a  thing  that  had  not  been 
attempted,  and  he  said  with  much  emphasis :  "  Gentlemen,  any 
surgeon  who  would  attempt  to  open  the  abdomen  should  be  indicted 
for  manslaughter."  The  attempt,  it  was  then  taught,  could  result 
only  in  death.  The  appendix  itself  was  jocularly  disposed  of  by 
the  lecturer  as  an  inexplicable  anatomical  curiosity,  with  a  possible 
Malthusian  function  for  maintaining  the  death  rate,  with  the 
natural  assistance  of  cherry-pips  and  the  like.  Long  before  the 
fashionable  operation  for  "  appendicitis  "  had  become  a  newspaper 
joke  my  father  used  to  quote  the  dictum  of  his  professor  with 

The  Professor  of  Botany  at  the  University  was  a  quaint  and 
elderly  savant  of  the  species  that  would  now  be  classed  by  the 
always  irreverent  student  as  "  cranks."  His  hobby  was  to  conduct 
his  classes  on  botanizing  tramps  through  the  country  on  Saturdays 
— when  there  were  no  lectures — for  what  he  was  pleased  to  call 
practical  work ;  and  any  student  who  cut  these  expeditions  incurred 
his  sore  displeasure.  My  father  was  one  of  the  offenders  against 
the  hobby,  and  habitually  so,  for  the  benefit  of  what  he  deemed 
more  serious  work.  When  he  presented  himself  in  July,  1845,  for 
his  degree  examination  in  Botany,  an  altogether  oral  test,  and  was 
called  in  his  turn  to  the  examination  chamber,  he  saw  the  old  pro- 
fessor consult  two  lists  of  names,  and  he  surmised  that  he  was 
marked  for  severe  treatment.  But  he  was  not  prepared  for  what 
followed :    "  Well,  Mr.  Parker,  what  flora  do  you  find  in  the  glen 

on  the  farther  side  of  Loch  ,  on  the  Fenlenick  road  ?"     "  I 

cannot  say,  sir;  I  was  never  there,"  was  the  hopeless  answer. 
"  That  will  do,  Mr.  Parker,"  and  the  student  left  the  room  know- 
ing he  was  plucked.  But  the  same  spirit  that  was  in  the  school- 
boy who  resisted  the  fagging  system  at  Windsor  was  roused  in  the 
man  of  twenty-three  by  this  absurdity  of  injustice,  and  he  prepared 
to  fight.  He  waited  until  the  pass-lists  were  posted.  He  stood 
well  up  on  all  save  in  Botany,  and  there  his  name  was  absent. 


Then  he  called  on  various  members  of  the  Medical  Faculty,  by 
all  of  whom  he  was  esteemed  as  a  student  of  unusual  parts  and 
industry,  and  to  them  he  stated  his  case.  They  took  the  matter  up 
and  it  was  put  before  the  Senate.  Summoned  to  appear  before  a 
committee  of  that  august  body,  he  was  asked  to  relate  his  examina- 
tion experience  in  Botany,  and  to  explain  why  he  had  cut  out  the 
Saturday  excursions,  which,  it  must  be  stated,  were  not  obligatory 
upon  students.  The  committee  had  his  record  and  the  testimony 
of  his  other  professors  before  them.  The  idiosyncrasy  of  the 
examiner  was  well  known,  so  much  so  that  it  was  not  thought 
necessary  to  consult  him;  but  he  had  not  hitherto  carried  it  to 
this  serious  •  and  vindictive  extremity.  The  plucked  student  was 
then  asked :  "  Have  you  done  the  practical  work  in  the  Botanical 
Gardens  required  ?"  "  I  have,"  he  answered,  "  and  I  am  prepared 
to  be  examined  on  that  and  the  lectures,  at  a  moment's  notice." 
"  Well,  sir,  you  are  passed,"  said  the  chairman,  after  consulting 
his  colleagues.  The  committee  was  so  seized  by  the  humorous 
aspect  of  the  case  that  they  concluded  it  with  a  joke  on  the  Pro- 
fessor of  Botany  himself.  His  pass-list  was  sent  for,  and  then  and 
there  the  name  of  "  Daniel  McNeill  Parker  "  was  added  to  it,  by 
a  sort  of  pious  fraud;  after  which  it  was  re-posted.  It  does  not 
appear  whether  the  old  botanical  gentleman  ever  heard  of  this 
summary  procedure  to  right  the  wrong  he  had  worked;  but  the 
incident  had  some  bearing  upon  his  retirement  from  the  Faculty 
not  long  afterwards.  Though  the  rejected  student  of  Botany 
could  join  in  the  humor  of  his  judges  when  they  disposed  of  his 
case,  it  had  been  no  fun  for  him  previously ;  for,  had  he  not 
obtained  this  redress  he  would  have  lost  his  degree  and  been  obliged 
to  go  up  for  another  degree  examination  a  full  year  later. 

He  received  in  July  the  diploma  of  L.R.C.S.E.  from  the  Royal 
College  of  Surgeons,  and  on  the  first  day  of  August  (1845)  the 
degree  of  M.D.  from  the  University. 







A  printed  copy  of  the  M.D.  pass-list  for  1845  with  this  son- 
orous caption  lies  before  me.  Seventy-nine  names  appear  upon 
it,  arranged  in  alphabetic  order,  with  the  title  of  each  graduate 
doctor's  thesis  set  opposite  his  name  and  country.  England, 
Scotland,  Ireland,  Wales,  the  Isles  of  Man  and  Anglesey,  Nova 
Scotia,  Quebec,  Ontario,  Bermuda,  Barbadoes,  India,  Prussia  and 


Russia  are  represented  here.  "  Parker, ,  Daniel  McNeill,  Nova 
Scotia,  On  the  Mechanism  and  Management  of  Parturition,"  form 
two  lines  in  this  catalogue  of  youth's  achievement,  hope  and  prom- 
ise. There  was  one  other  Nova  Scotian,  James  Allen.  One  reads 
it  as  a  casualty  list  in  life's  battle  now.  "  Nomina  eorum !"  Few 
of  them  there  are,  in  this  tenth  year  of  another  century,  that  could 
not  be  found  graven  upon  some  monument  more  enduring,  at 
least,  than  this  souvenir  of  my  father's  graduation,  which  I  dis- 
covered among  his  papers  after  his  spirit  had  passed  on  with  the 
majority  of  his  classmates. 

Among  these  men,  some  of  whom  established  great  professional 
reputations,  there  was  no  more  interesting  personality  than  Wil- 
liam Judson  Van  Someren,  who,  after  many  years  in  the  military 
medical  service,  spent  principally  in  India,  whence  he  had  come 
as  a  medical  student,  became  the  chief  of  the  service  in  the  British 
army.  He  was  of  the  Havelock  and  Hedley  Vicars  soldier  type, 
a  spiritually-minded  man  whose  deep-seated  religious  convictions 
and  devout  life  answered  to  my  father's  in  after  years,  when  the 
two  veterans,  having  retired  from  professional  activity,  resumed 
their  correspondence  of  an  earlier  time  in  a  series  of  letters  which, 
I  regret,  are  not  available  for  production  here. 

Within  a  few  days  after  being  "  capped  "  Doctor  in  public 
convocation,  my  father  made  his  first  visit  to  London,  where  he 
completed  his  supply  of  books  and  surgical  instruments  and  also 
purchased  his  stock-in-trade  for  the  opening  of  an  apothecary's 
shop  in  Halifax.  Proceeding  then  to  Liverpool,  his  eager  voyage 
home  was  made  in  a  packet  of  the  Cunard  Line — his  first  expe- 
rience of  steamship  travel.  Arrived  in  Halifax,  the  return  to  the 
Walton  home  and  "  Doctor  Dan's  "  reception  there,  with  the  plea- 
sures of  a  holiday  for  much-needed  rest,  must  be  left  to  the 

Soon  there  appeared  in  The  Acadian  Recorder  and  The  Chris- 
tian Messenger  the  following  notification  to  the  public : 

"  CARD. 

"  Dr.  Parker,  graduate  of  the  University,  and  Licentiate  of  the 
Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  of  Edinburgh,  intends  practising  Medi- 
cine in  its  various  branches,  in  the  city  of  Halifax,  and  may  be 
consulted  at  his  residence,  No.  8  Hare's  Buildings,  near  the  Pro- 
vince Building. 

"  Drugs  and  Medicines. 

"  Dr.  P.,  having  procured  from  London  a  supply  of  Drugs,  &c, 
has  opened  an  establishment  at  his  residence  above  named,  where 
he  will  keep  constantly  on  hand  a  large  assortment  of  Medicines, 
as  well  as  all  other  articles  usually  sold  at  Drug  Stores." 


18J>5   to   1861. 
"  In  devotion  to  duty  you  have  the  great  secret  of  life." — Gladstone. 

We  are  not  without  assistance  in  attempting  to  picture,  with 
its  surroundings,  the  first  place  of  business  and  residence  of  the 
young  doctor  of  twenty-three,  now  upon  the  threshold  of  life's  task 
— to  "  earn  his  bread  and  butter  "  (to  borrow  a  phrase  of  his)  and 
to  do  what  good  he  could  in  the  world  while  passing  through.  His 
old  and  valued  friend,  Dr.  T.  B.  Akins,  in  his  "  History  of  Halifax 
City,"  writing  of  the  year  1821,  says:  "  The  old  wooden  range 
known  as  Cochran's  building,  which  occupied  the  site  of  the  present 
Dominion  building,  had  been  only  lately  vacated  by  the  Legislative 
Assemblies  and  the  Courts  of  Law,  and  was  now  being  fitted  up  for 
shops.  Among  those  who  first  occupied  shops  in  this  building 
were  Winkworth  Allen,  who  afterwards  went  to  England,  Mr. 
David  Hare,  who  afterwards  became  the  purchaser  of  the  property ; 
W.  A.  Mackinlay,  on  the  north  side,  and  Clement  H.  Belcher,  at 
the  north-west  corner,  both  well-known  stationers  and  booksellers, 
occupied  their  respective  shops  a  long  time,  the  latter  for  more 
than  twenty  years.  At  the  opposite  corner,  to  the  south,  on  Hollis 
Street,  stood  a  large  three-story  building  erected  .by  the  late  James 
Hamilton,  who  carried  on  an  extensive  dry-goods  business.  It  was 
afterwards  sold  to  Burns  &  Murray,  who  erected  the  present  hand- 
some freestone  edifice  on  the  corner.  Mr.  William  A.  Black  kept 
his  watchmaker's  establishment  at  the  corner  below,  now  occupied 
by  the  P.  Walsh  Hardware  Co."  On  the  corner  of  Hollis  and 
George  Streets,  where  the  Royal  Bank  building  now  is,  we  learn 
from  the  same  authority,  stood  in  1845  "the  handsome  freestone 
building  erected  by  the  late  Martin  Gay  Black.  .  .  .  Opposite, 
near  the  Province  Building  rail,  was  the  old  town  pump,  known 
as  Black's  pump,  remarkable  for  its  good  water,  where  dozens  of 
boys  and  girls  might  be  seen  towards  evening  getting  water  for 
tea.  .  .  .  Mr.  Benjamin  Etter  had  his  watchmaker's  shop  at 
the  corner  of  George  and  Barrington  Streets,  now  known  as  Cross- 
kill's  corner,  in  the  same  old  wooden  building,  which  has  since 
undergone  extensive  alterations." 

In  1845  the  site  of  William  A.  Black's  watchmaker's  establish- 
ment had  become  the  place  of  business  of  the  firm  of  W.  A.  &  S. 
Black,  founded  by  him.     The  other  conditions  of  the  locality,  as 


112  DANIEL  McNEILL  parkek,  m.d. 

above  described,  remained  substantially  unchanged  at  this  date. 
1  have  noted  here  what  is  said  of  the  Blacks  and  Mr.  Etter  because 
they  enter  into  our  family  history. 

"  The  Dominion  building,"  occupying  the  site  of  Cochran's, 
afterwards  Hare's,  buildings,  will  be  better  recognized  by  younger 
readers  as  the  Post  Office. 

Number  8  Hare's  buildings,  the  "  establishment  "  and  "  resi- 
dence "  designated  in  the  advertisement  I  have  quoted,  was  situated 
on  the  Cheapside  front,  and,  as  located  for  me  by  my  father,  stood 
where  the  main  southern  entrance  to  the  Post  Office  now  stands. 
It  consisted  of  a  quaint  little  shop,  lighted  by  one  small-paned 
window ;  a  consulting-room  or  office  in  the  rear,  looking  into  a  tiny 
space  by  courtesy  termed  a  courtyard ;  a  front  room  upstairs  which 
served  as  living-room  and  bedroom;  a  combined  dining-room  and 
kitchen  off  this,  in  the  rear ;  and  a  sort  of  closet  attached  to  that, 
large  enough  to  hold  a  truckle  bed  for  that  same  "  Dan  Parker, 
junior,"  who  had  served  in  Dr.  Almon's  drug  store  under  the  other 
Dan,  and  had  now  enlisted  in  his  service.  This  "  junior  partner," 
as  the  young  physician's  familiars  facetiously  called  him,  combined 
in  himself  the  functions  of  "  chief  cook  and  bottle  washer,"  shop 
attendant,  wielder  of  the  pestle,  errand  boy  and  general  domestic 
servant.  Furnish  the  shop,  as  full  as  its  meagre  dimensions  per- 
mit, with  the  diverse  and  many-odored  stock-in-trade  of  an  old-time 
'pothecary;  the  office  with  all  the  books  and  surgical  equipment 
it  can  contain,  compatible  with  the  existence  of  a  writing-desk  and 
a  few  chairs ;  the  upper  rooms  with  the  bare  necessities  for  living, 
throwing  in  two  or  three  extra  plates  and  accompanying  utensils  of 
the  table  for  an  occasional  guest, — and  you  have  an  interior  view 
of  the  material  res  angusta  domi  during  the  earliest  years  of 

Of  his  competitors  in  the  field  of  practice  at  that  time,  and  the 
conditions  attending  the  work  of  the  profession  in  the  city  and 
beyond,  he  has  himself  spoken  in  the  address  of  1895,  which  will 
be  found  at  a  later  page. 

In  the  very  nature  of  things  it  is  not  to  be  expected  that  this 
narrative  should  attempt  anything  like  a  record  of  his  work  as 
physician  and  surgeon,  or  an  estimate  of  his  professional  ability 
and  worth.  Though  occasional  instances  from  the  former  may 
appear,  yet,  in  the  main,  both  must  be  illustrated,  but  in  the  most 
general  manner,  by  the  testimony  of  others  and  by  the  professional 
reputation  which  he  established  and  which  will  long  adhere  to  his 
honored  name  in  Nova  Scotia  and  beyond. 

Medical  practice  came  to  him  at  the  outset  and  increased  in 
volume  with  unusual,  even  marvellous  rapidity.  There  was  no 
anxious,  discouraging  period  of  waiting,  usually  so  oppressive  to 
the  beginner.     On  the  contrary,  patients  awaited  him.     He  was 

1845  TO  1861  113 

well  known  in  Halifax  already,  and  had  many  influential  and 
solicitous  friends.  Mature  in  appearance  beyond  his  years,  with 
a  self-reliance  that  was  begotten  by  knowledge  of  himself,  he 
inspired  confidence  in  others,  even  in  practitioners  of  long  standing, 
so  that  his  services  as  a  surgeon  were  called  in  requisition  earlier 
in  his  career  than  is  usually  the  case  with  juniors  in  the  profession. 

Then,  and  for  some  time  afterwards,  he  knew  well  what  prob- 
ably no  living  surgeon  now  knows — the  horrors  of  surgery  when 
anaesthetics  were  unknown;  nor  can  even  surgeons  of  the  present 
day  imagine  the  "  nerve  "  and  the  will-power  required  in  the  per- 
formance of  operations  of  any  duration  in  the  forties, — the  ex- 
haustive drain  upon  an  extremely  sensitive  nervous  system  and  a 
tender,  sympathetic  spirit  like  my  father's.  I  cannot  attempt  to 
portray  surgical  operations  at  that  period  which  he  has  described 
to  me,  but  the  instance  given  in  his  address  of  1895  may  be  sup- 
plemented in  a  few  lines.  The  subject  was  a  large,  unusually 
powerful  man.  The  operation  was  the  removal  of  half  the  lower 
jaw,  which  had  to  be  sawn  through  at  the  chin  and  dislocated  at  the 
socket.  As  usual,  all  the  brandy  that  the  patient  could  swallow 
was  administered.  At  a  critical  moment  his  struggles  broke  the 
straps  which  bound  him  to  the  heavy  deal  operating  table.  He 
leaped  to  the  floor,  and  half  naked,  his  body  crimsoned  with  blood, 
fought  his  way  to  the  door,  to  escape  into  the  street.  The  medical 
students  in  attendance  fainted  and  fell  about  the  room.  Special 
attendants,  engaged  for  such  an  emergency,  overpowered  the 
wretched  man  upon  the  floor,  where  they  lay  upon  his  arms  and 
legs,  while,  seated  across  his  body,  the  surgeon  completed  the 
ghastly  work,  the  patient  shrieking  "  Murder !"  and  frightful  im- 
precations, so  that  the  hideous  clamor  brought  an  excited  crowd 
and  the  town  constabulary  to  the  door. 

That  he  came  at  once  into  public  notice  and  showed,  from  the 
beginning,  public  spirit  and  deep  interest  in  what  pertained  to  the 
moral  and  intellectual  uplift  of  his  fellow-citizens, — a  disposition 
which  was  characteristic, — is  evinced  in  his  connecting  himself 
with  the  work  of  the  Halifax  Mechanics'  Institute  within  a  few 
months  of  his  settlement  there,  and  becoming  one  of  its  managers. 
This  was  a  new  movement  then,  an  English  institution  which 
spread  through  many  of  the  colonies  and  had  a  considerable  edu- 
cational value.  Its  lecture  courses  were  popular  in  Halifax  and 
were  open  to  the  general  public,  by  whom  they  were  largely 
attended.  He  delivered,  in  these  courses,  the  following  lectures : 
"  Respiration,"  in  the  session  of  1845-6  ;  "  Vitality,"  in  the  session 
of  1846-7;  "Instinct  and  Mind,"  in  the  session  of  1847-8;  and 
two  lectures  on  "  The  Circulation  "  (of  the  blood),  in  the  session 
of  1848-9.  The  manuscripts  of  these  lectures  have  been  found, 
but  on  account  of  their  volume  it  has  been  thought  inadvisable  to 


114  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

include  more  than  two  of  them  in  these  pages.  These  will  be  found 
in  the  Appendix  "  B."  They  are  all  alike  scholarly  in  matter  and 
style,  while  the  mode  of  presentation  is  admirably  adapted  to  the 
instruction  of  a  general  audience.  When  he  delivered  the  first  of 
these  lectures  he  was  but  twenty-three  years  of  age. 

Endowed  with  social  gifts  of  a  rare  order,  a  vivacious  and 
attractive  conversationalist,  interested  in  every  subject  which 
affected  his  fellow-men,  delighting  to  enlarge  in  a  discriminating 
manner  the  circle  of  his  friendships  while  he  drew  to  himself  the 
comradeship  of  many  through  his  admirable  qualities  of  mind  and 
heart,  he  soon  came  to  fill  a  conspicuous  place  in  Halifax  society. 
He  formed  many  friendships  in  the  garrison  and  the  navy,  and  was 
a  frequent  guest  at  mess  dinners,  and  aboard  ship,  in  gun-room  and 
cabin.  Strangely  as  it  may  read  to  those  who  knew  him  in  later 
life,  he  was  not  unknown  as  a  participator  in  those  social  functions 
called  balls,  and  has  been  heard  to  own  his  attendance  at  a  mas- 
querade ball  in  the  cotton-duck  and  palmetto  costume  of  a  West 
India  planter.  The  early  association  with  young  army  and  navy 
officers  thus  formed  led  to  many  friendships  with  men  who  returned 
to  the  Halifax  station  in  after  years  distinguished  by  high  rank 
and  by  achievement  in  their  professions. 

But  keen  as  was  his  enjoyment  in  the  social  life  of  the  garrison 
town  and  naval  station,  he  found  that  the  profession  to  which  he 
was  wedded  was  a  jealous  mistress,  and  that  with  him,  as  he  used 
to  say  in  referring  to  this  period  of  his  life,  "  it  must  be  one  thing 
or  the  other."  What  he  had  said  in  an  Edinburgh  letter,  quoted  at 
a  previous  page,  still  held  good :  "  I  find  that  parties  and  studies 
cannot,  with  me,  walk  hand  in  hand."  So  gradually  he  weaned 
himself  from  the  allurements  of  social  pleasures  that  he  might 
respond  with  unstinted  loyalty  to  the  increasing  and  imperative 
demands  which  his  growing  reputation  in  the  profession  was 
making  upon  his  talents  and  his  time.  Not  that  he  would,  or  could, 
totally  suppress  his  social  instincts,  but  subordinate  their  grati- 
fication to  duty — an  attitude  of  mind  and  a  practice  which  through- 
out life  he  always  maintained. 

During  the  first  twenty  years  of  his  career,  or  thereabouts, 
he  was  a  contributor  to  the  Edinburgh  Medical  Journal,  one  of  the 
first-rank  periodicals  in  the  medical  world,  writing  chiefly  upon 
cases,  both  medical  and  surgical,  occurring  in  his  own  practice. 
His  first  article  for  the  Journal,  an  account  of  an  unusual  surgical 
operation  he  had  performed,  was  sent  to  Dr.  James  Miller,  one  of 
his  professors  in  Surgery  at  the  University,  during  the  second  year 
after  graduation.  The  Professor's  letter,  acknowledging  receipt 
of  the  article  says,  after  discussing  the  subject-matter :  u  The  case 
does  you  infinite  credit  and  will  appear  in  the  next  number  of  the 
Journal."     The  writer  then  proceeds  to  warn  the  young  surgeon 

1845  TO  1861  115 

against  repeating  the  operation,  and  states  facts  as  to  unsuccessful 
attempts  to  perform  it  at  Edinburgh,  showing  that  at  that  time  it 
was  rarely  successful  and  was  considered  daring.  Yet  this  particu- 
lar operation  succeeded,  and  the  operation,  in  general,  has  become 
common.  Another  instance  of  surgical  progress  since  the  forties. 
This  letter  concludes  by  expressing  the  satisfaction  with  which  its 
writer  and  his  colleagues  of  the  Faculty  had  heard  of  their  late 
pupil's  health.  "  We  were  somewhat  afraid  of  your  chest  when 
you  left  us,"  adds  the  Professor. 

Later  in  life,  when  the  accumulated  burden  of  practice  was 
taxing  his  time  and  strength  to  the  utmost  and  he  was  more  and 
more  engaging  in  philanthropic  and  business  directorships,  he 
wrote  less,  though  occasionally  he  furnished  contributions  to  med- 
ical magazines  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic.  In  January,  1870, 
he  became  a  corresponding  editor  of  The  Canada  Medical  Journal, 
in  conjunction  with  Dr.  Canniff,  of  Toronto,  and  Dr.  William 
Bayard,  of  St.  John,  and  continued  on  this  editorial  staff  for  some 
years.  For  obvious  reasons  no  particular  account  of  his  work  for 
the  literature  of  his  profession  can  be  presented  here.  There  was 
much  of  it,  yet  his  time  was  so  absorbed  by  other  labors  that  he 
found  less  opportunity  for  this  congenial  task  than  most  prac- 
titioners capable  of  undertaking  it. 

He  had  so  prospered  in  less  than  eighteen  months  of  practice 
that  the  diminutive  quarters  in  Hare's  Buildings  were  outgrown. 
Sometime  before  his  marriage,  which  occurred  on  June  10th,  1847, 
he  had  rented  and  furnished  a  three-storied  wooden  house  on  the 
east  side  of  Granville  Street,  located  upon  or  adjoining  the  site 
now  occupied  by  A.  &  W.  MacKinlay's  shop.  The  house  was  of 
moderate  size  and  there  was  accommodation  for  the  drug  business 
on  the  first  floor.  It  was  one  of  a  row  of  residences,  some  of 
which  had  shop  fronts,  for,  as  yet,  merchants  and  professional  men 
deigned  to  live  over  their  places  of  business.  The  imposing  row 
of  lofty  buildings  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  had  not  then 
appeared.  The  southern  end  of  that  block  of  Granville  Street  was 
known  as  Romans'  corner  and  was  the  home  of  the  Romans  family. 
From  there,  northward,  there  were  dwelling-houses  and  small 
shops,  intermingled,  as  far  as  Ordnance  Square.  To  this  Gran- 
ville Street  home  my  father  brought  his  bride,  and  there  he  resided 
for  about  three  years. 

His  next  home  was  the  brick  house  on  the  east  side  of  Hollis 
Street  which  became  afterwards  the  residence  of  the  Le  ISToir 
family.  With  several  others,  it  was  built  by  Judge  William  Hill 
and  his  brother  after  the  "  Haliburton  fire  "  of  1816  had  swept 
away  the  original  wooden  buildings  of  that  block  and  the  western 
side  of  Bedford  Row  in  the  rear.  In  my  school  days  this  house 
remained  as  it  was  when  rented  and  occupied  by  my  father. 
The  ground  floor  has  since  become  converted  into  a  shop. 


The  drug  store  business  was  now  abandoned,  and  the  apothecary 
work,  confined  to  the  preparation  of  his  own  medicines,  was 
carried  on  in  a  dispensing  room.  Dr.  Alexander  F.  Sawers,  who 
died  in  June,  1853,  lived  next  door.  Across  the  way,  at  the 
corner  now  occupied  by  J.  C.  Mackintosh  &  Co.'s  building,  stood 
old  St.  Matthew's  Church,  which  was  burned  in  the  great  fire  of 
New  Year's  Day,  1859. 

Here,  in  the  month  of  August,  1852,  he  endured  a  very  seri- 
ous illness,  of  typhoid  fever,  and  his  life  was  despaired  of.  While 
he  lay  unconscious,  grappling  with  death,  his  wife  gave  birth  to 
her  only  child,  and  within  a  few  days  afterwards  passed  away. 
It  was  several  days  after  her  burial  ere  the  stricken  husband 
regained  consciousness  and  passed  the  crisis  of  his  disease,  and 
many  more  elapsed  before  he  knew  that  while  conscious  existence 
was  blotted  out  for  him,  his  wife  had  entered  through  the  portal 
where  he  lay  but  whence  he  had  returned, — returned  to  find  her 
gone,  but  leaving  him  love's  legacy  of  a  son.  An  old  patient  of 
my  father  has  told  me  how  the  whole  town  seemed  moved  by  a  wave 
of  suffering  concern  while  this  domestic  tragedy  was  enacting; 
how,  at  a  word  from  an  attending  physician,  men  heaped  the 
roadway  high  with  straw  to  still  the  noise  of  traffic,  rough  carters 
would  not  pass  that  way,  and  the  people,  suppressing  conversation, 
tip-toed  by  the  house. 

It  was  in  May  of  this  year  that  he  had  become  a  member  of 
the  Granville  Street  Baptist  Church,  where  he  was  baptized  by 
the  Reverend  Edmund  A.  Crawley,  D.D.,  then  in  his  second 
pastorate  there. 

My  father  appears  to  have  habitually  attended  that  church 
from  the  time  of  his  first  residence  in  Halifax.  His  early  associa- 
tion with  the  Nuttings,  Fergusons,  Johnstons  and  other  families 
of  the  seceders  from  St.  Paul's  who  had  attached  themselves  to  the 
Reverend  J.  T.  Twining,  curate  and  garrison  chaplain,  when  he 
was  dismissed  by  the  Rector,  would  naturally  be  the  preponderat- 
ing influence  upon  my  father  in  his  selection  of  a  place  of  worship 
in  Halifax.  His  parents,  at  home,  in  1852,  and  for  some  time 
after,  remained  adherents  of  the  Church  of  England,  in  connec- 
tion with  which  he  had  received  his  early  religious  nurture. 
He  was  thirty  years  of  age  when  he  assumed  the  obligations  of 
membership  in  a  church,  and  had  been  married  about  five  years. 
That  he  deferred  this  step  so  long,  living,  as  he  did,  so  closely 
connected  with  leading  men  and  families  of  the  Baptist  denomina- 
tion, is  an  indication  of  that  lofty  conception  of  church  obligations 
and  of  the  serious  responsibilities  attaching  to  a  public  profession 
of  religious  faith  and  practice  which  was  characteristic  of  him. 
He  could  not  lightly  take  this  step.  His  cast  of  mind  and  morals 
emphasized  the  ethical  basis  and  import  of  religion.     Profoundly 

1845  TO  1861  117 

thoughtful  from  boyhood  in  regard  to  the  soul  life,  and  reverential 
in  spirit  and  conduct  towards  the  things  of  religion,  it  may  be  said 
that  what  is  called,  in  the  spiritual  sense,  a  Christian,  he  always 
was.  But  to  avow  himself  such  in  the  sense  of  uniting  publicly 
with  any  body  of  Christians  meant  for  him  much  thoughtful 
deliberation  and  a  careful  investigation  of  the  Scriptures.  His 
becoming  a  Baptist  by  profession  was  not  marked  by  any  such 
sudden  emotional  experience  as  is  often  expressed  in  the  word 
"  conversion."  It  was  a  process  in  the  development  of  his  spiritual 
life  which  arrived  with  the  conviction  that  by  taking  this  public 
stand  and  enlisting  for  service  with  an  organized  force  in  the 
Kingdom  of  God  he  was  doing  his  duty  toward  God,  that  he  could 
accomplish  more  for  his  own  inner  life  and  for  the  righteousness 
which  would  exalt  others.  No  influence  beyond  his  own  conclusion 
from  prolonged  study  of  the  New  Testament  affected  his  choice  of 
a  church. 

Touching  his  attitude  and  sentiment  regarding  religion, — 
after  his  death  I  found  in  a  note-book  which  he  used  when  in 
Virginia  in  the  year  1883,  the  following  extract  from  the  corres- 
pondence of  a  great  lawyer  prominent  in  the  history  of  that  State, 
William  Wirt.  I  give  it  here,  because  it  reflects  something  of  his 
own  religious  opinions.  If  it  had  not,  he  would  not  have  trans- 
cribed the  quotation  among  other  matter,  from  various  sources  of 
his  reading,  which  I  recognize  as  harmonizing  with  his  own  senti- 
ments. "  I  do  not  think  that  enthusiasm  constitutes  religion,  or 
that  Heaven  is  pleased  with  the  smoke  of  the  passions  any  more 
than  with  the  smoke  of  rams  or  bulls.  There  is  a  calm,  steady, 
enlightened  religion  of  the  rational  soul,  as  firm  as  it  is  temperate, 
which  I  believe  is  the  religion  of  Heaven.  Its  raptures  are  those 
of  the  mind,  not  of  the  passions ;  its  ecstasies  are  akin  to  fhose  of 

That  his  assumption  of  church  membership  was  early  followed 
by  that  active  discharge  of  the  more  public  religious  duties  in  the 
community  which  marked  his  later  years,  is  illustrated  by  the 
circumstance  that,  on  the  10th  of  December,  1853,  he  was  one 
of  fourteen  citizens  of  Halifax  who  met  and  organized  the  Halifax 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  modelled  on  the  London  plan 
which  was  originated  in  1844. 

It  was  in  this  period  of  his  life  that  eager,  as  always,  to  pro- 
mote the  public  interests  of  Halifax  and  of  the  Province,  he  con- 
nected himself  with  the  work  of  the  Halifax  Horticultural  Society 
and  of  Industrial  Exhibitions.  As  a  member  of  that  Society  he 
gave  of  his  means  and  time  to  the  work  of  reclaiming  the  waste 
portion  of  the  Halifax  Common,  now  transformed  into  the  beauti- 
ful Public  Gardens  for  which  Halifax  is  famed.  It  had  been  a 
mere  bog  in  which  the  water  was  oozing  up  in  every  direction. 

118  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

Froiiu  this  feature  of  its  natural  condition,  and  in  imitation  of 
the  famous  London  pleasure  resort  of  that  name,  it  was  called 
"  Spring  Gardens."  The  project  of  the  Society,  or  Company, 
was  to  make  a  pleasant  place  of  resort,  with  the  hope  at  the 
same  time  that  by  its  horticultural  products  and  through  musical 
and  other  entertainments  the  property  would  be  self-sustaining 
and  perhaps  yield  a  small  profit  for  further  improvement.  The 
boggy  land  was  drained,  and  to  a  large  extent  filled  in  with 
new  soil,  fruit  and  ornamental  trees  and  shrubbery  were  planted, 
and  under  the  care  of  James  Hutton  and  another  experienced 
gardener  named  Irons,  who  preceded  him,  much  was  done  to 
beautify  the  place.  Croquet  lawns  and  an  archery  ground  were 
laid  out,  military  bands  played  once  or  twice  a  week,  and  other 
efforts  were  made  to  attract  the  public.  In  this  the  Society 
succeeded;  but  as  an  investment  the  project  could  not  pay  its 
way.  Early  in  the  seventies  the  public-spirited  proprietors  sur- 
rendered their  lease  of  the  land  and  freely  gave  up  their  improve- 
ments, with  their  shares  in  the  Company,  to  the  city.  Thus 
they  laid  the  foundation  for  the  Halifax  Public  Gardens. 

When  the  first  of  the  world's  great  Industrial  Exhibitions 
was  promoted  at  London,  under  the  presidency  and  active  guidance 
of  Prince  Albert,  my  father  was  associated  with  his  old  friend, 
the  Reverend  Alexander  Forrester,  D.D.,  of  educational  fame, 
as  a  commissioner  of  that  undertaking,  for  this  Province.  In  1850 
and  1851,  he  worked  with  great  energy  and  considerable  expendi- 
ture of  time  in  arranging  for,  assembling  and  transporting  the 
exhibit  made  by  Nova  Scotia.  In  testimony  of  these  services  he 
received  the  Prince  Albert  Medal,  with  a  certificate  of  the  award 
signed  by  the  Prince  Consort. 

The  medal  bears,  in  low  relief,  the  bust  of  the  Prince, 
with  the  superscription :  "  H.R.H.  Prince  Albert,  President  of 
the  Royal  Commission."  On  the  reverse  is  inscribed :  "  For 
services,  Exhibition  of  the  Works  of  Industry  of  all  Nations, 
1851."     The  certificate  reads: 

"  Prince  Albert  Medal. 

"  Exhibition  of  the  Works  of  Industry  of  all  Nations,  1851. 

"  I  hereby  certify  that  Her  Majesty's  Commissioners  have 
awarded  a  Medal  to  D.  Parker,  for  the  services  he  rendered  to 
the  Exhibition. 

"  Sgd.     Albert, 
"  President  of  the  Royal  Commission. 

"Exhibition,  Hyde  Park,  London,  15th  October,  1851." 

1845  TO  1861  119 

When,  in  1852,  in  consequence  of  a  lecture  delivered  by 
Dr.  Forrester  before  the  Halifax  Mechanics'  Institute,  it  was 
first  proposed  that  an  Industrial  Exhibition  for  Nova  Scotia 
should  be  held  at  Halifax,  it  was  natural  that  its  promoters  should 
seek  the  services  of  those  who  had  been  commissioners  of  the 
London  Exhibition.  Accordingly,  Dr.  Forrester  became  the 
chairman  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  Commissioners,  and 
my  father  the  vice-chairman. 

The  official  report  of  this  Executive  Committee  of  the  first 
Provincial  Exhibition,  which  was  formally  opened  by  the  Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Sir  Gaspard  Le  Marchant,  on  October  4th,  1854, 
and  continued  the  nine  following  days,  in  the  Province  Building 
and  the  squares  at  either  end,  is  of  much  interest. 

"  The  Executive  Committee  directed  their  first  attention 
to  the  enlightenment  of  the  public  mind  relative  to  the  advantages 
likely  to  accrue  to  the  Province  at  large  from  such  an  under- 
taking." In  the  course  of  this  preliminary  work,  in  January, 
1852,  there  appeared  in  The  Provincial  magazine  (volume  1, 
number  1)  conducted  by  his  friends,  the  Misses  Katzman  and 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  E.  Morton,  an  article  by  the  Vice-Chairman, 
entitled,  "  Industrial  Exhibitions  Necessary  as  a  Progressive  Ele- 
ment for  the  Advancement  of  Nova  Scotia."  This  article  is  pre- 
sented in  full,  a  little  further  on,  as  an  example  of  the  writer's 
literary  style  and  of  his  force  in  advocating  a  cause  to  which  his 
energies  were  devoted.  A  second  article  from  his  pen,  to  the  same 
purpose,  entitled,  "  A  Few  Words  about  our  Exhibition,"  is  found 
in  the  February  number  of  The  Provincial  for  1853. 

Says  the  report,  in  speaking  of  the  opening  day :  "  The  morn- 
ing was  ushered  in  by  the  bells  of  the  various  churches  in  the  city 
ringing  '  a  loud  and  merry  peal,'  and  a  salute  of  twenty-one 
guns  fired  on  the  Grand  Parade  by  the  Volunteer  Artillery,  under 
command  of  Major  James  Cogswell."  At  noon,  an  immense 
procession  formed  on  the  Parade,  marched  through  the  principal 
streets,  and  proceeding  to  Government  House  to  receive  the  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, conducted  him  to  the  Exhibition,  where  he  was 
received  by  a  military  Guard  of  Honor.  It  is  a  little  difficult  to 
picture  my  father  parading  the  streets  of  Halifax  with  the  Com- 
missioners, preceded  by  the  Axe  Fire  Company  and  followed 
by  the  band  of  the  76th  Regiment.  Among  the  Societies  in  this 
procession  we  find  the  African  Abolition  Society  and  the  African 
Friendly  Society,  composed  of  gentlemen  of  color.  The  whole 
was  led  by  the  band  of  the  72nd  Highland  Regiment,  whose  pipers, 
and  another  band,  were  also  in  the  line. 

The  total  number  of  exhibitors  was  1,260,  and  the  total  number 
of  articles  received  for  exhibition  was  3,010.  Two  immense 
exhibition  tents  which  covered  the  ground  at  either  end  of  the 


Province  Building  cost  £460.  The  funds  were  raised  by  popular 
subscription,  supplemented  by  a  Legislative  grant.  Among  the 
prize  winners  the  following  names  are  of  interest  to  our  family. 
Samuel  G.  Black  (5  prizes  for  sheep,  1  for  woolen  fleeces,  and 
another  for  mangolds)  ;  Charles  H.  M.  Black  (1  for  honey  in  the 
comb,  another  for  a  bee-hive)  ;  Mrs.  W.  L.  Black  (1  for  best  wax 
flowers)  ;  and  James  McKay,  "  gardener  to  Hon.  W.  A.  Black  " 
(a  number  of  prizes  for  various  vegetables).  Francis  R.  Parker, 
of  Shubenacadie,  who  has  figured  in  this  narrative,  appears  as 
a  judge  of  sheep. 

It  is  to  be  feared  that,  as  compared  with  the  evening  enter- 
tainment features  now  presented  at  our  Provincial  Exhibitions, 
those  provided  and  appreciated  by  our  fathers  would  be  deemed 
queer,  and  quite  inexplicable,  by  most  moderns.  They  belong  to 
the  days  of  Mechanics'  Institutes,  and  a  popular  taste  for  intel- 
lectual culture.  Tempora  mutantur,  et  nos  mutamur  in  Mis. 
Note  a  contrast  here,  and  choose  between  the  old  and  the  new. 

"  With  a  view  to  rendering  the  exhibition  still  more  attractive 
and  instructive,"  says  the  report,  "  provision  was  made  by  the 
committee  for  the  intellectual  entertainment  of  visitors.  Several 
evenings  were  appropriated  for  this  object."  There  were  lectures 
and  addresses  on  the  following  subjects:  "  The  religious  prin- 
ciple viewed  as  an  element  of  National  prosperity,"  by  the  Rev. 
James  Robertson,  A.M.,  Rector  of  Wilmot,  "  a  subject  well  adapted 
to  impart  a  healthful  vigor  to  the  whole  course,"  the  report 
comments.  "  The  Benefits  of  Industrial  Exhibitions,"  by  Dr. 
Cramp,  of  Acadia  College.  "  The  Minerals  of  Nova  Scotia,"  by 
J.  W.  Dawson,  Esq.,  of  Pictou  (afterwards  Sir  William  Dawson, 
Principal  of  McGill  University).  "  The  Horticultural  and  Agri- 
cultural Capabilities  of  Nova  Scotia,"  by  the  Hon.  Provincial  Sec- 
retary, and  the  Hon.  H.  Bell.  "  Application  of  Science  to  Agricul- 
ture," by  Rev.  Mr.  Robertson.  "  Rural  Economy,"  by  Hon. 
Joseph  Howe,  who  also  at  a  "  Festival  "  or  banquet,  on  another 
evening,  read  a  poem  entitled  "  Our  Fathers,"  prepared  by  him 
for  the  occasion.  "  The  Coal  Fields  of  Nova  Scotia,"  by  J.  W. 
Dawson,  Esq.  "  Chemical  Affinity  "  ("  accompanied  by  a  series  of 
successful  and  beautiful  experiments"),  by  James  D.  B.  Fraser, 
Esq.,  of  Pictou.  One  evening  was  given  up  to  a  public  discussion, 
free  to  all,  of  the  following  subjects:  1.  "Should  orchards  be 
encouraged  in  Nova  Scotia,  and  what  is  necessary  to  be  done 
with  a  view  to  their  improvement  ?  "  2.  "  Should  the  growth 
of  the  turnip  be  extended,  and  what  is  the  best  mode  of  treat- 
ment ?  "  3.  "  What  is  necessary  to  be  done  in  order  to  lessen 
the  amount  of  manual  labor  in  the  Province  ?  " 

Yet,  with  all  this  serious  order  of  things,  lighter  forms  of 

1845  TO  1861  121 

entertainment  were  not  unprovided  for,  as  we  learn  from  the 
report : 

"  Besides  the  opportunities  afforded  for  literary  improvement 
already  noticed,  the  committee  took  every  available  means  of 
securing  innocent  amusement  and  recreation  for  persons  visiting 
the  exhibition.  Among  these  may  be  enumerated  a  handsome  dis- 
play of  fireworks,  which  came  off  under  the  direction  of  T.  A. 
Parsons,    of    Boston,    Massachusetts,    at    the    Governor's    Field 

"     "A  regatta,  conducted  with  much  spirit, 

took  place  on  the  same  day,  under  the  patronage  of  their  Excel- 
lencies the  Lieutenant-Governor,  the  Naval  Commander-in-Chief, 
and  the  General  Commanding." 

My  father's  enthusiastic  interest  in  this  exhibition,  the  ser- 
vices he  rendered  in  its  behalf,  and  the  historical  interest  attach- 
ing to  first  things,  will  be  thought  sufficient  reasons,  I  hope,  for  the 
extended  notice  given  the  event  in  these  pages. 

The  first  article  in  The  Provincial,  promised  at  a  previous 
page,  here  follows : 


Necessary  as  a  Progressive  Element,  for  the  Advancement 

of  Nova  Scotia. 

The  Great  Industrial  Exhibition  of  all  Nations  has  closed  its 
doors.  The  Crystal  Palace  has  emptied  itself  of  the  thousands 
of  human  beings  who  for  months  took  shelter  within  its  trans- 
parent walls.  The  wealth  of  the  sunny  South,  of  the  frozen 
North,  of  ancient  Europe,  and  young  America,  so  long  warehoused 
in  glass,  has  been  transferred  to  more  substantial  tenements  of 
wood  and  masonry.  The  "  Mountain  of  Light  "  no  longer  there 
collects,  and  again  reflects,  with  dazzling  brilliancy  the  rays  which 
emanate  from  that  great  source  of  light  and  life,  the  mightiest 
diamond  of  the  firmament  above  us — no  longer  enchained,  does 
it  play  with  the  sun  by  day,  and  the  stars  by  night.  In  its 
adventurous  career,  yet  another  change  has  taken  place.  Now,  as 
"  the  brightest  gem  in  England's  Crown,"  it  adorns  the  brow  of 
England's  much  loved  Queen. 

The  Commissioners  have  all  but  terminated  their  Herculean 
labors ;  nought  now  remains  but  dome  and  walls,  where  but  a  few 
short  months  before  all  within  was  beauty,  life,  enchantment,  a 
scene  of  fairyland — variety  has  been  supplanted,  sameness  reigns ! 
Yet  these  bare  walls  stand  forth  a  monument  of  England's 
greatness,  an  index  of  her  vast  resources.  An  English  mind 
originated,  English  minds  and  capital  as  if  by  magic  erected  her 


Crystal  Palace,  a  structure  as  vast  in  its  proportions  as  was  the 
object  which  gave  it  birth.  Well  may  England  be  proud  of  her 
Paxtons  and  Hendersons,  her  engineers,  her  architects,  and  con- 
tractors, for  they  constitute  much  of  her  present  glory,  power  and 

The  exhibition  is  past  and  gone!  Not  so  its  memory  and 
effects.  When  the  sun  in  its  diurnal  course  shall  cease  to  illumine 
the  home  of  the  Anglo-Saxon,  then  and  then  only,  will  this  great 
triumph  of  peace,  science  and  skill  of  the  19th  century,  be  blotted 
from  the  world's  history.  Its  results  have  been,  and  will  be,  too 
grand  and  momentous  not  to  be  handed  down  to  posterity.  When 
the  names  and  sanguinary  victories  of  men  like  Wellington  and 
Nelson  shall  have  faded  from  the  memory  of  man,  or  be  only  dimly 
impressed  there,  the  World's  Fair  of  1851,  and  its  effects,  will 
still  be  vivid  and  indelibly  engraven  on  the  tablets  of  his  mind. 
Centuries  hence  it  will  be  discussed  as  the  greatest  fact  of  the 
present  age. 

The  events  so  recently  enacted  in  connexion  with  this  great 
display,  might  well  be  designated  a  "  Congress  of  Peace,"  for  in 
England's  Capital  working  on  the  same  platform,  side  by  side, 
stood  men  opposed  to  and  hating  each  other  (in  their  own  domains) 
with  a  bitter  hatred.  The  Russian  and  the  Turk  and  Austrian 
and  Hungarian,  with  other  most  discordant  material,  on  British 
ground  laid  aside  the  gall  and  wormwood  of  his  nature.  The  past 
was  forgotten  in  the  present — evil  passions  and  influences  were 
a hsorbed  by,  and  sunk  deep  in,  the  vortex  of  a  virtuous  Maelstrom. 
The  watchwords  of  Republicans,  "  Unite,  Egalite,  Fraternite," 
seemed  for  a  time  to  have  an  actual  yet  bloodless  existence  in 
monarchical  England.  The  plague,  invasion  by  foreign  Socialists, 
and  all  the  prophesied  evils  of  the  timid,  that  were  to  be  the  con- 
comitants of  this  great  event,  vanished  into  empty  air.  All  went 
smoothly,  successfully  on,  because,  a  kindly  Providence  seeing  that 
the  work  was  for  good  and  not  for  evil,  smiled  on  it,  and  in  wisdom 
directed  that  it  should  be  thus. 

On  this  great  and  unique  occasion,  the  land  we  live  in,  Nova 
Scotia,  was  an  interested  party.  Let  us  briefly  glance  at  her  con- 
tribution, and  at  the  position  she  there  assumed,  and  from  it  learn 
wisdom,  and  how  to  act,  should  we  ever  again  be  called  on  to  take 
part  in  a  similar  display. 

Scarce  a  twelvemonth  has  elapsed,  since  crowds  of  people,  old 
and  young,  rich  and  poor  in  a  steady  stream,  for  three  consecutive 
days  took  their  course  across  the  Parade  to  gain  admission  to 
the  Museum  of  the  Halifax  Mechanics'  Institute,  for  the  purpose 
of  viewing  the  contribution  in  question.  Some  were  satisfied, 
more  apparently  delighted,  while  others  again  spoke  of  the  meagre 
appearance  of  the  show,  and  with  dissatisfaction  in  their  looks 

1845   TO  1861  123 

shrugged  their  idle  shoulders  at  the  thought  of  the  contrast  so 
shortly  to  be  made  between  Nova  Scotia  and  the  world  at  large. 
The  exhibition,  although  perhaps  creditable  to  the  Province  as 
a  first  effort,  fell  far  short  of  what  it  should  have  been,  or  what 
it  would  have  been,  had  the  sympathies  of  the  people  been  enlisted 
in  the  undertaking ;  or  had  they  been  aroused  to  exertion  and  com- 
bined action,  by  a  proper  conception  of  the  advantages  that  a 
vigorous  and  noble  effort  on  their  part  would  have  effected  for  their 
native  or  their  adopted  land.  Like  the  foolish  virgins  of  Scripture, 
the  people  of  Nova  Scotia  slumbered,  while  the  inhabitants  of  other 
countries,  with  their  lamps  trimmed,  labored  and  put  forth  their 
best  efforts  to  excel,  and  to  render  services  the  most  valuable  to  the 
land  that  claimed  them.  Science  and  the  arts  have  thanked  them, 
the  enlightened  men  of  the  present  age  do  homage  to  the  people 
who  by  mental  toil  and  manual  labor  have  thus  added  to  the  general 
store  of  human  knowledge. 

The  entire  contribution  was  gratuitously  transmitted  to  Eng- 
land, by  a  whole-hearted  and  generous  son  of  Nova  Scotia,*  and 
although  arranged  to  the  best  advantage,  was  insignificant  when 
contrasted  with  other  departments.  Comparatively  few,  of  the 
many  thousands  who  entered  that  great  emporium  of  the  wealth, 
industry,  and  science  of  civilized  nations,  stood  to  examine  and 
admire  our  country's  productions.  Why  was  this  ?  We  reply : 
because,  Nova  Scotians  were  not  awake  to  their  own  interests. 
Here  was  a  glorious  opportunity  proffered  them,  for  informing  the 
world  that  their  country  was  civilized ;  that  she  had  a  climate  other 
than  Siberian;  that  her  natural  resources  were  abundant,  were 
endless ;  that  within  her  territories  and  her  waters  were  contained 
those  great  and  essential  elements,  which  being  properly  developed 
and  directed,  must  lead  to  wealth  and  greatness ;  that  she  lacked 
only  in  three  things,  science,  capital  and  labor!  We  again  ask, 
why  was  advantage  not  taken  of  this  almost  golden  opportunity? 
The  response  is — Bluenose  wrapt  his  robe  (the  manufacture  of 
another  country)  around  him,  and  said  "  It  will  require  an  effort. 
If  the  world  wants  to  know  what  Nova  Scotia  is  made  of,  let  the 
world  come  and  find  out !" 

How  fallacious  the  doctrine;  what  folly  is  embraced  in  this 
brief  reply!  Yet  as  to  character,  how  much  truth.  'Tis  this 
lack  of  energy,  this  want  of  mental  and  physical  exertion,  that 
retards  our  progress,  that  keeps  Nova  Scotia  becalmed  and 
anchored  while  other  countries  and  other  people  are  being  wafted 
onwards,  with  all  sail  set,  o'er  the  sea  of  prosperity.     We  observe 

*  The  Hon.  Samuel  Cunard,  who  forwarded  the  articles  per  steamer, 
freight  free,  thereby  saving  what  would  have  been  a  Provincial  charge 
Of  £150. 


them  "  hull  down  "  in  advance  of  us — but  to  follow,  "  to  raise  the 
wind  "  and  weigh  anchor,  would  require — an  effort ! — 'tis  easier 
to  remain  "  in  statu  quo."* 

These  remarks  explain  the  cause  of  our  Provincial  deficiency 
on  the  occasion  to  which  we  have  reference : 

Out  of  the  250  or  300,000  inhabitants  said  to  be  contained 
in  Nova  Scotia,  not  more  than  ten  or  twelve  individuals  beyond 
the  limits  of  the  city  came  to  the  assistance  of  the  Committee 
appointed  by  the  Lieutenant-Governor.  Without  this  aid,  small 
though  it  was,  the  efforts  of  the  Halifax  Board  would  have  been 
abortive,  and  our  Province  would  have  been  entirely  unrepresented 
at  the  "World's  Fair." 

It  may  be  said  that  Nova  Scotia  did  well,  when  contrasted 
with  New  Brunswick,  from  whence  nothing  was  forwarded.  The 
fact  of  New  Brunswick  having  been  asleep  when  it  should  have 
been  at  work,  cannot  be  pleaded  as  an  excuse  for  our  lethargy. 
The  example  of  a  man  who  does  no  good  in  life,  cannot  consistently 
be  followed  by  his  neighbor.  Instead  of  restricting  his  efforts 
(as  it  but  too  frequently  does)  it  should,  on  the  contrary,  prompt 
him  to  increased  exertion.  In  the  case  in  point,  New  Brunswick 
speedily  discovered  her  error,  and  forthwith  neutralized  it,  by 
applying  a  proper  and  most  efficient  remedy,  the  same  that  we 
shall  presently  prescribe  for  Nova  Scotia. 

Pass  the  borders  of  New  Brunswick  and  enter  Canada, — see 
what  her  population  effected. 

The  Canadians  viewed  the  thing  in  its  proper  light,  saw  its 
importance,  made  an  effort  and  succeeded,  beyond  the  expectations 
of  the  most  sanguine.  They  opened  their  purses,  contributed  their 
money.  The  masses  moved;  the  man  of  science,  the  merchant, 
and  the  artisan  went  to  work.  There  was  energetic  and  combined 
action,  resulting  in  the  best  and  greatest  display  of  her  industrial 
resources  that  Canada  ever  witnessed.  These  crossed  the  Atlantic 
under  the  charge  of  a  special  agent,  who  tastefully  fitted  up  his 
department,  and  displayed  to  the  utmost  advantage  the  wares 
of  this  country.  Canada  absorbed,  almost  undivided,  the  interest 
of  the  thousands  who  were  anxiously  examining  the  productions  of 
the  North  American  Colonies. 

The  Canadian  as  he  viewed  the  daily  crowd  of  men  from  almost 
every  nation  of  the  earth,  scanning  and  admiring  the  contribu- 
tion of  his  country,  inwardly  ejaculated,  "  Canada,  I'm  proud 
of  you !  "    While  doubtless  hundreds  of  intending  emigrants,  who 

*  The  above  strictures  are  only  applicable  to  Nova  Scotians  taken 
collectively.  Individually,  more  especially  when  removed  from  the  con- 
tagious region  and  home  influence,  he  is  another  person — a  man,  in  every 
sensB  of  the  word,  and  one,  too,  perfectly  capable  of  competing  with  his 
fellow  man  in  any  country,  sphere,  or  business. 

1845  TO  1861  125 

visited  the  exhibition,  and  were  undecided  as  to  the  course  they 
should  pursue,  finally  concluded,  after  scrutinizing  her  products, 
her  science  and  her  skill,  and  contrasting  these  with  those  of  other 
Colonies,  that  thither  they  would  embark  their  capital  and  them- 
selves— that  Canada  should  be  their  future  home. 

Would  that  Nova  Scotia  had  by  a  similar  effort  attracted  the 
attention  of  the  world.  She  had  the  materials,  human,  natural 
and  artificial.  To  demonstrate  this  fact,  would  have  cost  her  an 
effort, — she  dozed  while  the  opportunity  passed. 

'Tis  said,  that  an  opportunity  lost  cannot  be  regained.  The 
saying  is  here  verified,  but  while  mourning  over  the  deficiencies, 
the  losses  of  the  past,  hope  points  with  a  cheerful  countenance  to 
the  future. 

Every  disease  has  its  remedy.  Nova  Scotia,  although  partially 
paralyzed,  may  yet  be  made  to  move  with  activity.  All  that  she 
wants  is  strong  stimulus,  which  will  act  on  her  population,  moving 
her  mental,  and  through  it,  her  physical  material:  not  in  the 
accustomed  "  jog  trot  "  fashion  of  old,  but  with  rapid  strides, 
quick  jumps, — a  stimulus  that  shall  cause  energy  to  supplant 
lethargy;  motion,  paralysis. 

It  is  not  to  be  expected  that  any  one  agent  in  itself  should 
prove  a  perfect  Panacea,  and  remove  a  disease  so  formidable  and 
of  such  long  duration  as  that  to  which  allusion  is  here  made;  but 
we  would  suggest,  as  a  partial  remedy,  a  stimulus  that  will  pervade 
the  whole  Provincial  organism,  and  cannot  fail  in  the  end  to 
prove  largely  beneficial  to  all  her  varied  interests. 

We  have  reference  to  Periodical  Industrial  Exhibitions,  com- 
mencing in  the  Capital,  and  moving  in  regular  order  through 
every  county  in  the  Province.  Not  on  a  paltry,  diminutive  scale, 
but  comprehensive,  the  result  of  thought,  labor,  and  much  pre- 
paration embracing  and  representing  every  interest,  every  pro- 
duction, whether  natural  or  artificial,  which  the  Province  and  its 
human  talent  can  be  made  to  yield. 

We  fancy  we  hear  some  of  our  countrymen  say  "  It's  all  very 
well  to  talk,  but  the  thing  cannot  be  done,  it  would  require  much 
effort,  we  are  too  young  and  altogether  unprepared  for  such  a 
work."  Our  answer  to  such  a  man,  would  be,  if  you  will  not  aid 
in  the  attempt,  don't  thwart,  but  move  aside  and  give  place  to 
those  who  have  the  energy  and  disposition  to  advance  the  general 
welfare  and  interests  of  the  land. 

Can  the  thing  he  accomplished  ?  We  say  yea !  Do  you, 
reader,  say  the  same  ?  We  know  you  do !  Let  the  rich  man  and 
the  poor,  the  professional  man  and  the  mechanic,  in  town  and 
country,  in  village  and  hamlet,  cry  in  earnest,  and  in  unison — it 
can  be  done,  and  it  shall  be  done, — and  the  thing  is  accomplished. 

The  first  attempt  will  be  good,   and  the  second  better,  the 


third  and  subsequent  ones,  aided  by  the  experience  of  the  past, 
will  be  a  credit  to  the  Province ;  and  when  again  Great  Britain  or 
any  other  country  extends  to  us  a  similar  invitation  to  that  of 
1850,  Nova  Scotia  will  stand  forth,  fill  her  department,  and  assume 
that  position  which  Nature,  when  endowing  her,  intended  that  she 
should  occupy.  Nova  Scotians  will  then  have  performed  their 
duty,  and  given  to  their  country  a  world-wide  and  an  enviable 

What  good  will  accrue  to  us.  as  a  people,  by  a  series  of  these 
Exhibitions  ?  Innumerable  and  incalculable  advantages  will 
result,  as  must  be  apparent  to  every  thinking  mind,  from  such 
undertakings.  To  a  few  of  these  let  us  briefly  turn  our  attention : 
1st.  They  will  be  a  direct  means  of  demonstrating  to  ourselves 
the  real  intrinsic  value  of  our  Province.  We  daily  hear  its 
resources  spoken  of  in  glowing  language :  "  The  Resources  of  Nova 
Scotia,"  is  a  familiar  phrase  in  every  man's  mouth.  Yet  how  few 
there  are,  who  have  a  just  conception  of  their  nature,  extent  or 
worth.  Vague  and  indefinite  ideas,  founded  on  no  practical  know- 
ledge, have  possession  of  men's  minds  in  relation  to  this  matter. 
Let  us  then  demonstrate,  first,  to  the  people,  the  masses  of  Nova 
Scotia,  and  afterwards,  when  an  opportunity  offers,  to  the  world 
at  large,  what  our  Province  is  actually  made  of,  what  its  real 
resources  are.  Do  this  effectually,  and  ere  long  emigration  from 
our  shores  will  be  heard  of  only  as  a  past  event.  The  ebb  will 
have  ceased,  the  flood  tide  will  have  commenced.  Then,  the  stream 
will  be  turned  once  more  into  its  proper  channel,  the  interior  of 
the  country  will  be  settled,  the  back  woods  will  ring  to  the  stroke 
of  the  emigrant's  axe,  while  all,  both  within  and  without,  will  be 
vigour — life — advancement. 

2nd.  What  a  stimulus  it  will  be  to  the  producing  and  mechani- 
cal portion  of  our  community.  The  plough,  the  anvil,  and  the 
loom,  will  all  be  worked  by  hands,  and  directed  by  minds  anxious 
to  excel.  There  will  be  a  generous  competition,  that  great  incen- 
tive to  human  action.  Nova  Scotians  will  first  compete  in  this 
race  with  each  other,  then  with  their  neighboring  Colonists ;  and 
in  the  end,  they  will  be  schooled  and  prepared  to  enter  the  lists 
with  the  "  wide  world." 

Already  have  our  iron,  steel,  and  fur,  in  the  first  grand  contest 
of  nations  carried  off  the  highest  prize.* 

*  Extract  from  a  letter  addressed  to  the  writer  by  a  gentleman  in 
London:  "They  have  awarded  Mr.  Archibald  two  prizes  of  the  first 
class,  which  speaks  volumes  for  the  excellence  of  your  products.  Indeed, 
it  may  be  taken  as  a  fact  beyond  dispute,  that  the  iron  and  steel  of  Nova 
Scotia  .is  second  to  none  that  the  world  can  produce.  These  samples  are 
the  very  first  of  your  manufacture,  and  yet  they  stand  successful  with 
the  like  productions  from  countries  boasting  a  reputation  of  centuries. 
The  only  country  that  can  pretend  to  compete  with  Nova  Scotia  for  steel 

1845   TO   1861  127 

Let  this  fact  nerve  our  minds  and  arms  for  future  action, 
let  us  move  onward,  in  the  right  direction,  and  when  another  such 
opportunity  is  offered  us,  our  "  first  class  "  prizes  will  not  be 
doled  out  by  twos  and  threes,  but  be  scattered  wide,  by  the  dozen, 
through  different  sections  of  the  land. 

3rd.  Being  made  familiar  with  the  actual  natural  wealth  of 
our  country,  and  having  new  life  and  vigor  infused  into  our 
palsied  system,  men's  minds  will  be  directed  to  the  development 
of  these  resources;  to  rendering  them  practically  available,  for 
the  advancement  of  their  own  pecuniary  interests.  These  exhibi- 
tions will  thus  tend  to  produce  manufactories,  a  lamentable 
deficiency  in  our  land.  Those  now  in  existence  will  be  improved 
and  extended,  while  others,  not  yet  born,  will  annually  spring 
up  and  flourish,  not  "  like  the  flowers  of  the  field,"  but  perman- 
ently, exerting  an  influence  widespread  and  expansive,  and  not 
to  be  appreciated  by  us  in  our  present  depressed  and  infantile 
state.  Another  result,  as  certain  to  follow  the  contemplated 
movement,  may  be  briefly  alluded  to. 

It  will  open  up  new  markets  for  our  productions,  from 
unexpected  quarters.  A  practical  example  or  two  will  best 
illustrate  this  position.  A  naturalist  of  Nova  Scotia*  put  up 
three  small  cases  of  insects,  with  his  accustomed  taste  and  skill , 
which  were  forwarded  to  the  London  Exhibition.  These,  as  well 
as  several  cases  of  stuffed  birds,  sent  by  the  same  gentleman,  at 
once  attracted  the  attention  of  parties  interested  in  the  study  of 
Natural  History.  The  insects  were  purchased  from  the  agent  at 
a  large  advance  over  the  Nova  Scotia  price.  Since  then,  orders 
have  been  received  from  England  for  a  number  of  cases  at  the 
same  highly  remunerative  prices.  At  the  recent  New  Brunswick 
Exhibition,  many  articles  were  disposed  of  at  the  manufacturers' 
charges,  previous  to  their  removal  from  the  building,  and  doubt- 
less new  and  extensive  orders  originated  from  the  display  in 

The  great  seedsmen  of  Edinburghf  fitted  up  a  large  case  con- 
taining all   the   seeds,   roots,   etc.,   indigenous   to   Great  Britain, 

and  iron  is  Sweden  andi  there  fuel  has  become  so  scarce  that  the  quantity  is 
yearly  diminishing.  There  is  abundance  of  every  element  in  your 
province  to  supply  the  world,  and  when  properly  developed,  to  make 
your  little  country  one  of  the  most  prosperous  under  the  sun.  There  is 
a  medal  awarded  to  the  Nova  Scotia  committee  for  a  choice  collection  of 
skins.  Mr.  Robinson,  I  believe,  was  the  contributor.  While  the  quality 
of  your  iron  cannot  be  surpassed  by  any  yet  discovered,  it  is  said  that 
the  same  remark  applies  to  your  fur  and  skins.  Mr.  Robinson's  collection 
in  London  was  superior  to  that  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  Russia,  or 
any  there  exhibited." 

*  Mr.  A.  Downs,   Junior. 
fMessrs.  Lawson  &  Sons. 


valued  at  £150  stg.  and  sent  it  to  "  the  World's  Show."  It  had 
not  been  long  there  before  the  firm  received  orders  for  similar 
cases  from  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  the  King  of  Prussia,  and 
other  crowned  heads  of  Europe.  No  doubt,  that  single  package, 
there  exposed  to  the  gaze  of  the  world,  will  be  the  means  of  putting 
thousands  of  pounds  into  the  pockets  of  these  enterprising  men. 
Hundreds  of  parallel  instances  might  be  quoted  in  connexion 
with  the  history  of  the  World's  Pair  for  1851. 

To  treat  this  subject  here,  in  all  its  beneficial  relations,  would 
be  impossible.  We  will  only  further  refer  the  reader  to  the  effects 
of  such  exhibitions  as  illustrated  in  the  experience  of  the  United 
States,  where -nearly  every  city,  town  and  village  of  importance, 
has  its  "  annual  show,"  as  it  is  there  called.  Ask  the  American 
citizen  his  opinion  of  such  displays,  and  he  will  tell  you  that  they 
have  exerted,  and  still  continue  to  exert,  a  wonderful  influence 
for  good — that  they  infuse  vigor,  a  spirit  of  enterprise  and 
emulation  into  the  minds  of  all  classes — that  they  act  as  powerful 
levers  to  elevate  morally,  socially  and  intellectually,  the  people  of 
the  Union.  How  could  it  be  otherwise  ?  What  these  exhibitions 
have  done  for  the  United  States,  they  will  do  for  Nova  Scotia,  if 
her  sons  and  daughters  will  it. 

Were  the  pros  and  cons  equal,  which  is  most  assuredly  not 
the  case,  the  mere  additional  circulation  of  money  should  be  an 
inducement,  and  turn  the  scale  in  favor  of  such  exhibitions,  in 
these  times  of  depression  and  langour.  In  England,  immense 
sums  were  expended  by  travellers  alone,  who  were  drawn  thither 
by  the  great  sight  of  the  age — the  departed  exhibition.  Every 
class  benefited  by  it;  even  the  remote  corners  of  the  empire  felt 
in  this,  if  in  no  other  way,  its  beneficial  effects.  The  same 
remarks  are  applicable  in  a  minor  degree,  to  New  Brunswick 
and  her  recent  show.  The  late  Railway  Jubilee  was,  it  is  esti- 
mated, a  clear  gain  to  the  city  of  Boston  of  $100,000,  that 
amount,  over  and  above  the  expenditure,  having  been  left  behind 
by  travellers  and  guests. 

how  are   these   exhibitions   to   be   originated,   and   what 
Body  will  Constitute  the  Moving  Power? 

In  St.  John,  N.B.,  the  Mechanics'  Institute  took  the  initiative. 
The  same  thing  has  been  recommended  here* ;  and  as  there  is 

*  The  Rev.  Alex.  Forrester  in  a  most  patriotic  and  powerful  address 
recently  delivered  before  the  Halifax  Mechanics'  Institute,  took  this 
ground  but  at  the  same  time  recommended  that  large  additions  should 
be  made  from  without  the  Institute,  and  that  every  interest  in  the  pro- 
vince should  be  represented  in  this  central  board  or  moving  power.  Mr. 
Forrester  has  been  the  first  person  in  Nova  Scotia  to  propound  publicly 
the  necessity  of  these  institutions.     May  his  call  be  responded  to. 

1845  TO  1861  129 

much  to  be  said  in  favor  of  the  suggestion,  we  trust  it  will  be 
adopted.  Let  then,  a  board  of  commissioners  be  organized,  con- 
sisting of  some  of  the  leading  men  of  the  Mechanics'  Institute, 
one  or  two  members  of  Government,  members  of  the  Legislature, 
and  of  the  Agricultural  Society.  These,  with  representatives 
from  the  various  professions  and  trades  in  the  Province,  might 
constitute  "  a  Central  Board."  They  should  be  men  of  influence 
who  have  the  best  interests  and  welfare  of  the  Province  at  heart, 
and  who  would  not  hesitate  to  labor  in  a  cause  of  such  importance. 
Under  their  directions  in  each  county,  local  boards  could  be 
organized  consisting  of  the  most  intelligent,  scientific  and  practical 
men  of  the  different  districts.  With  the  addition  of  one  or  two 
travelling  agents,  who  by  their  acquirements  and  knowledge  would 
be  capable  of  delivering  lectures,  and  exciting  an  interest  among 
the  people,  the  above  would  constitute  the  working  machinery,  the 
lever  that  would  raise  the  mass. 

Where  are  the  Funds  to  Come  From  ? 

The  money  requisite  to  efficiently  carry  on  the  work,  would  be 
considerable,  but  it  would  not  all  be  required  at  the  offset.  There 
are  three  sources  from  whence  it  could  be  derived:  1st,  from 
private  contributions.  A  love  of  country,  or  patriotism,  would, 
we  trust,  induce  the  more  wealthy  to  give  their  pounds,  the 
middling  classes  their  shillings,  and  the  poor  man  his  pence. 
2nd,  from  the  Provincial  chest.  The  principle  has  been  con- 
ceded here,  as  in  the  other  colonies,  that  for  great  and  important 
works,  calculated  to  benefit  the  whole  people,  the  government 
or  legislature  may  make  liberal  advances  from  the  public  treasury. 
And  what  object  more  important,  I  would  ask,  than  the  one 
under  consideration  ?  It  is  difficult  to  name  it !  For  such  con- 
tributions or  advances,  both  the  private  individual  and  the  Pro- 
vince would  receive  in  return  more  than  compound  interest — 
if  not  directly,  certainly  indirectly.  Sooner  or  later,  they  would 
be  the  recipients  of  a  ten-fold  reward.  Lastly,  the  fees  for  admis- 
sion would  probably  be  large.  The  money  thus  obtained  on  the 
first  two  days,  at  the  recent  show  in  New  Brunswick,  more  than 
paid  for  every  expenditure,  the  erection  of  a  Miniature  Crystal 
Palace  60  feet  by  120,  included.  While,  to  ascend  from  small 
things  to  great,  the  London  Exhibition  at  its  close  left  in  the 
hands  of  its  executive  a  surplus  fund  of  some  £200,000  or 
£300,000,  stg. 

With  facts  like  these  before  us,  on  the  score  of  money  we  should 
not  hesitate;  the  pecuniary  difficulty  will  have  no  existence. 


From     Whence     will     Come     the     People    to    View     our 

Productions,  and  to  Furnish  this  Revenue,  Assuming 

that  the  thing  is  successfully  completed  ? 

From  every  section  of  the  Province.  If  we  enlist  the  sym- 
pathies of  the  masses,  obtain  their  assistance,  and  the  results  of 
their  labor,  will  they  be  content  to  hear  of  the  exhibition  only 
through  the  press  ?  Certainly  not.  They  will  by  hundreds  come 
to  the  Capital,  or  elsewhere,  to  view  the  work  of  their  own  hands. 
Again,  if  these  industrial  displays  are  established  on  an  extensive 
scale,  strangers  will  come  from  afar.  The  other  Colonies,  and 
doubtless  the  United  States,  will  furnish  large  parties,  if  proper 
arrangements  for  conveying  them  hither  be  made.  Cheap  pleasure 
excursions  originating  in  St.  John,  induced  hundreds  to  visit 
the  late  show  there,  from  Nova  Scotia,  Canada,  Boston,  Portland 
and  other  parts  of  the  United  States.  This  ingress  of  strangers, 
while  it  will  extend  to  other  countries  a  knowledge  of  our  resources 
and  capabilities,  will  act  as  a  stimulus  to  those  more  immediately 
interested.  We  will  be  aware  that  the  eyes  of  North  America 
are  fixed  on  us,  which  fact  will  prompt  us  to  increased  exertion. 

Nova  Scotians !  shall  these  exhibitions  be  attempted  ?  Argu- 
ment, example,  everything  speaks  loudly  in  their  favor;  let  us 
cast  aside  our  lethargy,  make  but  an  effort,  a  vigorous  effort, 
and  a  Provincial  Industrial  Exhibition  for  1852  will  be  attempted 
and  concluded  with  honor  to  ourselves  and  our  country.  Let  the 
Government  and  its  head,  the  Bench  and  the  Bar,  and  all  these 
occupying  high  places  in  the  land,  step  forward  and  say  "  We 
will  aid  in  the  undertaking,  not  with  a  feeble  voice,  but  with  all 
our  strength,  with  our  influence,  our  interest,  and  if  required, 
with  our  money."  Then  will  be  seen  the  farmer  and  the  naturalist, 
the  carpenter  and  the  smith,  in  short,  representatives  from  every 
trade  and  profession  in  the  Province,  joining  in  the  chorus  of  "  a 
long  pull  and  a  strong  pull,  and  a  pull  all  together."  Periodical 
Industrial  Exhibitions  will  not  be  viewed  through  the  mists  of  the 
dim  future,  their  present  advantages  will  be  felt,  they  will  be  fixed 
and  established  facts  in  our  Colonial  History.  These,  with  other 
elements  of  progress,  which  are  attainable  and  within  our  mieans, 
being  once  adopted  and  developed,  adversity  will  retreat,  pros- 
perity will  be  the  victor.  The  happiness  induced  by  success,  will 
displace  those  feelings  of  envy,  discord  and  disappointment  which 
are  engendered  by  a  want  of  it.  Nova  Scotia  will  be  progressively 
elevated — and  "  Bhienose "  her  son,  while  contemplating  the 
change  effected  in  his  condition,  will  once  more  fold  his  robe, 
now  of  home  manufacture,  around  him,  survey  the  work  of  his 
hand,  and  express  his  grateful  acknowledgments  to  that  all-wise 
Providence,  which  prompted  him  in  the  hour  of  necessity  to  make 
an  effort  to  redeem  his  country  from   obscurity  and  depression. 

1845  TO  1861  131 

To  return  to  domestic  affairs.     It  was  in  the  spring  or  summer 
of  1853  that  the  purchase  of  the  Dartmouth  cottage  property  was 
made  and  the  cottage  built.    This  was  designed  to  be  a  summer  resi- 
dence for  the  child,  Johnston,  with  his  nurse,  and  a  place  of  retreat 
for  himself,  when  work  would  permit.     The  Misses  Katzman,  to 
whom  reference  has  been  made,  occupied  the  cottage,  in  its  early 
history,  for  the  greater  part  of  the  year.     James  W.  Johnston, 
junior,  was  then  living  on  the  place  adjoining,  afterwards  pur- 
chased by  F.  M.  Passow,  when  "  Sunnyside,"  bounding  the  cottage 
lot  on  the  south,  became  the  home  of  Mr.  Johnston.     James  W. 
Johnston,  senior,  then  lived  at  "  Mount  Amelia,"  on  the  hill  above. 
The  cottage  property  comprised  that  part  of  the  "  Beechwood  " 
homestead  which  lies  between  the  Eastern  Passage  road  and  the 
Old  Ferry  road.    The  cottage  itself  formed  that  part  of  the  present 
house  (except  the  attic  story)  between  the  northern  wall  and  the 
southern  line  of  the  lower  main  hall,  and  consisted  of  two  stories, 
and  a  basement  for  the  kitchen  department.    It  had  entrances  east 
and  west,  with  a  verandah  on  the  west  side  reached  by  two  opposing 
flights  of  stairs  meeting  on  a  platform  in  advance,  and  of  the  same 
height  as  the  present  verandah.     The  front  drawing-room  in  the 
present  house  was  the  drawing-room  of  the  cottage,  the  rear  one  was 
its  dining-room,  from  the  east  window  of  which  steps  led  to  a  lawn. 
The  present  sitting-room  was  the  main  bedroom  of  the  cottage, 
with  a  bay  window,  breast  high,  overlooking  the  harbor.     The 
north-east  bedroom  in  its  rear  was  the  nursery.     A  stable,  after- 
wards removed  to  its  present  position  and  enlarged  by  the  addi- 
tion of  a  coachman's  house,  stood  at  right  angles  to  the  cottage, 
extending  from  about  the  position  of  the  extreme  south-west  corner 
of  the  new  house,  westerly.     Among  the  trees  on  the  bank  behind, 
then  more  numerous,  was  a  large  play-house  for  children,  covered 
on  roof  and  sides  with  spruce  tree  trunks,  in  the  style  of  a  log 
cabin.     Beyond  this,  where  now  are  the  upper  sidewalk  and  retain- 
ing wall,  the  ground,  thickly  wooded,  sloped  naturally  to  the  line 
of  the  property  from  the  street,  which  was  then  lower,  and  there 
was  a  board  fence  in  the  hollow,  following  the  course  of  the  present 
retaining  wall  as  its  base  runs. 

On  August  26th,  1854,  the  marriage  of  my  father  and  mother 
was  celebrated,  at  "  Belle-Vue."  A  family  party  was  then  made 
up  for  a  tour  in  Canada  and  the  United  States.  Beside  the  bride 
and  groom  it  consisted  of  the  bride's  sister  Elizabeth  and  her 
husband,  L.  A.  Wilmot  (afterwards  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court 
of  New  Brunswick,  and  Lieutenant-Governor  of  that  Province), 
the  bride's  sister  Emma,  then  unmarried,  her  sister  Celia,  her 
brother  Martin,  and  her  niece  Jane,  afterwards  the  wife  of  Captain 
Samuel  Adams,  of  the  60th  Rifles.  The  route  and  places  visited 
were  as  follows :  By  the  Cunard  ship  "  Europa,"  with  200  English 


passengers  aboard,  to  Boston;  thence  to  Albany,  N.Y. ;  thence  to 
Niagara  Falls ;  thence  across  the  lake  to  Toronto ;  thence  by  boat 
to  Kingston,  Ont ;  thence  by  boat  for  Montreal,  but,  finding  them- 
selves on  a  steamer  overcrowded  with  troops  among  whom  cholera 
broke  out  on  board,  the  party  disembarked  at  Prescott  and  crossed 
over  to  Ogdensburg  in  the  State  of  New  York;  thence,  next  day 
to  Montreal ;  thence  by  rail,  and  by  boat  down  Lake  Champlain, 
to  New  York;  thence  to  Philadelphia,  back  to  Boston,  by  rail, 
and  home  again  by  a  Cunard  steamer,  in  time  for  the  detail  pre- 
paratory work  of  the  Provincial  Exhibition,  with  which  the  bride- 
groom was  connected,  as  we  have  seen,  and  which  was  an  event 
not  to  be  missed. 

At  my  mother's  marriage  her  father's  wedding  gift  was  the 
stone  house  at  the  south-west  corner  of  Argyle  and  Prince  Streets, 
overlooking  St.  Paul's  Church  Square,  with  the  land  appurtenant. 
The  property  extended  on  Argyle  Street  southerly  to  the  Bur- 
meister  house,  a  granite  building,  and  had  a  stable  at  the  south- 
eastern corner.  Thence  it  extended  through  to  Grafton  Street, 
where  there  was  a  rear  entrance  into  a  large  lot  on  which  stood  a 
second  stable  and  a  detached  house  for  a  coachman.  South  of  the 
residence  was  the  garden.  The  wooden  annex  in  the  rear  of  the 
house,  fronting  on  Prince  Street,  was  afterwards  built  by  my 
father  for  offices  and  a  medical  dispensary.  A  transverse  lobby, 
with  doors  on  either  side  containing  glass  panels,  separated  this 
building  from  the  house.  I  well  remember  that  this  lobby  formed 
an  amphitheatre  in  which  the  trusty  Charles,  butler  and  indis- 
pensable doer  of  many  things,  was  wont  to  match  his  black-and-tan, 
Jessie,  against  as  many  sewer  rats  as  could  be  provided  at  a  time 
by  a  band  of  lively  but  not  over-industrious  medical  students,  who 
would  indulge  my  infant  taste  by  holding  me  up  to  witness  these 
combats  through  those  glass  doors.  The  original  office  and  con- 
sulting-room was  at  the  north-east  corner  of  the  house,  on  the  first 
floor.  This  house  was  built  by  Dr.  William  J.  Almon,  the  father 
of  my  father's  old  preceptor  and  grandfather  of  the  Senator  of 
the  same  name.  This  first  of  the  Doctors  Almon,  the  progenitor 
of  five  generations  of  Halifax  doctors  bearing  the  name,  came  to 
Halifax  with  the  British  forces  on  the  evacuation  of  Boston,  in 
1776,  and  died  in  England  in  1817.  The  house  was  built  soon 
after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  It  was  afterwards  the 
residence  of  the  builder's  son,  Hon.  Mather  Byles  Almon,  from 
whom  it  was  purchased  in  1854.  The  house  and  its  location,  now 
so  altered  in  their  use  and  character,  were  then  considered  most 
desirable  for  residence,  and  that  part  of  Argyle  Street  was  almost 
wholly  occupied  for  residential  property.  Opposite  this  new  home, 
to  which  my  parents  returned  after  their  tour  in  Canada  and  the 
United  States,  was  the  historical  Bulkeley  House,  then  the  home 

1845  TO  1861  133 

of  the  Cogswell  family.  Hon.  Hezekiah  H.  Cogswell  died  there  in 
1854.  Dr.  Charles  Tupper,  my  father's  lifelong  friend,  resided 
a  few  doors  south  of  that.  The  neighbors  immediately  south,  on 
the  other  side,  were  the  Burmeisters;  and  beyond  them,  at  the 
southern  corner  of  the  block,  was  the  handsome  residence  of  the 
Uniackes,  a  large  wooden  building,  originally  of  three  stories,  with 
a  parapet  all  around  the  roof,  ornamented  with  large  urns.  It  was 
built  by  Hon.  Richard  John  Uniacke,  for  many  years  Attorney- 
General,  whose  son  Richard  John,  junior,  fought  the  last  duel  in 
Halifax,  in  1819,  when  he  killed  Mr.  Bowie,  of  the  firm  of  Bowie 
&  De  Blois.  Another  son,  Andrew,  was  the  occupant  at  the  time 
now  referred  to,  and  as  late  as  1872.  Doctors  Garvie  and  Hattie 
were  near  neighbors  on  the  block  of  Argyle  Street  opposite  St. 
Paul's  Church.  On  the  next  block  northward  stood  the  old  home 
of  the  Blacks,  my  mother's  grandfather  and  father.  She  was  born 
there,  and  there  she  spent  her  first  twelve  years,  until  her  father, 
in  April,  1846,  purchased  "  Belle- Vue  "  from  the  estate  of  Ben- 
jamin Etter,  who  was  my  mother's  maternal  grandfather.  The 
southern  extension  of  the  Moir  bakery  now  covers  the  site  of  the 
old  home. 

The  summer  months  were  spent  by  the  family  at  the  Dart- 
mouth cottage.  There  my  father  spent  such  hours  as  he  could 
snatch  from  his  time-devouring  labors.  Worn  out  by  work,  at 
times  he  would  seek  this  haven  for  a  night  of  unbroken  sleep,  an 
experience  which  had  become  too  unfamiliar.  The  ferry  ceased 
to  run  at  eleven,  and  the  telephone  was  far  in  the  future  yet.  But 
a  night  off  duty  was  rare,  only  permissible  when  it  was  taken  to 
avoid  night  calls  to  new  cases,  and  when  there  was  no  expectation 
of  nocturnal  visits  in  those  that  were  pending. 

The  years  of  unremitting  toil  as  a  general  practitioner  in  both 
branches  of  his  profession  were  broken  now  and  then  by  what 
might  be  called  flying  visits  to  New  York,  Boston  or  elsewhere, 
where  rest  was  found  in  brief  change  of  scene  and  the  changed  work 
of  investigating  some  discovery  in  medicine  or  some  advance  in 
surgery,  news  of  which  had  reached  him ;  and  he  never  returned 
without  acquiring  fresh  knowledge  by  which  his  patients  might 
benefit.  He  was  progressive,  always  enquiring,  ever  learning,  an 
insatiable  student  and  investigator.  He  believed  that,  in  his  pro- 
fession, not  to  advance  was  to  go  back.  With  a  large  library, 
which  he  always  supplemented  by  taking  in  many  current  medical 
magazines,  he  was  not  satisfied  with  reading  only.  He  must  see 
things  for  himself  in  surgery ;  and  any  new  operation,  once  seen, 
he  could  come  home  and  perform.  In  this  manner  he  kept  con- 
tinuously abreast  of  the  advances  being  made  in  his  always  pro- 
gressive vocation.  By  this  method,  too,  he  formed  friendships, 
valuable  and  sympathetic,  with  eminent  men  in  the  United  States 


and  Canada,  called  together  by  common  interest  to  witness  or  dis- 
cuss the  newest  things  in  surgery  and  medical  discovery.     Such 
men  became  his  correspondents  and  would  keep  him  informed  so 
that  he  might  make  timely  visits  to  American  cities.     Agnew, 
Sands,  Draper  and  Delafield,  of  New  York,  and  many  older  men 
of  professional  eminence  there  and  in  other  American  cities,  such 
as  Professor  Willard  Parker  and  Dr.  Buck,  of  New  York,  but 
whose  names  cannot  all  be  recalled,  appreciated  his  worth  and 
were  among  his  admirers,  and  some  of  them  sought  his  aid  in  con- 
sultation when  opportunity  offered  during  his  visits.     I  was  once 
with  him  in  New  York  when  the  most  distinguished  surgeon  of 
that  time  in  the  city  drove  him  over  to  Brooklyn  to  assist  in  an 
operation.     "  What  do  you  get  for  that,  Sands  ?"  asked  my  father, 
on  their  way  back.     "  A  thousand  dollars,"  was  the  answer.     "  I 
do  that  for  fifty,"  said  the  Nova  Scotia  surgeon.     "Come  on; 
move  to  New  York,"  was  the  laconic  reply  of  the  more  fortunate 
New  Yorker.     Some  of  these  professional  brethren  of  the  Republic 
were  accustomed  to  visit  him  at  his  home.     In  the  same  spirit, 
and  for  the  same  purpose,  he  would  cross  the  Atlantic,  but  more 
rarely ;   and  he  never  failed,  by  personal  correspondence  with  men 
of  the  highest  standing  in  Edinburgh  and  London,  to  keep  himself 
"  up-to-date  "  and  well  informed  as  to  all  advances  being  made  in 
the  old  country  as  well  as  in  the  new.     As  evidencing  the  reputa- 
tion he  established  abroad,  both  before  and  after  the  transition  in 
practice  of  1873,  and  the  esteem  in  which  he  was  held  by  the  front 
rank  men  of  the  profession  with  world-wide  reputations,  many  of 
these  in  Great  Britain  and  in  the  United  States,  and,  it  may  be 
added,  all  the  eminent  men  of  Canada,  were  accustomed  to  send 
him  copies  of  their  medical  and  surgical  pamphlets,  reports  of 
cases,  and  periodical  writings, — very  often  accompanied  by  expres- 
sions of  affectionate  regard.     Of  these,  many  volumes  might  now 
be  made,  for  he  was  accustomed  to  preserve  them  for  reference. 

Such  was  his  practice  at  Argyle  Street,  until  he  relinquished 
general  practice  in  1871,  that  it  was  not  uncommon  for  him  to 
have  a  day's  visiting  list  of  from  forty  to  fifty  names,  and  his 
rounds  began  often  at  six  or  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning.  It  was 
his  habit  to  "  get  a  bite,"  as  he  would  say,  where  he  happened  to 
call  about  the  hours  for  meals,  and  many  days  he  never  tasted  food 
at  home.  If  he  chanced  to  be  where  the  "  bite  "  was  not  to  be  had, 
he  went  hungry.  He  belonged  distinctively  to  that  old  school  of 
family  physician — "  a  guide,  philosopher  and  friend  "  as  well  as 
medical  man — and  was  so  generally  beloved  that  no  more  welcome 
guest,  though  uninvited,  was  ever  greeted  in  the  homes  of  his 
patients,  from,  the  stateliest  mansion  of  authority  or  wealth  to  the 
cottage  of  the  lowliest  poor.  And  they  were  all  alike  to  him. 
After  a  day's  work  upon  such  a  round  of  visits  as  would  keep 

1845  TO  1861  135 

him  out  frequently  until  nearly  bed-time,  and  would  include  per- 
haps several  surgical  operations,  there  would  come  the  dreaded 
summons  of  the  night-bell  beside  his  bed,  perhaps  several  of  these 
in  succession.  Conscientious  in  the  highest  degree,  and  cherishing 
the  ethics  of  the  profession  in  this  as  in  all  other  aspects,  he  would 
never  refuse  these  calls  save  when  his  own  real  illness  barred  the 
door.  But  sometimes  when,  sunk  deep  in  the  slumber  of  utter 
physical  and  mental  exhaustion  at  the  close  of  a  long  day's  weary 
round,  even  the  close-clattering  bell  could  not  avail  to  break  the 
seal  of  nature  on  his  senses,  his  watchful  wife,  refusing  to  arouse 
him,  made  bold  to  deny  nocturnal  importunity,  upon  what  she 
thought  sufficient  ground,  and  to  send  away  the  caller  to  some 
neighboring  physician.  My  mother's  relation  of  her  husband's 
labors  in  those  years  of  general  practice  make  one  marvel  that  his 
life  was  not  cut  short  by  a  quarter  of  a  century.  Indomitable 
power  of  the  will,  and  the  ability  to  catch  a  few  moments  of  dozing 
sleep  here  and  there  throughout  the  day,  may,  in  part,  explain 
why  it  was  not  so,  for  his  physical  constitution  in  youth,  as  we  have 
seen,  was  not  considered  robust. 

A  number  of  medical  students  read  in  the  Prince  Street  offices, 
received  instruction  and  witnessed  operations.  But  the  old-time 
custom  of  paying  £100  to  the  preceptor  had  then  become  more 
honored  (  ?)  in  the  breach  than  in  the  observance.  A  pharmacist, 
who  also  acted  as  book-keeper,  was  employed,  and  all  medicines 
were  compounded  on  the  premises.  I  recall  that  the  late  Dr. 
Venables  and  Mr.  Charles  H.  Hepworth  both  occupied  this 

In  the  forties  and  fifties  my  father  rode  on  horseback  a  great 
deal  in  making  his  professional  rounds,  and  he  was  an  excellent 
horseman.  At  Argyle  Street  he  kept  three  horses,  using  them  for 
a  day  each  in  turn.  Reference  to  his  earlier  modes  of  travel  is 
made  in  his  Address  of  1895,  before  alluded  to.  An  illustrative 
incident  or  two  may  not  be  amiss  here. 

Arrived  home  one  evening  about  eight  o'clock,  fatigued  by  a 
hard  day's  work,  he  found  an  urgent  message  from  a  doctor  in 
Windsor,  asking  him  to  operate  there  next  day.  There  was  then 
no  railway,  and  the  coach  leaving  the  following  morning  could  not 
get  him  there  before  evening.  There  was  nothing  for  it  but  to  start 
at  once,  for  he  knew  that  to  be  effective  the  operation  must  be  per- 
formed in  the  morning,  and  as  early  as  possible.  A  hasty  meal, 
and  he  was  again  in  the  saddle.  It  was  winter,  and  a  heavy, 
driving  snow-storm  came  on  when  he  had  ridden  about  half-way. 
Fortunately  his  well-proved  horse  was  familiar  with  the  Windsor 
road,  and  to  him  the  rider,  when  in  doubt,  would  commit  the  reins ; 
yet  the  snow-drifts  grew  so  deep  that  where  there  were  no  fences 
for  guidance  the  road  could  not  be  kept,  was  lost  and  found  again 


many  times.  At  a  point  where  the  road  passed  through  a  thick 
wood,  in  a  darkness  which  shut  out  even  sight  of  his  horse's  head, 
the  struggle  against  nature's  demand  could  no  longer  be  maintained, 
and  the  rider  fell  asleep.  The  knowing,  trusty  horse  knew  it,  and 
evidently  reasoned  that  it  would  be  safer  for  his  master,  swaying 
in  the  saddle,  and  very  much  more  comfortable  for  himself,  if  he 
should  "  turn  in  "  too,  for  what  remained  of  such  a  night.  At 
daybreak  the  rider  awoke  with  a  start  to  find  himself  lying  forward 
on  the  drooped  neck  of  the  horse,  supported  by  his  saddle-bags,  and 
the  animal,  apparently  asleep,  standing  in  the  wood  under  the 
sheltering  branches  of  a  spruce  tree.  It  was  still  snowing  heavily. 
The  horse  had  turned  into  a  wood-road,  and  had  shown  sagacity 
and  great  care  in  approaching,  as  well  as  selecting  sleeping  quar- 
ters. Had  he  taken  to  cover  over  rough  ground,  which  lay  all  about, 
or  not  proceeded  very  cautiously,  his  sleeping  master  must  inevit- 
ably have  been  thrown,  and  perhaps  injured,  where  he  might  have 
lain  long  before  being  discovered.  Many  long  and  lonely  rides  by 
day  and  night  had  established  a  perfect  understanding  of  each 
other,  and  a  mutual  affection.  That  favorite  horse  was  one  of  the 
truest  friends  his  proud  owner  ever  had.  With  much  difficulty, 
because  of  the  now  badly  blocked  road,  and  by  taking  short 
cuts  through  wood  and  field,  my  father  reached  his  destina- 
tion in  the  forenoon  of  that  day.  The  operation  was  done  at 
once,  and  it  was  marked  by  an  incident  which  he  used  to  say 
was  unique  in  his  experience.  The  patient,  an  old  man  and 
wealthy,  was  instantly  relieved  from  great  pain  by  the  opera- 
tion and  was  thoroughly  appreciative.  "  What's  your  fee, 
doctor?"  said  he,  as  the  surgeon  was  packing  his  instruments. 
"  Fifty  dollars,  Mr.  S."  Turning  to  his  son  and  pointing  to  a 
drawer  in  his  desk,  the  old  man  said :  "  Give  him  a  hundred !" 
And  the  surgeon  thought  the  travel,  if  not  the  operation,  was 
worth  it.  The  closing  hour  of  that  night  saw  him  back  in  Halifax, 
on  the  same  horse.  Rides  of  that  distance,  through  any  weather, 
were  not  unusual  for  him. 

On  another  occasion,  going  to  Pictou  or  its  vicinity,  to  operate, 
he  took,  as  he  often  did,  his  own  light  carriage,  doing  the  first  stage 
or  two  with  one  of  his  own  horses  and  trusting  for  changes  to  the 
stables  at  the  post  houses  on  the  coach  route.  There  was  need  for 
the  utmost  haste,  for  a  human  life  was  in  the  balance.  At  one 
road  house  there  was  no  horse  to  be  had  but  a  heavy,  vicious  and 
dangerous  stallion  which  had  recently  attacked  and  injured  a  man. 
The  innkeeper  refused  at  first  to  hire  him  on  this  account,  but 
yielded  to  the  imperious  demand  of  the  doctor,  who  "  must  "  have 
him.  On  a  lonely  piece  of  road  the  horse  became  refractory,  back- 
ing and  rearing  in  an  ugly  manner,  which  threatened  to  upset  the 

1845  TO  1861  137 

carriage.  His  driver  leaped  out  and  was  about  to  take  him  by  the 
head,  when  the  brute  reared  and  struck  at  him  with  his  forefeet. 
The  impatient  horseman's  fighting  blood  was  roused.  Evading 
several  blows,  he  ran  in  and  gripped  the  reins  with  both  hands, 
close  to  the  curb  bit.  But  he  did  not  reckon  on  the  consequence. 
The  furious  horse  reared  on  his  hind  feet  to  his  full  height  again 
and  again,  now  swinging  his  clinging  enemy  in  the  air  while  he 
tried  to  beat  him  down  with  his  fore-hoofs;  now  plunging  to  the 
earth  in  attempts  to  trample  him  underfoot,  and  all  the  while  try- 
ing for  a  hold  with  his  teeth  upon  the  arms  which  held  him.  But 
the  determined  adversary  held  grimly  on.  There  was  nothing  else 
for  him  to  do.  To  release  that  grip  meant  probable  death.  For 
many  minutes,  that  seemed  like  hours  to  the  clinging  man,  this 
awful  struggle  went  on.  Bruised  and  battered  by  the  animal's 
forelegs,  dizzy  with  the  shock  and  nervous  tension  of  the  unequal 
combat,  his  strength  was  failing,  when  a  wagon  containing  three 
or  four  men  appeared  on  the  scene,  and  by  them  the  horse  was  suf- 
ficiently subdued  to  effect  my  father's  release  from  his  perilous 
situation.  But  his  own  native  resolution  was  not  subdued ;  for 
when  his  timely  rescuers  had  righted  his  carriage  and  helped  him 
repair  damages  to  the  harness,  he  set  out  to  conquer  that  stallion, — 
and  conquer  him  he  did,  running  him  at  his  utmost  speed  to  the 
next  post,  keeping  him  at  it  with  a  heavy  whip  playing  like  a  flail, 
and  there  delivering  him  for  return  to  his  owner, — a  trembling, 
dripping  and  thoroughly  cowed  horse. 

It  appears  by  the  first  annual  report  of  the  Halifax  Visiting 
Dispensary  Society,  which  was  instituted  in  1855,  that  Dr.  Wil- 
liam J.  Almon  and  my  father  were  the  consulting  surgeons  for  that 

The  Medical  Society  of  Halifax,  formed  in  1844,  was  the 
pioneer  organization  of  its  kind  in  the  Province.  Previous  to 
1854  it  had  been  agitating  the  matter  of  improved  medical  legis- 
lation to  repress  the  increasing  number  of  persons  coming  into  the 
Province,  "  thoroughly  versed  in  all  the  vile  arts  of  the  quack ;" 
but  repeated  attempts  to  obtain  such  legislation  had  failed.  "  In 
1854,  a  committee  of  this  Society,  appointed  for  the  purpose, 
reported  as  follows :  '  With  regard  to  the  improper  treatment  of 
bills  presented  of  late  years  to  the  Legislature,  your  committee  are 
of  opinion  that  the  only  alternative  now  left  by  which  an  effectual 
resistance  may  be  offered  to  the  unjust  procedure  of  the  com- 
mittees of  Assembly  appointed  to  investigate  the  petitions  of 
medical  men  is  a  union  of  the  profession  throughout  the  Province. 
To  effect  such  union  your  committee  suggest  that  the  Medical 
Society  of  Halifax  should  become  a  Provincial  association  and  its 
title  altered  accordingly;  and,  further,  that  the  practitioners 
throughout  the  Province  be  invited  by  a  circular  to  become  mem- 
bers of  the  association.' 


"  On  motion  of  Dr.  Parker,  it  was  resolved,  '  That  it  is  expe- 
dient for  the  members  of  the  profession  in  this  Province  to  organize 
themselves  forthwith  into  an  association  for  scientific  and  pro- 
fessional purposes  for  their  mutual  protection,  and  that  every 
regularly  qualified  practitioner  in  Nova  Scotia  be  invited  to  join 
the  association.'  In  1854  the  association  was  organized  and  the 
Hon.  W.  Gregor  elected  President,  the  country  members  having 
heartily  endorsed  the  scheme.  A  memorial  was  drawn  up  for 
presentation  to  the  legislature,  and  the  Act  of  1856  was  introduced 
by  the  late  Dr.  Webster,  of  Kentville." 

The  foregoing  quotation  is  from  a  Presidential  address  on 
Nova  Scotia  medical  legislation,  delivered  before  the  Nova  Scotia 
Medical  Society  by  Dr.  D.  A.  Campbell  in  1889. 

This  second  step  in  medical  legislation,  from  the  imperfect 
Act  of  1828,  established  a  Registration  system,  and  was  a  distinct 
advance,  in  other  respects,  for  the  protection  of  the  public  and 
the  profession. 

To  the  exigencies  of  the  contest  by  which  this  Act  of  1856  was 
wrung  from  a  reluctant  Legislature,  the  Nova  Scotia  Medical 
Society,  originated  on  the  motion  of  my  father,  owed  its  birth. 

In  1857  he  was  elected  President  of  the  Society. 

When  the  Provincial  Hospital  for  the  Insane,  at  Mount  Hope, 
was  organized  by  the  Government  in  1858,  he  was  appointed  by 
the  Governor-in-Council  to  the  original  Commission  of  nine  which 
managed  it,  and  was  elected  its  first  chairman.  This  office  he 
filled  for  some  years. 

Most  of  the  public  positions  he  filled  in  charitable,  educational, 
business  and  other  organizations  during  his  career  are  noted  in 
the  paper  on  Daniel  McNeill  and  his  descendants.  There  were 
others,  but  it  seems  unnecessary  to  particularize  further  as 
to  any  of  them  here'.  The  services  which  he  rendered  in  some  of 
them  will  be  testified  to  by  the  encomiums  of  colleagues  and  others 
recorded  in  the  following  pages;  and  where  there  is  no  such 
record  we  may  safely  say,  Ex  uno  disce  omnes. 

The  year  1857  was  marked  by  his  first  visit  to  Great  Britain 
since  he  had  left  the  Old  Country  as  a  new-fledged  doctor.  He 
was  called  there  by  the  serious  illness  of  his  brother  Fred  at  an 
English  port  where  he  had  arrived  from  Leghorn  in  the  barque 
"  Walton,"  which  he  commanded.  My  father  went  by  the  Cunard 
Line  from  Halifax  direct  to  Liverpool  about  the  first  of  August, 
and  returned  by  the  same  route  in  October.  Mr.  J.  W.  Johnston, 
then  Attorney-General,  and  Mr.  A.  G.  Archibald  were  at  this  time 
in  England  on  their  mission  to  effect  that  arrangement  with  the 
British  Government,  the  creditors  of  the  Duke  of  York,  and  the 
General  Mining  Association  in  regard  to  the  ungranted  mines  and 
minerals  of  Nova  Scotia  by  which  these  were  restored  to  the  Gov- 

1845  TO  1861  139 

ernment  of  the  Province  after  having  been  long  alienated  by  virtue 
of  the  lease  to  the  Duke  by  his  brother,  George  IV.,  and  having 
fallen  ultimately  into  the  hands  of  the  General  Mining  Association, 
subject  to  rights  which  the  Duke  of  York  had  reserved  to  himself. 
Mr.  Johnston  had  gone  over  in  June,  taking  two  of  his  daughters 
with  him.  My  father  met  them  in  Edinburgh,  after  establishing 
his  brother,  comfortably  convalescent,  in  Liverpool.  Thence  he 
returned  to  Liverpool  to  see  Fred  off  for  Halifax,  and  accompanied 
the  Misses  Johnston  to  London,  where  their  father  had  preceded 
them.  There  he  met  Mr.  Johnston,  Mr.  Archibald  (afterwards 
Sir  Adams),  and  Sir  Samuel  Cunard,  the  founder  of  the  steamship 
line,  who  was  rendering  valuable  assistance  to  the  two  Commis- 
sioners in  their  business  of  the  mines ;  and  he  himself  took  some 
part,  informally,  in  their  deliberations.  Thence  he  returned  with 
the  Misses  Johnston  to  Scotland  to  show  them  a  little  more  of  the 
country,  and  to  renew  for  a  few  days  more  the  delightful  and 
profitable  intercourse  with  his  old  friend  and  preceptor,  Professor 
Simpson,  of  which  the  following  letter  speaks.  He  has  been  here- 
tofore referred  to  as  Sir  James  Y.  Simpson,  but  he  did  not  receive 
his  baronetcy  until  1866. 

My  father,  writing  from  113  Duke  Street,  Liverpool,  Septem- 
ber 25th,  1857,  to  my  mother,  says: 

"  It  is  now  11  o'clock  at  night,  and  I  have  just  made  up  my 
mind  to  remain  for  the  next  steamer.  Dr.  Davies  arrived  from 
Birmingham  this  evening,  and  as  Fred  is  so  much  better  he  will  be 
able  to  go  out  by  himself,  or  rather  the  Johnstons  and  Davies  will 
take  every  care  of  him,  probably  quite  as  good  care  as  I  would  do 
were  I  with  him.  Now  that  I  have  actually  concluded  to  remain, 
I  feel  quite  dejected  at  being  separated  from  you  for  a  fortnight 
more,  but  I  may  never  be  here  again,  and  as  I  have  been  so  much 
tied  by  my  desire  not  to  be  long  away  from  Fred  I  have  hardly 
been  able  to  accomplish  anything  beyond  getting  him  here  and 
spending  a  few  days,  most  profitably  in  a  professional  point  of 
view,  with  Professor  Simpson,  who  has  been  kind  to  me  to  an 
extreme  degree,  more  like  a  brother  than  anything  else.  He 
invited  me  to  take  my  traps  to  his  house  and  make  it  my  home 
while  in  Edinburgh.  He  drove  me  round  to  see  his  patients, 
great  and  small,  and  introduced  me  as  '  Dr.  Parker  from  America,' 
and  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  them  fancy  I  was  a  somebody,  instead 
of  an  unknown  provincial  practitioner.  He  so  arranged  it  that  I 
should  see  several  important  cases,  operations,  etc.,  and  took  me 
with  him  to  the  Bridge  of  Allan  and  other  places  where  he  was 
visiting  patients.  He  asked  me  to  accompany  him  to  Torquay, 
to-day,  in  Devonshire,  to  which  place  he  was  asked  to  go  by  tele- 
graph, but  thinking  then  (yesterday  morning)  that  I  should  be  at 
sea  to-morrow,  I  reluctantly  declined.     He  made  me  promise  to 


go  back  and  stay  with  him  if  anything  turned  up  to  prevent  me 
from  leaving.  To  be  thus  singled  out  for  such  marked  attentions 
when  he  was  daily  surrounded  by  dozens  of  medical  men  from  all 
parts  of  the  world,  is  indeed  an  honor.  He  wishes  to  propose  my 
name  as  a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians,  which  would 
be  a  high  honorary  distinction,  but  as  the  initiatory  fee  is  £50  stg.  I 
do  not  feel  able  just  now,  at  the  rate  the  money  goes,  to  spare  it. 
So  I  thanked  him  most  kindly  and  said  I  would  communicate  with 
him  about  it.  He  arranged  a  delightful  morning  for  me,  when, 
accompanied  by  Mrs.  Simpson,  we  went  to  see  and  hear  Dr.  Liv- 
ingstone, the  African  traveller,  at  a  public  breakfast  given  him  in 
Edinburgh.  Mrs.  M.,  he  thinks,  will  get  well,  or  very  nearly  so. 
Poor  Mrs.  B.,  he  thinks,  will  never  be  able  to  rejoin  her  husband." 
(These  were  Halifax  ladies.)  "When  I  go  back  to  Edinburgh 
with  the  girls  I  will  find  her  out,  if  possible.  I  cannot  tell  you 
how  delighted  I  was  with  your  letter,  my  own  dear  wife.  I 
received  it  in  Edinburgh  last  Monday  when  I  joined  Mr.  Johnston 
and  Agnes  there.  To  hear  that  you  and  your  dear  infant  were 
well  made  me  feel  grateful  to  God  for  His  many  blessings  and  mer- 
cies to  us  both  since  we  parted.  May  He  spare  us  to  meet  once 
more  in  our  dear  and  happy  home,  for  the  comforts  of  which  I 
long.  Tell  my  dear  boy  that  Papa  was  equally  pleased  with  his 
little  and  short  letter.  Indeed,  both  yours  and  his  have  been  per- 
used over  and  over  again.  .  .  .  P.S. — Poor  E.  T.  has  left 
this  world  at  last.  Well,  he,  I  believe,  was  well  prepared  to  meet 
his  God  in  judgment.  What  a  trying  occasion  for  his  poor 
bereaved  wife — a  husband  dead,  an  infant  born,  events  occurring 
within  a  few  hours  of  each  other.  I  wish  my  poor  friend  A.,  now 
in  Eternity,  had  thought  as  long  and  as  deeply  on  the  subject  of 
his  soul's  salvation  as  T.,  but  God  is  a  gracious  and  a  merciful 
God,  and  we  will  hope  that  he  was  pardoned  and  forgiven.  Ask 
Dr.  Tupper  to  look  after  Fred.  I  would  write  him,  but  have  not 
time.  I  only  made  up  my  mind  to  stay,  to-night.  It  is  now  two 
o'clock  on  Saturday  morning,  and  since  writing  you,  my  own  dear 
wife,  I  have  written  Dr.  Almon  and  Lady  Le  Marchant,  and  as  I 
was  travelling  by  railroad  until  one  o'clock  last  night  I  feel  rather 
used  up  and  must  go  to  bed. 

"  Saturday  morning. 
"  The  girls  leave  with  me  for  London  at  quarter-past  four 
o'clock  to-day.  I  think  we  will  proceed  almost  immediately  to 
Scotland,  as  there  is  much  there  for  them  to  see,  and  I  flatter  my- 
self I  am  a  good  guide  for  that  part  of  the  world.  .  .  .  We 
are  just  off  for  the  steamer.  Send  the  accompanying  letters  also; 
a  parcel  for  Gossip  in  the  instrument  box.  In  great  haste,  my 
dear,  dear  wife,  your  affectionate  husband,  D.P." 

1845  TO  1861  141 

Letters,  in  part  or  in  full,  find  place  in  this  narrative  not  only 
for  the  information  concerning  their  writer's  life  which  they  afford, 
but  because  he  always  put  a  great  deal  of  himself  into  his  corre- 
spondence. To  understand  any  man  whose  life  is  worth  a  record, 
to  know  his  mind,  his  habits  of  thought,  and  try  to  form  an  esti- 
mate of  his  character,  there  can  be  nothing  more  helpful  than  his 
unstudied  correspondence  with  those  to  whom  his  heart  was  open. 
"  For  as  he  thinketh  in  his  heart,  so  is  he." 

I  have  therefore  devoted  much  space  to  specimens  of  my 
father's  spontaneous  correspondence  with  those  nearest  and  dearest 
to  him ;  for  the  most  part,  letters  hastily  thrown  off  in  the  scant 
leisure  of  travel.  "  Out  of  the  abundance  of  the  heart  the  mouth 
speaketh."  Happy  is  it  that  though  death  could  lay  its  hand 
upon  the  mouth  that  was  wont  to  speak  such  things  as  these  letters 
tell — the  reminiscences  and  incidents  of  travel,  thoughts  arising 
out  of  what  he  saw  abroad,  and  fond  expressions  of  domestic  love, 
yet  these  written  words  of  his  are  preserved  to  us.  In  their 
perusal,  with  their  many  habitual  forms  of  expression,  the  well- 
remembered  mannerisms,  or  way  of  putting  things,  we  may  almost 
hear  "  the  sound  of  a  voice  that  is  still." 

As  an  example  of  this  revelation  of  character  by  casual  letters, 
the  seemingly  unimportant  references  to  two  deceased  friends,  T. 
and  A.,  in  the  preceding  letter,  reveal  the  spiritually-minded  man 
my  father  had  become  at  the  age  of  thirty-five;  thus  even  these 
hastily  penned  "  post-script  "  remarks  become  valuable  to  an  under- 
standing of  what  manner  of  man  he  was  then.  In  all  his  corre- 
spondence one  detects  the  note  of  that  spiritual  undertone  which 
formed  the  basis  for  the  harmony  of  a  beautiful  life. 

To  understand  the  pleasurable  privileges  extended  in  1857  at 
52  Queen  Street,  Edinburgh  (a  house  monumental  and  even  sacred 
in  the  traditions  of  the  profession),  to  the  Nova  Scotia  doctor  who, 
as  the  great  Simpson's  clinical  clerk  and  favored  friend,  in  the 
decade  previous,  had  exalted  and  revered  him  for  a  model  and  the 
Hero-Doctor,  a  glance  at  what  Simpson  now  was,  and  what  went 
his  former  pupil  out  for  to  see  will  be  worth  our  while.  To  under- 
stand my  father's  personal  and  professional  ideals  and  the  work- 
ing out  of  them  in  his  life  it  is  really  necessary  to  read  the 
biography  of  Simpson.  In  reading  it  I  have  been  led  to  under- 
stand how  great  was  the  influence  of  Simpson's  life,  his  work 
and  character,  upon  my  father's ;  how,  unconsciously,  no  doubt, 
the  reverent  pupil  formed  himself  upon  his  model,  and  seemingly 
absorbed  much  of  the  very  spirit  of  his  master. 

About  this  time  a  medical  officer  of  the  Indian  Army  wrote 
thus  to  the  Bombay  Telegraph  and  Courier: — 

"  Decidedly  the  most  wonderful  man  of  his  age — I  mean  of  the  age 
in  which  he  lives — is  Simpson  of  Edinburgh.  In  him  are  realized  John 
Bell's  four  ideals  of  the  perfect  Esculapius — the  brain  of  an  Apollo,  the 


eye  of  an  eagle,  the  heart  of  a  lion,  and  the  hand  of  a  lady.  Nothing 
baffles  his  intellect ,~  nothing  escapes  his  penetrating  glance;  he  sticks  at 
nothing,  and  he  bungles  nothing.  If  his  practice  be  worth  a  rupee  per 
annum,  it  is  worth  £10,000 — twice  as  much  as  Dr  Hamilton  ever  realized, 
and  nearly  twice  the  amount  of  the  late  Abercrombie's  practice.  From 
all  parts,  not  of  Britain  only,  but  of  Europe,  do  ladiea  rush  to  see,  con- 
sult, and  fee  the  man.,  He  has  spread  joy  through  many  a  rich  man's 
house  by  enabling  his  wife  to  present  him  with  a  living  child,  a  feat 
which  none  but  Simpson  ever  dared  to  enable  her  to  do.  To  watch  of  a 
morning  with  Ms  poor  patients  (them  only  of  course  was  I  permitted  to 
see)  is  a  treat.  In  comes  a  woman  with  a  fibrous  tumour,  which  fifty 
other  practitioners  have  called  by  fifty  other  names.  One  minute  suffices 
for  his  diagnosis;  another  sees  her  in  a  state  of  insensibility,  and  in  less 
than  a  third,  two  long  needles  are  thrust  inches  deep  into  the  tumour, 
and  a  galvanic  battery  is  at  work,  discussing  it.  '  Leave  her  alone 
quietly,'  says  Simpson,  'she'll  take  care  of  herself — no  fear.'  One  up, 
another  down,  is  the  order  of  the  day.  What  other  men  would  speculate 
as  to  the  propriety  of  for  hours,  Simpson  does  in  a  minute  or  two.  He 
is  bold,  but  not  reckless;  ever  ready,  but  never  harsh.  He  is  prepared 
for  every  contingency,  and  meets  it  on  the  instant.  Everything  seems  to 
prosper  in  his  hands.  As  to  ether  and  chloroform,  they  seem  like  invis- 
ible intelligences,  doomed  to  obey  his  bidding — familiars  who  do  his  work 
because  they  must  never  venture  to  produce  effects  one  iota  greater  or 
less  than  he  desires.  While  other  men  measure  out  the  liquids,  fumble 
about  and  make  a  fuss,  Simpson  in  what  an  Irishman  would  call  the 
most  promiscuous  manner  possible,  does  the  job  in  a  minute  or  two.  He 
is,  indeed,  a  wonderful  man." 

When  the  Queen,  whose  physician  for  Scotland  he  had  been 
for  some  time,  conferred  the  Baronetcy,  the  London  Lancet  said: 
"  The  conferring  of  this  distinction  must  give,  we  think,  universal 
satisfaction.  Sir  James  Y.  Simpson  is  distinguished  as  an 
obstetric  practitioner,  as  a  physiologist,  as  an  operator,  and  as  a 
pathologist  of  great  research  and  originality.  His  reputation 
is  European,  and  the  honor  is  fully  deserved.  Sir  James  has 
long  been  foremost  in  his  department  of  practice,  and  his  name 
is  associated  with  the  discovery  of  that  invaluable  boon  to  suffer- 
ing humanity — chloroform.  This  alone  would  entitle  him  to  the 
honor  he  has  received." 

The  special  department  of  practice  here  referred  to  was 
gynecology  and  obstetrics — the  subjects  which  he  taught  in  the 

A  biographer  of  this  grand  old  man  relates  that  a  few  days 
before  his  death,  in  1870,  he  said  to  some  visiting  friends: 
"  I  have  not  lived  so  near  to  Christ  as  I  desired  to  do.  I  have 
had  a  busy  life,  but  have  not  given  so  much  time  to  eternal 
things  as  I  should  have  sought.  Yet  I  know  it  is  not  my  merit 
I  am  to  trust  to  for  eternal  life.  Christ  is  all."  Then  he  added, 
with  a  sigh,  "  I  have  not  got  far  on  in  the  divine  life."  A  friend 
said,  "  We  are  complete  in  Him."  "  Yes,  that's  it,"  he  replied 
with  a  smile.  "The  hymn  expresses  my  thoughts: 
'  Just  as  I  am,  without  one  plea, 
But  that  Thy  blood  was  shed  for  me.' 

I  so  like  that  hymn." 

1845   TO  1861  143 

Does  not  this  sound  exceedingly  like  the  religious  conversation 
and  correspondence  of  another  grand  old  man,  who  became  the 
Nestor  of  Nova  Scotia  Medicine! 

An  episode,  notable  and  pathetic,  in  the  history  of  Nova 
Scotia  missionary  enterprise  is  connected  with  this  period  of 
my  father's  life.  I  refer  to  the  sending  forth  by  the  Presbyterian 
Church  of  the  Lower  Provinces,  as  missionaries  to  the  South 
Seas,  of  the  heroic  brothers,  George  Nicol  Gordon  and  his 
brother  James,  and  their  tragic  deaths,  by  which  these  men  became 
immortalized  among  the  world's  missionary  heroes  as  two  of 
"  the  Martyrs  of  Eromanga."  In  1852,  and  for  a  few  years 
afterwards,  George  was  a  Halifax  city  missionary  and  a  student 
of  Theology  in  the  Free  Church  College  on  Gerrish  Street. 
Campbell,  who  gives  the  story  of  the  Gordons  in  his  History 
of  Nova  Scotia,  says:  "In  1853,  Mr.  Gordon,  whose  system 
had  been  predisposed  to  disease  from  hard  study  and  the  tainted 
atmosphere  which  he  breathed  in  his  labors  among  the  poor,  was 
attacked  with  typhoid  fever.  He  remained  long  in  a  critical 
condition,  but  had  the  good  fortune  to  be  attended  by  the  Honor- 
able Dr.  Parker,  under  whose  care  he  recovered.  He  was  con- 
fined to  his  bed  for  seven  weeks,  expecting  a  formidable  account 
for  professional  services,  but  upon  application  for  the  account, 
received  it  receipted.  The  medical  faculty  require  to  be  well 
paid  by  those  who  can  afford  it,  for  as  a  body  they  devote  more 
time,  which  is  money,  to  charitable  purposes  than  almost  any 
other  professional  class." 

As  part  of  his  preparation  for  his  foreign  missionary  work, 
George  Gordon  entered  my  father's  office  as  a  student  and 
received  from  him  such  special  medical  and  surgical  instruction 
as  would  be  adapted  to  the  needs  of  a  medical  missionary,  though 
rudimentary.  From  this  association  of  teacher  and  pupil  there 
sprang  up  a  deep  attachment  between  tbem.  George  sailed 
for  Eromanga  in  1856.  In  May  1861,  he  and  his  wife  were 
murdered  by  the  savages  among  whom  they  labored.  John 
Williams,  an  English  missionary  whose  work  they  went  to  take 
up,  had  been  likewise  murdered.  The  brother,  James  D.  Gordon, 
when  the  news  of  George's  death  reached  home,  was  studying  for 
the  ministry  in  the  Free  Church  College  under  Doctors  King, 
Smith  and  McKnight,  with  the  purpose  of  joining  his  brother, 
and,  like  him,  was  doing  special  work,  under  my  father's  tuition, 
in  elementary  Medicine  and  Surgery.  Undaunted  by  the  painful 
tidings  of  his  brother's  fate,  he  did  not  swerve  from  his  de- 
termination, but  sailed  for  Eromanga  in  1863.  There,  in  1872, 
he  likewise  perished  at  the  hands  of  the  savage  islanders.  This 
devoted  young  man,  like  his  brother,  was  much  beloved  by  him 
who,  for  their  work's  sake,  had  freely  given  of  his  knowledge 


and  his  time  and  strength  toward  their  preparation  for  service. 

The  pathos  in  the  story  of  the  Gordons  is  enhanced  by  the 
circumstances  that  James,  on  the  eve  of  his  departure  from 
Halifax,  published  the  fascinating  Memoir  of  his  brother  and 
his  brother's  wife,  entitled  "  The  Last  Martyrs  of  Eromanga." 
In  the  end,  he  himself  suffered  as  the  last  martyr.  In  his  book 
he  thus  refers  to  George's  illness  and  my  father's  services  upon 
the  occasion  to  which  the  historian  Campbell  alludes,  in  the 
quotation  given  above. 

"  At  one  stage  of  the  disease  life  was  for  a  time  trembling 
in  the  balance.  But  through  the  skill  of  Dr.  Parker,  whose 
assiduous  attentions  he  received  during  six  or  seven  weeks,  he 
was  restored  to  wonted  health.  He  arose  from  his  bed  a  healthy, 
strong,  in  short,  a  new  man.  Becoming  convalescent,  he  returned 
home,  and  afterwards  requested  his  physician's  bill,  which  he 
supposed  could  not  be  less  than  £10.  It  was  sent,  but  receipted. 
The  only  eulogium  we  pass  upon  this  disinterested  act  of  gener- 
osity— which  is  but  one  out  of  many — is  merely  to  mention  the 
fact.  Where  known,  the  mention  of  Dr.  Parker's  name  is  his 

To  "  The  Last  Martyrs  of  Eromanga  "  my  father  contributed 
this  letter,  which  I  incorporate  here  as  an  example  of  his  more 
serious  style  of  writing: 

"  Halifax,  April  6th,  1863. 
"  My  Deae  Sik, — 

"  In  accordance  with  your  request  I  have  much  pleasure  in 
communicating  to  you  some  facts  and  reminiscences  relative  to 
your  deceased  brother,  my  friend  and  former  student,  the  Rev. 
G.  N.  Gordon. 

"  My  acquaintance  with  him  commenced  in  the  Spring  of 
1853,  when  I  was  called  upon  to  attend  him  professionally  through 
a  very  serious  and  protracted  illness.  His  health  had  been 
impaired  by  close  mental  application,  and  a  daily  attendance  on 
several  classes  at  College  throughout  the  session.  Besides  which, 
I  have  reason  to  believe  that  much  of  the  time  usually  taken  by 
students  for  exercise  and  recreation,  was  spent  in  visiting  the 
spiritually  destitute  of  our  city  and  its  environs.  From  these 
combined  causes  his  system  was  depressed,  and  fitted  for  the 
reception  of  disease,  which  attacked  him  in  the  form  of  typhoid 
fever.  So  tenacious  was  its  grasp  of  his  weakened  frame,  that  he 
was  confined  to  his  bed  and  the  house  for  seven  weeks;  and  for 
many  days  his  life  was  in  imminent  danger.  But,  finally,  it 
pleased  the  Great  Physician  gradually  to  restore  him  to  health  and 

"  God's  dealings  with  those  who  love  and  serve  Him  are  fre- 

1845  TO  1861  145 

quently,  to  the  finite  mind,  most  marvellous.  Here  was  one  of  His 
faithful  followers  laid  low,  and  placed  on  the  verge  of  the  grave; 
yet  raised  up  again  by  His  strong  arm  to  labor  for  a  brief  period 
in  His  Vineyard,  and  then  to  die  a  martyr's  death  far  from  the 
home  of  his  childhood,  and  youth,  and  relatives,  and  friends  to 
whom  he  was  endeared. 

"  He  lived  to  originate  the  Halifax  City  Mission,  and  to  labor, 
I  am  aware  from  personal  knowledge,  as  few  men  know  how  to 
labor,  among  the  poor,  the  distressed,  and  the  profligate,  as  its 
first  missionary.  He  has  passed  away,  but  this  child  of  his  affec- 
tion and  prayers  still  lives,  and  is  fostered  and  cared  for  by  Him 
who  has  called  the  laborer  home. 

"  My  next  meeting  with  Mr.  Gordon  after  we  had  parted  as 
physician  and  patient — if  my  memory  serves  me — was  in  his  closet. 
Having  had  occasion  to  visit  the  house  in  which  he  lodged,  and 
not  being  aware  that  he  resided  there,  I  was,  by  mistake,  shown 
into  the  room  which  he  occupied.     He  was  on  his  knees,  at  mid- 
day, absorbed  in  prayer,  no  doubt  carrying  to  a  throne  of  grace 
the  subject  of  missions,  and  especially  that  one  for  which  he  was 
then,  or  very  shortly  afterward,  earnestly  and  successfully  laboring. 
"  Having   subsequently   offered   himself  to   the   Presbyterian 
Church  of  this  Province,   as   a  Foreign  Missionary,   and  being 
accepted,  he  desired  to  acquire  some  knowledge  of  medicine  before 
leaving  a  Christian  for  a  heathen  land,  and  consequently  sought 
admission  to  my  office  as  a  student.    He  was  thus  occupied,  when 
not  absent  from  the  city — if  I  mistake  not — from  the  closing 
months  of  1853,  until  the  period  of  his  departure  from  Nova 
Scotia.     Being  well  aware  of  the  advantages  likely  to  accrue  to 
the  mission  by  being  skilled  in  the  healing  art,  he  assiduously 
devoted  his  spare  hours  to  professional  study.     It  was  evident, 
however,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  his  attendance  that  the 
salvation  of  the  souls  of  men,  was  the  primary  object  and  moving 
principle  of  his  life.    No  opportunity  was  lost  of  preaching  Christ, 
or  of  giving  a  word  of  admonition  to  those  with  whom  he  came  in 
contact.     Being  '  instant  in  season  and  out  of  season,'  he  thus, 
indirectly,  by  his  continued  faithfulness,  admonished  me  of  my 
own  shortcomings  in  these  important  particulars.     The  title — 
The   Earnest  Man — given   to   the   Burman   missionary,    Judson, 
might     appropriately   be   repeated    and    applied    to    Gordon    of 
Eromanga.     No  one  could  have  known  my  deceased  friend  with- 
out esteeming  him  for  his  many  estimable  qualities. 

"  His  memory  still  lives  fresh  in  the  hearts  of  those  who  were 
familiar  with  his  character  and  life,  as  also  with  many  of  those 
who  profited  by  his  spiritual  advice  and  scriptural  teachings. 
1  He  being  dead  yet  speaketh.' 

"  Ever  yours  truly, 
10  "D.  McN.  Parker/' 



"  Qui   mores  hominum   multorum   vidit." 

— Horace,  "  Ars    Poetica." 

In  the  first  months  of  1861  nature  was  threatening  to  exact 
some  penalty  for  the  disregard  of  natural  laws  in  a  mode  of  life 
which  crowded  two  or  three  normal  days'  labor  into  one,  ignored 
anything  like  regularity  in  hours  for  taking  nourishment  and 
sleep,  and  over-crowded  an  always  active  mind  with  more  of 
effort  and  anxious  responsibilities  than  ought  to  be  borne  by  any 
one  man.  He  began  to  suffer  from  a  tendency  to  vertigo,  derange- 
ment of  digestion,  a  nervous  exhaustion  and  an  inability  to  sleep. 
In  a  word,  he  was  upon  the  brink  of  physical  collapse.  Such  a 
catastrophe  was  avoided  and  healthful  vigor  restored  to  body  and 
mind  by  a  brief  southern  tour,  taken  at  that  season  of  the  year 
when  most  people  hardly  feel  like  resenting  Tom  Moore's  lines 
about  "  chill  Nova  Scotia's  unpromising  strand." 

My  father  had  long  cherished  the  hope  that  some  day  he  might 
visit  the  home  land  of  his  grandfather  McNeill,  find  out  some 
of  his  mother's  cousins  there,  and  make  her  and  himself  known 
to  them.  An  old  friend  of  his  boyhood  who  has  been  named  at 
an  early  page  of  this  story,  Mr.  William  J.  Stairs,  agreed  to 
accompany  him,  on  a  similar  quest  for  recreation  and  for  kinsmen 
too, — for  he  had  relatives  in  Georgia.  Both  were  keenly  interested 
in  the  extraordinary  state  of  public  affairs  then  prevalent  in  the 
United  States,  and  anxious  to  study  for  themselves  something  of 
that  tense  strain  of  the  political  situation  which,  as  it  turned  out, 
they  were  to  see  snap  the  bond  of  the  country's  constitution,  and 
blaze  into  civil  war  before  their  very  eyes.  Mr.  Stairs  took  with 
him  his  son,  the  late  John  F.  Stairs,  then  a  lad  of  about  fourteen 
years.  They  sailed  from  Halifax  to  Boston  on  March  23rd,  in 
the  Cunard  steamer  "  Canada,"  arrived  from  England,  and 
returned  in  the  month  of  May. 

The  story  of  this  tour,  or  rather  my  father's  part  in  it,  is 
related  in  the  following  series  of  letters,  which  are  presented  as 
fully  as  possible.  They  are  good  examples  of  his  qualities  as  a 
letter  writer.  When  abroad,  it  was  his  habit  to  inform  himself 
well  concerning  what  he  saw,  and  of  all  matters  of  human  interest, 
political,  industrial,  social  and  religious,  in  the  communities  which 


THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  147 

he  visited.  He  had  the  enquiring  mind,  eager  to  enlarge  his 
knowledge  of  men  and  things.  What  he  learned,  it  seemed  to  be 
a  labor  of  love  to  impart  in  his  home  correspondence  for  the 
benefit  of  his  wife,  children  and  others.  To  this  end  he  took 
infinite  pains.  More  directly,  too,  do  his  letters  disclose  that  deep, 
tender  affection  for  those  at  home,  and  home  itself,  which  was  so 
characteristic  of  him. 

Revere  House,  Boston, 
11  p.m.,  Monday,  March  25th,  1861. 
My  Dearest  Wife: 

I  arrived  here  on  Sunday  night  about  midnight,  but  did  not 
land  until  8  a.m.  this  morning.  ...  I  took  some  dinner 
near  Sambro,  but  before  the  lighthouse  was  fairly  past  I  was  in 
my  cabin  on  the  broad  of  my  back.  I  could  not  pay  Miss  Archi- 
bald any  attention  on  the  passage.  Indeed,  I  left  the  ship  without 
saying  good-bye  to  her,  but  to-night  received  a  note  from  her 
asking  me  to  take  charge  of  her  to  New  York,  which  I  shall  do 
with  much  pleasure,  especially  as  we  have  determined  to  go  on 
by  the  early  train  to-morrow,  the  one  by  which  she  wishes  to  go. 
.  Thank  God  for  bringing  me  thus  safely  on.  I  am  better 
in  health,  partook  of  a  hearty  dinner,  and  have  just  topped  off 
with  an  oyster  supper  preparatory  to  going  to  bed.  To-day  we 
visited  Ben  Gray,  some  of  Stairs'  mercantile  friends,  Mrs.  King, 
a  sister  of  old  Mr.  Stairs  at  Roxbury,  the  Pryors  at  Cambridge, 
Mrs.  Charles  Boggs  and  husband,  the  latter  a  son  of  Sam  Boggs, 
who  married,  as  you  are  aware,  Mary  Keiffe,  an  old  servant  of 
Mrs.  Stairs,  and  when  at  their  boarding-house  saw  also  William 
Fairbanks'  son,  who  was  in  partnership  with  a  young  Greenwood, 
in  Charman's  Buildings.  .  .  .  The  greatest  sight  seen  here 
was  Rarey's  horse-taming.  We  went  by  Mr.  Laurie's  advice  to 
hear  and  see,  and  were  delighted  and  much  instructed.  It  was 
one  of  the  greatest  treats  I  ever  had.  I  would  not  have  missed  it 
for  anything.  Thousands  were  present,  and  he  most  thoroughly 
tamed  two  or  three  wild  and  vicious  animals,  making  them  like 
fed  lambs.  He  had  on  the  stage,  following  him  about  like  a  dog, 
the  celebrated  horse  "  Cruiser,"  from  England,  as  tame  as  any 
lady's  lap-dog.  I  have  telegraphed  to  Frank  to  meet  us  to-morrow 
afternoon  at  the  Fifth  Avenue  Hotel,  New  York.  We  will  only 
spend  a  day  or  two  there  before  pushing  on  south.  I  sincerely 
trust  our  dear  children  are  well.  I  miss  their  prattle  and  the 
pleasant  smile  and  cooing  of  the  dear  babe.  I  shall  expect  to  hear 
all  about  them  from  you  in  a  day  or  two.  I  am  in  hopes  the  dear 
little  fellow  will  escape  whooping-cough.  Tell  Johnston  and  Mary 
Ann  that  Papa  does  not  forget  to  pray  for  them  that  they  may  be 
good,  obedient  children.     I  hope  all  at  Belle  Vue,  the  Mount,  the 


Binneys,  at  the  cottages  in  Dartmouth,  the  Tuppers,  the  Nuttings, 
etc.,  are  well.  Love  to  all.  Stairs  and  his  boy  Johnnie  are 
delightful  travelling  companions.  God  bless  and  preserve  you, 
my  dear  wife. 

Ever  your  afft.  husband, 

D.  McN.  Paekee. 

5th  Avenue  Hotel,  New  York, 

March  27th,  1861. 
My  Dear  Wife: 

Although  the  mail  does  not  close  for  a  week  by  the  steamer,  I 
will  drop  you  a  few  lines  from  the  great  city,  and  finish  the  letter 
in  Philadelphia.  I  wrote  you  from  Boston  by  Mr.  Seeton,  who 
leaves  to-morrow  and  will,  I  hope,  be  in  Halifax  Saturday  night. 
I  hurriedly  narrated  passing  events  up  to  Monday  night,  and  now 
resume  the  subject.  We  left  Boston  by  the  8.30  a.m.  train  and 
with  Miss  Archibald,  and  Mr.  Samuel  Story,  formerly  of  Halifax, 
journeyed  on  over  a  rough,  undulating  and  apparently  barren 
country  until  5  p.m.,  when  New  York  was  reached.  Archibald 
met  his  daughter  at  the  depot,  and  relieved  us  of  our  charge,  whom 
we  have  not  seen  since,  but  hope  to  have  that  pleasure  to-morrow. 
Mr.  A.  has  been  very  kind  indeed,  has  given  us  all  the  protective 
documents  necessary  to  carry  us  safely  through  the  South,  with 
the  Consular  Seal  attached,  so  we  hope  to  return  uncropped, 
uncottoned  and  untarred.  He  has  besides  given  me  a  letter  of 
introduction  to  his  friend  Mr.  Bunck,  the  British  Consul  at 
Charleston,  S.C.,  the  gentleman  who  a  few  years  since  was  on  a 
visit  to  Sir  George  Seymour  at  Admiralty  House,  and  the  same 
person  who  was  so  highly  complimented  by  Lord  John  Russell  in 
Parliament  the  other  day  for  his  firm  and  judicious  conduct 
during  the  recent  Southern  difficulties. 

On  our  way  down  from  Boston  I  had  a  long  talk  with  Story, 
relative  to  many  Halifax  people  who  have  gone  to  the  bad.  He 
knows  them  all,  and  being  in  good  circumstances,  with  a  salary  of 
£1,000  per  annum,  has  (as  I  am  aware  from  other  sources)  been 
kind  to  many  of  them  in  distress.  .  .  .  How  true  is  the  say- 
ing, my  dearest  wife,  that  one  half  the  world  does  not  know  how 
the  other  half  live,  or  what  that  unfortunate  half  has  to  endure, 
and  how  grateful  we  should  be  to  God  that  He  has  so  bountifully 
provided  for  the  temporal  wants  of  ourselves  and  of  our  dear 
friends.  Truly  "  the  lines  have  fallen  to  us  in  pleasant  places." 
I  telegraphed  from  Boston  to  Frank  to  meet  us  at  our 
hotel,  and  found  him  on  hand  looking  fat  as  a  seal  and  in  good 
spirits.  He  dined  with  us  and  then  walked  down  to  our  old  and 
familiar  residence,  the  "  St.  Nicholas,"  into  which  we  walked, 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUE  OF  1861  149 

looked  round  and  rested,  for  the  sake  of  Auld  Lang  Syne.  Then 
we  took  Stairs  into  Taylor's  to  show  him  the  grandeur  of  the 
place.  You  will  recollect  the  saloon  well.  We  all  took  dinner 
there  when  passing  on  to  Boston  from  Philadelphia. 

The  Fifth  Avenue  Hotel  is  immense,  gorgeous  and  comfortable. 
It  is  a  marble  structure,  far  surpassing  any  hotel  in  the  world  for 
size,  comfort  and  luxury.  There  are  now  only  600  guests,  times 
being  dreadfully  dull  in  consequence  of  the  Southern  difficulties. 
Its  capacity  is  1,000.  The  apartments  occupied  by  the  Prince  of 
Wales  are  finely  situated  and  very  elegant.  Fortunately,  Stairs 
and  myself  have  apartments  without  going  up  even  a  single  pair 
of  stairs.  Had  we  been  unfortunate  enough  to  have  rooms  allotted 
to  us  high  up,  we  would  have  been  carried  up  and  let  down  by  a 
vertical  railway,  and  thus  the  fatigue  that  you  and  I  had  to 
undergo  at  the  St.  Nicholas  would  have  been  avoided.  It  is  one 
of  the  oddest  things  in  the  world  to  see  the  old  women  in  hoops 
stowed  away  in  the  carriage  and  hoisted  up  and  down  like  so  many 
packages  of  goods,  or  baggage. 

I  have  been  to-day  engaged  in  looking  round  as  much  as  the 
incessant  rain  will  allow,  and  transacting  what  business  I  had  on 
hand.  To-morrow  I  must  call  and  see  Mrs.  and  Miss  Archibald, 
and  return  the  visits  of  the  Medical  fraternity,  who  have  kindly 
called  on  me.  Several  of  the  great  guns,  and  among  them  Pro- 
fessor Parker,  the  great  surgeon  of  the  city,  left  their  cards  to-day 
in  my  absence. 

The  dull  day,  and  not  feeling  quite  so  brisk  as  I  could  wish, 
make  me  long  for  the  home  circle  and  the  prattling  of  the  dear 
bairns,  with  the  cooing  of  the  "  Wee  'un."  When  at  home,  and 
at  work  morning,  noon  and  night,  I  was  too  busy  to  think  very 
much  of  them,  but  now  that  I  have  leisure  I  miss  them  dreadfully. 
Mr.  Le  Meissurier,  of  the  Commissariat,  who  came  on 
from  Halifax  with  us,  has  just  called  up  from  the  St.  Nicholas, 
where  he  stays,  to  tell  us  that  an  English  gentleman  who  came  out 
in  the  "  Canada,"  called  Dacres,  had  died  a  few  minutes  before 
at  that  hotel,  most  suddenly,  from  apoplexy.  He  was  alone  in 
a  strange  land.  I  recollect  hearing  him  say,  just  as  we  were  pass- 
ing Boston  Light,  that  he  would  give  a  hundred  guineas  if  instead 
of  going  into  Boston,  we  were  entering  Southampton  harbor. 
Poor  fellow,  his  case  illustrates  the  truth,  "  in  the  midst  of  life  we 
are  in  death."  He  was  a  fine,  strong,  handsome  man,  about 
forty-five  years  of  age. 

Staying  at  the  Fifth  Avenue  Hotel  just  now  are  Sir  Dominick 
Daly,  and  his  son  who  married  Kenny's  daughter.  .  .  .  Sir 
Dominick  is  here  on  business,  and  his  son  will  probably  go  down 
to  Halifax  by  the  steamer  which  takes  this  letter. 

150  DANIEL  McNEILL  paeker,  m.d. 

Philadelphia,  Saturday. — Before  leaving  New  York  I  called 
to  see  Mrs.  and  the  Misses  Archibald,  having  on  Thursday  received 
an  invitation  to  spend  the  evening  there.  We  did  not  accept  it 
because  we  wanted  to  be  free  and  both  of  us  were  fatigued.  Mrs. 
Archibald  and  the  daughter  who  came  on  in  the  "  Canada  "  with 
us  were  out.  We,  however,  saw  the  other  two  girls  and  Mr.  A., 
and  when  we  return  we  have  promised  to  call  again  and  see  my 
old  patient,  who  is  now  enjoying  excellent  health,  I  mean  Mrs.  A., 
who  when  in  Halifax  was  constantly  in  the  doctor's  hands.  I 
was  to  have  left  for  this  city  yesterday  at  10  a.m.,  but  the  Medical 
men  and  Surgeons  of  the  hospitals  sent  me  word  that  there  was  to 
be  a  great  operation  at  the  New  York  Hospital  at  half-past  one 
o'clock  by  Dr.  Buck,  and  I  was  prevailed  upon  to  remain  until 
3  p.m.,  and  saw  the  operation,  which  was  hurried  so  as  to  let 
me  catch  the  train.  It  was  on  a  boy  of  twelve  years  of  age,  and 
if  he  lived  two  hours  after  I  left  I  should  be  surprised.  Dr.  Buck 
did  not  finish  the  operation  for  fear  he  should  die  on  the  table. 
Such,  dear  wife,  is  life  among  the  Surgeons  now,  in  great  cities — 
death  at  almost  every  step  they  take  in  these  great  hospitals. 
We  reached  here  at  8  p.m.,  and  are  staying  at  the  Continental 
Hotel,  built  and  occupied  for  the  first  time  last  year.  The 
Prince  of  Wales  had  apartments  in  it.  It  is  owned  by  Paran 
Stevens  of  the  Revere  House,  also  the  proprietor  of  the  Fifth 
Avenue  Hotel  of  New  York.  I  am  now  going  to  Gerard  College, 
Claremont  Waterworks  and  other  places  visited  by  us  some  six 
years  ago,  and  shall  call  and  see  your  cousin  James  and  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Smith,  the  Baptist  minister  who  remained  a  night  with 
us  on  his  way  to  the  Holy  Land  three  years  ago. 

Saturday  Evening — We,  this  morning,  called  on  Mr.  John 
Stairs,  who  is  here  in  partnership  with  his  brother-in-law,  Mr. 
Kennedy,  in  the  fish  business.  He  is  doing  well.  He  is  a  son 
of  Captain  Stairs,  long  since  dead.  After  this  we  went  over 
the  same  ground  as  you  and  I  with  the  Wilmots  and  the  girls, 
visited  in  1854,  with  the  exception  of  the  Laurel  Hill  cemetery 

up  the  Schuylkill  River After  dinner  I  had  a 

long  search  for  your  cousin  James,  but  could  not  find  him.  He 
has  recently  failed,  and  only  yesterday  moved  out  of  the  house  to 
which  Charles'  letter  was  addressed.  A  neighbor  living  next  door 
and  keeping  a  small  shop,  appeared  to  take  an  interest  in  him 
and  volunteered  to  hunt  him  up,  and  send  him  to  the  Continental ; 
and  he  kept  his  promise,  for  James  has  just  left  me.  After  I 
came  up  to  my  room  to  retire  for  the  night,  his  name  was 
announced,  and  he  walked  in.  Poor  fellow,  he  looks  careworn 
and  thin,  and  if  one  is  to  judge  from  appearances  and  apparel, 
his  finances  must  be  low.  He  says  his  partner  has  deceived  and 
cheated  him,  and  he  fears  that  the  money  his  mother  put  into 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUE  OF  1861  151 

the    business    will    go Altogether,    his    business 

matters  are  in  a  sad  condition Mrs.  Darst,  his 

sister,  is  keeping  a  better  class  boarding-house.  I  have  promised 
to  call  and  see  her.  James  is  staying  at  present  with  his  mother, 
while  his  wife  is  at  her  father's  in  this  city,  and  his  children 
are  scattered  about.  In  passing  Chestnut  Street  to-day,  whom 
should  I  pounce  upon  but  your  cousin  Fanny  Matthewson  and  her 
husband.  They  have  been  South  for  his  health,  which  is  much 
impaired,  and  in  about  three  weeks  they  will  return  to  Montreal. 
She  tells  me  that  he  fears  he  will  not  be  able  to  continue  to  live 

in  Canada After  my  fruitless  search  for  James 

Black,  I  went  and  hunted  up  the  residence  of  Rev.  James  Hyatt 
Smith,  who  appears  to  be  a  well  known  man  of  mark  here. 
He  was  out,  but  I  saw  his  wife.  We  go  to  hear  him  preach  in 
the  morning,  and  have  made  up  our  minds  to  attend  "  Quaker's 
Meeting "  in  the  afternoon,  as  we  are  in  a  land  and  city  of 

In  Boston  we  left  nearly  a  foot  of  snow  on  the  ground,  and 
brought  it  on  with  us  nearly  to  New  York,  where  we  said  good-bye 
to  it  gladly.     The  weather  is  now  delightful   in  Philadelphia. 

What    a   change   from   Nova    Scotia !      It   really 

appears  selfish  that  I  should  be  so  situated  while  my  better  half 
is  freezing  in  cold  and  inhospitable  Nova  Scotia. 

Monday  Mokning,  7  a.m.  I  went  to  Mr.  J.  Hyatt  Smith's 
meeting-house  yesterday  morning,  visited  the  Sunday-school,  and 
just  before  the  service  commenced  the  pastor  came  forward  from 
the  midst  of  the  children  and  asked  if  I  was  the  person  who  left 
the  card  for  him  the  night  previous.  I  said  I  was.  "  Well,"  says 
he,  "  My  wife  was  so  confused  when  you  spoke  to  her  about  meet- 
ing me  abroad,  as  she  was  engaged  packing  up  for  moving  into 
another  house,  that  she  forgot  to  tell  you  I  had  never  been  abroad." 
He  added,  "  The  Mr.  Smith  you  are  in  search  of  is  a  Smith  of 
another  loaf,  and  his  name  is  J.  Wheaton  Smith."  You  can  imag- 
ine how  annoyed  I  was  at  being  led  into  such  a  wild-goose  chase. 
I  apologized  for  leaving,  and  told  him  I  was  most  anxious  to  see 
the  Wheaton  loaf,  and,  unless  I  took  that  opportunity,  would  miss 
him  altogether.  So  I  got  into  a  cab  with  Stairs  and  Johnnie, 
and  reached  the  other  house,  two  miles  distant,  in  time  to  examine 
the  basement  arrangements  for  Sabbath-school  and  prayer-meet- 
ing, before  the  service  commenced.  The  church  is  large,  450 
members,  and  the  congregation  rich.  Mr.  Smith  was  in  the 
pulpit  for  the  first  time  for  four  weeks,  having  been  laid  up  at 
home  with  a  mild  attack  of  smallpox.  The  arrangements  of  the 
interior  correspond  with  the  exterior  appearance  of  the  building. 
It  is  beautifully  neat,  and  a  large  church.  Pulpit  arrangements 
just  like  ours  at  Granville  Street,  and  a  magnificent  organ  and 


splendid  singing.  The  pastor  looked  pale,  but  he  preached, 
although  weak  in  body,  a  beautiful  sermon  from  the  text,  "  What 
shall  I  do  to  obtain  everlasting  life,"  etc.  It  went  to  my  heart, 
was  powerful,  touching,  and  eloquent.  Some  beautiful,  practical 
sentiments  pervaded  the  discourse,  and  I  felt  several  times  that 
it  was  hard  work  to  keep  from  weeping.  He  wields  a  power  that 
goes  home  to  the  emotional  part  of  man.  At  its  close  I  stepped 
up  to  him.  He  knew  my  face  but  not  my  name.  When  I  told 
him  who  I  was  he  was  delighted  to  see  me,  wanted  to  take  me  to 
his  house,  where  he  said  he  had  three  or  four  spare  rooms  and  a 
horse  and  carriage  at  my  disposal;  and  he  added  in  his  quiet 
Yankee  style,  "  I  will  put  you  through  Philadelphia  thoroughly 
and  in  good  shape."  I  declined  his  offer,  however,  telling  him 
that  Stairs  and  I  were  going  South  this  morning.  Dined  at  two 
p.m.,  then  went  to  Mrs.  Darst's,  saw  her,  her  mother,  little  boy, 
and  James  with  one  of  his  little  children.  Spent  an  hour  there. 
They  appear  comfortable.  .  .  .  Mrs.  D.  looks  as  she  did  when 
in  Halifax.  The  old  lady  I  never  saw  before.  .  .  .  Mrs. 
Taylor  looks  old,  but  not  so  much  so  as  I  expected  to  see  her. 
Foster  married  her  niece,  as  you  are  aware. 

There  being  no  service  in  the  afternoon,  in  the  principal 
places  of  worship,  I  remained  at  home  until  7  p.m,  and  then  went 
to  Quaker's  meeting.  It  was  indeed  a  Quaker's  meeting.  No 
prayer,  no  praise,  no  Christ, — except  a  few  observations  from  a 
person  belonging  to  another  sect.  This  large  building  was  one 
of  the  Hickite  sect,  very  large  here.  The  orthodox  Quaker 
believes  in  Christ's  divinity.  The  Hickites  do  not,  and  look  upon 
Him  only  as  being  a  good  man.  Hence  no  allusion  to  Him 
by  the  only  Quaker  who  spoke.  It  took  the  Spirit  an  im- 
mense time  to  move  him,  and  when  he  rose  he  sang  his  words  to 
a  kind  of  tune  familiar  to  all  their  speakers.  They  all  sing 
rather  than  speak.  It  was  dead — the  dry  bones  of  the  valley 
remained  dry.  It  was  an  hour  lost  to  me  and  all  present.  I  felt 
inclined  often  to  rise  and  speak  or  pray  with  them,  and,  as  I  after- 
wards learned,  might  have  spoken.  Prayer  in  public  is  not  known 
to  them.  It  was  really  laughable  to  hear  the  old,  tall,  dried-up 
Quaker  singing  out  an  exhortation :  "  Be  livelier,  friends,  be 
stirred  up,"  etc.  They  were  pretty  much  the  same  as  you  are 
when  I  try  to  wake  you  up  in  the  mornings.  It  would  take  an 
earthquake  to  stir  them  up  and  make  them  "  lively."  One  Quaker 
in  Philadelphia  has  been  known  to  run  "  lively,"  and  that  was 
when  the  spirit  stirred  up  a  fire  in  his  neighborhood,  but  he 
stopped  before  he  got  half  a  block  on  his  way.  Yet  I  am  a 
descendant  of  these  same  people.  I  fear  that  they  would  look 
upon  me  as  a  fast  descendant. 

Matthewson  and  his  wife  are  going  fifty  or  sixty  miles  south 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OE  1861  153 

with  us  this  morning.  Mr.  M.  has  asked  the  Rev.  Dr.  Jenkins, 
Mary  Lawson's  old  friend,  of  Montreal,  now  resident  here,  to  take 
us  through  the  United  States  Mint  this  morning,  after  which  we 
are  away.  .  .  .  My  health  is  now  very  good,  except  an  occa- 
sional fullness  of  the  head.  I  am  able  to  eat,  drink,  and  sleep, 
the  latter  not  so  well  as  I  could  wish.  On  the  whole,  I  am  thank- 
ful to  add  I  am  much  better  than  I  was  when  I  left,  and  can  now 
undergo  a  good  deal  of  physical  exertion  without  feeling  it,  or 
having  my  breathing  affected.  I  want  to  get  South  and  remain 
a  while  in  one  locality.  Relaxation  is  everything.  I  must  try 
and  work  less  if  it  pleases  God  to  return  me  to  my  own  dear 
home  again.  I  miss  you  all  very  much — how  much  I  cannot  tell 
you.  I  am  most  anxious  for  letters,  but  as  yet  cannot  get  them. 
Frank  will  send  them  on  to  our  hotel  in  Savannah  as  soon  as  they 
reach  him,  and  we  will  not  hear  from  you  before  Saturday,  per- 
haps not  then.  The  change  in  hotel  life  since  you  and  I  were 
here  together  is  somewhat  marked  in  one  particular.  You  will 
recollect  how  much  wine  was  drunk  at  dinner  in  those  days. 
Now  it  is  the  exception  rather  than  the  rule.  Very  few  take  it. 
Cold  water  is  the  rage.  I  would  like  to  drink  bitter  ale,  but  it 
is  so  awfully  expensive  I  cannot  indulge.  Just  fancy  ale  4s.  a 
bottle,  and  it  is  the  cheapest  drink  one  can  get.  Chewing  tobacco 
is  not  so  fashionable  either  as  it  was  in  our  day,  although  every 
provision  is  made  for  it,  and  right  under  my  nose  in  my  room 
where  I  now  write  is  a  large  spittoon  inviting  me. 

The  political  question  of  the  day  is  not  much  talked  of  by 
strangers — everything  is  in  doubt.  What  the  future  is  to  reveal 
is  no  more  known  by  the  residents  than  ourselves.  If  you  ask  a 
man  about  it,  if  he  is  a  Democrat  he  will  at  once  say  that  the 
question  is  settled  and  the  Secession  is  past  and  gone,  never  to 
be  redeemed,  or  at  all  events  it  will  be  years  before  the  seceding 
States  return.  While  a  Republican  would  tell  you  that  the  South 
must  be  whipped  into  obedience  and  brought  back  with  a  chain 
around  its  neck.  Of  course  these  are  the  extreme  views,  and  we 
have  no  opportunity  of  learning  much  that  is  accurate,  from  speak- 
ing to  a  few  persons  in  the  hotels.  My  own  impression,  however, 
is  that  the  South  is  irretrievably  gone,  and  that  they  are  at 
this  moment,  and  will  be  forever,  two  distinct  nations,  and  it  is 
much  better  for  all  that  it  should  be  so.  When  in  the  South,  or 
Slave  States,  as  I  shall  be  in  a  few  hours,  I  shall  be  able  to  look 
at  the  question  from  another  point  of  view,  and  study  the  "  divine 
institution,"  as  the  clergymen  there  call  it,  practically. 

I  must  now  close  this  long  epistle,  my  dear  wife.  Tell  the 
dear  children  that  Papa  constantly  prays  to  God  that  they  may 
be  good  and  obedient  and  preserved  in  life  until  we  are  permitted 
to  meet  again.     I  hope  Johnston  is  a  good  boy.     Give  them  all 

154  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

kisses  from  Papa.  I  long  to  hear  the  babe.  I  only  wish  I  could 
have  the  little  fellow  in  my  solitary  bed  for  an  hour  every  morn- 
ing.    God  bless  and  preserve  you,  my  dear  wife. 

Ever  your  afft.  husband, 

D.  McN.  Pakker. 

Washington,  Apr.  3,  1861. 
My  Dear  Wife : 

By  the  steamer  which  leaves  Boston  to-day  you  will  get  a  long 
epistle,  giving  you  a  hurried  outline  of  our  movements  up  to  the 
morning  of  the  1st  inst.  After  breakfast  Mr.  Matthewson,  with 
his  friend,  Rev.  Dr.  Jenkins,  formerly  a  Methodist  minister  in 
Montreal,  but  now  a  Presbyterian,  accompanied  us  to  the  TJ.  S. 
Mint,  which  we  saw  in  all  its  departments  and  arrangements. 
Copper,  silver  and  gold  were  being  manufactured  into  coin  from 
the  raw  material  by  thousands  of  dollars,  by  machinery  the  most 
beautiful  and  perfect  that  I  have  ever  seen  in  operation.  The 
mechanical  part  in  its  highest  and  most  important  departments 
is  conducted  by  men,  while  the  less  skilled  and  easier  performed 
part  of  the  work  is  accomplished  by  a  whole  herd  of  women  and 
girls,  all  receiving  at  least  a  dollar  a  day.  I  wish  that  you  and 
your  sisters  had  been  taken  through  it  when  we  were  all  here 
together.  .  .  .  We  then  visited  Dr.  Jenkins'  church,  where 
we  saw  the  most  complete  arrangement  for  lectures,  prayer-meet- 
ing, Sabbath-school  and  Bible-class  that  one  could  well  con- 
ceive.    .     . 

We,  in  company  with  Matthewson  and  his  wife,  left  for  the 
South  in  a  mid-day  train.  They  accompanied  us  only  as  far  as 
New  Ash,  in  the  State  of  Delaware,  where  Mr.  M.  has  a  cousin 
married  to  a  wealthy  man,  and  they  were  going  down  to  pay  them 
a  hurried  visit.  Shortly  after  they  left  us,  we  crossed  the  border 
of  Maryland,  and  entered  the  first  slave  State.  At  4  p.m.  we 
reached  Baltimore  and  dined,  after  which  necessary  operation 
we  took  a  walk,  although  it  was  dull  and  rainy.  Baltimore  is  a 
city  of  two  hundred  or  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  inhabitants, 
and  is  well  arranged,  has  fine,  substantial  public  and  private 
buildings ;  but  what  is  to  be  its  most  attractive  feature  shortly  is  a 
most  magnificent  park  situated  about  two  miles  from  the  centre  of 
the  city.  This,  ever  since  the  country  has  been  settled,  belonged, 
until  quite  recently,  to  a  family  called  Rogers,  and  by  them  was 
sold  to  the  city.  The  trees  are  almost  as  old  as  the  hills,  and  some 
of  them  immense.  Stairs  and  I  tried  to  surround  one  in  a  tender 
embrace,  both  of  us  encircling  its  delicate  waist  with  our  arms 
together,  but  we  failed  by  a  long  distance  to  make  our  hands  meet, 
and  this  was  a  common  size.  This  park  is  about  five  hundred 
acres  in  extent,  and  the  roads  for  carriages  that  are  now  being 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  155 

made  will  be,  I  daresay,  twenty  miles  in  extent.  ...  It  will 
be  one  of  the  finest  and  most  interesting  places  in  all  America. 
We  walked  in  it  for  a  couple  of  hours,  and  then  returned  to  the 
city  by  a  horse  railway  (with  which  Baltimore,  Philadelphia,  New 
York  and  Boston  are  now  completely  intersected)  and  then 
mounted  to  the  top  of  a  beautiful  monument  erected  to  Washington 
by  the  State  of  Maryland.  It  is  of  white  marble,  one  hundred 
and  eighty  feet  in  height,  which  we  gained  with  lamps  in  our 
hands,  after  mounting  a  spiral  stone  stairway  by  a  dark  passage 
containing  between  two  hundred  and  three  hundred  steps.  It 
made  my  breath  short  and  my  head  dizzy  before  I  reached  the 
summit.  The  view  was  beautiful,  commanding,  as  it  did,  the 
whole  city  and  country  for  miles  around,  and  far  out  into  the 
Delaware  Bay. 

The  Peabody  Institute,  a  white  marble  building,  to  cost  when 
completed  one  million  dollars,  was  the  last  object  of  interest  seen 
in  Baltimore.  It  is  intended  for  a  Public  Library  and  Lecture- 
room,  a  kind  of  scientific  institution  for  the  benefit  of  the  people  of 
Baltimore.  Peabody  is  a  Liverpool,  England,  merchant,  but  has 
large  business  relations  with  the  place  of  his  early  days,  Baltimore, 
and  has  from  his  immense  fortune  set  aside  this  sum  for  this 
benevolent  and  judicious  object.  It  will  take  some  time  to  com- 
plete the  structure,  but  the  work  is  going  rapidly  on.  The  public 
buildings  of  all  the  States  we  have  passed  through  are  fine,  even 
magnificent,  built  of  freestone,  granite  and  marble,  but  they 
all  pale  and  sink  into  insignificance  when  contrasted  with 
those  of  Washington,  which  we  have  yet  to  see  in  their 
interior.  We  walked  around  and  about  them  yesterday  after- 
noon and  evening,  and  view  them  internally  in  detail  to-day. 
What  strikes  a  stranger  in  this  country,  especially  one  who 
has  travelled  in  England,  is  the  ease  with  which  all  kinds  and 
descriptions  of  persons  can  obtain  access  to  all  the  public  buildings 
and  departments  of  the  country.  They  belong  to  "  the  sovereign 
people,"  and  certainly  the  people  take  advantage  of  their  oppor- 
tunities in  this  respect.  Just  fancy  for  a  moment  all  the  grounds 
in  and  around  Buckingham  Palace,  or  to  descend  from  great 
things  to  small,  around  the  Government  House  in  Halifax,  being 
open  at  all  hours  to  the  men,  women  and  children,  and  the  whole 
Union,  as  well  as  to  strangers.  Stairs  and  I  walked  round  the 
White  House  yesterday.  Our  national  unobtrusiveness  kept  us 
from  entering  the  grounds,  yet  there  were  men,  women  and  chil- 
dren on  the  walks,  romping  over  the  grass  and  even  taking  liberties 
with  the  trees,  a  thing  I  would  not  permit  even  on  my  estate  of 
"  Beechwood,"  rough  and  uncultivated  though  it  is.  Such,  how- 
ever, is  the  genius  of  the  people,  and  the  freedom  and  openness  of 
their  institutions. 


The  hotels,  as  we  go  south,  gradually  fade  and  become  less 
elegant,  the  class  of  loungers  at  the  doors  and  offices  becomes  more 
rough  and  ungentlemanly  in  appearance,  and  there  is  just  now  a 
look  of  suspicion,  and  a  desire  expressed  in  their  looks  to  know  all 
about  you,  who  you  are  and  what  your  business  is,  that  you  do 
not  observe  in  the  Northern  States.  The  hotels  are  immense  in 
size,  and  the  same  system  is  adopted  as  in  the  North,  in  reference 
to  general  management.  We  generally  get  rooms  adjoining,  and 
for  the  most  part  sit  and  read  and  write  in  our  bedrooms,  as  the 
noise  and  apparent  inquisitiveness  in  the  gentlemen's  sitting- 
rooms  are  far  from  agreeable  to  quiet  old  fogies  like  your  husband 
and  his  travelling  companion.  Besides,  were  we  to  write  down- 
stairs in  their  midst,  the  probability  is  that  we  should  have  a  dark, 
long-bearded  Southerner  looking  over  our  shoulders  to  see  whether 
or  not  we  were  correspondents  of  Northern  newspapers.  Last 
night,  to  avoid  the  noise  and  society  of  the  gents  below,  we  ven- 
tured into  the  ladies'  drawing-room  and,  it  being  a  free  country, 
made  ourselves  at  home;  when  who  should  walk  in  but  my  old 
friend  Kellogg,  the  temperance  lecturer,  who  in  days  gone  by  so 
often  visited  Halifax  with  good  results  to  many  poor  unfortunate 
drunkards.  .  .  .  He  did  not  know  me,  but  I  knew  him,  and 
walked  up  to  the  man  and  said :  "  How  do  you  do,  Mr.  Kellogg  ?" 
"  How  do  you  do,  sir,"  he  replied,  "  I  cannot  call  you  by  name." 
I  then  told  him  who  I  was,  and  you  never  saw  a  man  more  pleased. 
Nothing  would  do  but  we  must  start  off  at  once  for  a  mile's  walk, 
although  it  was  bed-time,  to  see  his  wife  and  have  a  chat  about 
Halifax  and  Halifax  people.  .  .  .  Kellogg  has  turned  his 
temperance  to  political  effect.  About  seven  years  ago  he  moved 
out  west  to  Michigan,  and  they  have  now  sent  him  for  two  terms 
from  that  State  to  Congress  as  their  representative.  Congress  is 
not  now  in  session.  I  am  sorry  for  it,  as  we  should  have  heard 
their  great  guns  fire  in  these  days  of  excitement  and  warring 
words.  They  closed  their  sitting  two  weeks  ago.  Kellogg  is  only 
remaining  here,  as  he  says,  turning  out  the  Democrats  and  putting 
in  their  Eepublican  successors  for  his  State. 

It  is  almost  impossible  for  us  to  glean  anything  definite  as  to 
the  future  of  this  portion  of  the  continent,  politically  speaking. 
In  fact,  we  find  it  judicious  to  say  little  ourselves,  and  when  we  do 
converse  with  men  of  both  sides,  we  arrive  at  the  conclusion  that 
we  know  as  much  about  their  difficulties  and  their  future  as  they 
do  themselves.  Every  man  speaks  as  he  feels,  and  his  conclusions 
are  based  on  his  political  feelings.  With  their  press  it  is  the  same. 
The  Government,  as  far  as  I  can  learn,  is  undecided  and  wavering 
in  its  policy.  The  two  Confederacies,  as  they  now  stand,  remind 
me  of  two  schoolboys  who  are  urged  on  to  fight  by  their  com- 
panions.    "  One's  afraid  and  t'other  daresn't  " ;  or  like  two  dogs 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  157 

in  the  street,  pretty  well  matched  as  to  size,  they  growl,  show  their 
teeth,  and  in  this  hostile  attitude,  each  eyeing  the  other,  they  back 
away  to  a  respectful  distance,  and  then,  with  their  tails  between 
their  legs,  give  each  other  leg-bail — both  delighted  to  get  out  of  the 
scrape  without  fighting.  Well,  I  think  that  is  pretty  much  the 
state  of  things  here.  It  is  pretty  certain  that  the  old  Union  cannot 
continue,  and  that  the  seceding  States  will  not  return. 

You  cannot  tell  how  thankful  I  am  that  I  belong  to  a  mon- 
archical government,  and  can  call  the  free  institutions  of  old 
England  mine.  Here  there  is  no  freedom.  Rome,  in  its  worst 
days,  never  coerced  freedom  of  thought  and  expression  as  does  that 
part  of  creation  in  which  we  now  travel.  But  I  must  stop  politics 
for  the  present  and  go  sight-seeing,  as  Stairs  is  waiting  for  me. 
I  only  hope  when  I  get  your  letters  at  Savannah,  that  they  and  the 
accompanying  newspapers  will  bring  me  cheering  news  of  home 
politics  and  of  a  dissolution. 

4  o'clock  p.m. — Well,  my  dear  Fanny,  "  we've  gone  and  went 
and  done  it  " — that  is,  the  sights.  Our  legs  are  weary  and  our 
brains  muddled  with  the  mixture  of  everything  that  is  grand, 
massive,  and  elegant  in  the  structures  we  have  this  day  seen. 
While  their  political  institutions  are  shaking  and  crumbling,  the 
marble,  the  granite  and  freestone  structures  that  they  have  reared 
are  of  a  character  to  stand  hundreds  of  years.  They  have  been 
erected  and  internally  constructed,  not  for  the  United  States  as 
they  now  are,  but  for  the  United  States  centuries  hence.  The 
progressive  growth  of  a  mighty  nation  was  considered  as  the 
architect  planned  them.  But  alas  for  the  plans  of  man  and  of 
nations !  He  and  they  may  propose,  but  God  disposes ;  and  it  in 
not  unlikely  that  the  United  States  of  America  ere  long  may  have 
to  move  their  seat  of  government  further  north,  while  those  great 
and  magnificent  structures  may  fall  into  the  possession  of  a 
Southern  people  unworthy  of  them.  To  give  you  even  the  faintest 
idea  of  these  public  buildings,  either  in  the  general  or  in  detail, 
would  require  a  volume.  They  remind  one  of  the  palmy  days  of 
Greece  and  Rome,  both  as  regards  their  extent,  appearance  and 
style  of  architecture.  The  Capitol  alone  covers  with  its  massive 
masonry  between  five  and  six  acres  of  ground.  .  .  .  Nothing 
in  the  world  can  compare  with  this  building  of  white  marble,  at 
least  nothing  in  England,  or  anything  I  have  seen  or  read  of; 
and  all  foreigners  go  away  with  this  same  impression.  The  White 
House  is  large,  and  also  of  white  marble.  We  only  saw  three  or 
four  rooms  in  it.  As  the  President  was  engaged  and  could  not 
spare  the  time  to-day  to  come  out  and  shake  hands  with  the  sov- 
ereign people,  we  missed  seeing  him.  However,  he  is  not  much  to 
look  at,  if  one  may  judge  from  his  portraits,  and  I  daresay  his 
present  feelings  will  make  his  physiognomy  look  still  less  attractive 

158  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

than  when  in  the  first  days  of  his  presidential  glories  his  phiz  was 
taken  by  the  thousands. 

The  Treasury,  the  Patent  Office,  and  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution have  all  been  viewed  and  examined,  very  briefly,  of  course, 
as  also  the  magnificent  Post  Office.  It  would  take  a  week  to 
examine  the  Patent  Office  alone — I  might  almost  add  a  month,  if 
I  were  of  a  mechanical  turn ;  but  I  think  I  could  do  it  up,  as  the 
Yankees  say,  satisfactorily  in  one  week.  I  have  yet  to  visit  the 
Washington  Asylum  for  the  Insane,  which  is  the  model,  archi- 
tecturally, not  medically,  of  our  own  at  Dartmouth.  I  expect  to 
meet  Miss  Dix  there.  It  is  three  miles  out  of  the  city,  and  after 
dinner  I  shall  drive  there.  To-morrow  we  start  for  Richmond, 
Virginia,  sailing  down  the  Potomac  River  thirty  miles  or  more  in  a 
steamer,  taking  in  our  route  Mount  Vernon  and  the  tomb  of  Wash- 
ington. We  shall  only  be  able  to  get  a  passing  view  of  the  Mount, 
his  place  of  residence  and  death,  as  we  must  hurry  on  to  the  South 
and  get  out  of  it  again  before  the  weather  gets  too  warm.  To-day 
the  sun  has  been  warm  and  the  air  delicious.  Here  the  grass  is 
all  green,  the  foliage  coming  out,  and  many  trees  and  plants  are 
in  blossom.  What  a  change  from  our  cold,  damp  spring  in  Nova 
Scotia!  Would  that  you  and  the  dear  children  were  all  here  to 
enjoy  it  with  me!  It  would  add  a  thousand-fold  to  the  pleasure 
of  my  journey  and  sight-seeing.  After  passing  through  Richmond 
and  spending  a  day  there,  we  go  on  to  Wilmington,  North  Carolina, 
from  thence  to  Charleston,  S.C.,  and  finally  bring  up  at  Savannah, 
Ga.,  about  the  first  of  the  week,  from  which  place  you  will,  God 
willing,  hear  from  me  again.  .  .  .  My  health,  thank  God,  is 
as  well  as  usual.  I  suffer  but  little  with  my  head,  and  sleep  well, 
although  the  frequent  changes  in  my  sleeping  apartments  do  not 
tend  to  aid  me  in  this  particular.  ...  I  hope  Tupper  and 
Charles  may  drop  me  a  line. 

Ever,  my  dearest  wife,  your  affectionate  husband, 

D.  McN.  Parkee. 

Spotswood  Hotel,  Richmond,  Va., 
April  5th,  1861. 
My  Dearest  Wife : 

Here  I  am  in  "  old  Virginny,"  very  comfortably  situated  at  a 
very  comfortable  hotel,  with  the  weather  comparatively  mild  and 
pleasant,  the  foliage,  and  vegetation  generally,  developing  itself 
more  and  more  each  day.  The  peach  and  cherry  trees  are  all  in 
blossom,  and  this  adds  to  the  natural  beauty  of  the  country  as  we 
pass  along,  at  the  rate  of  twenty-five  miles  per  hour,  getting  a 
passing  but  pleasing  view  and  idea  of  the  physical  geography  of 
the  country.     Before  going  further  I  must  tell  you  what  I  neg- 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUK  OF  1861  159 

lected  to  state  in  my  last  letter  relative  to  Washington,  geographi- 
cally and  politically  considered.  Virginia  and  Maryland,  but 
mainly  the  latter,  in  order  to  get  the  seat  of  the  general  government 
located  pretty  well  south  in  a  slave  district,  set  apart  ten  square 
miles  and  presented  this  block  of  land  to  the  United  States  for 
general  States  purposes.  Subsequently,  Virginia,  in  consequence 
of  excessive  taxation,  and  no  direct  advantages  accruing  to  that 
State,  petitioned  Congress  to  give  her  back  her  contribution,  south 
of  the  Potomac  River,  which  request  was  acceded  to.  So  that  the 
District  of  Columbia,  as  this  block  of  land  is  called,  is  now  situated 
in  the  very  heart  of  the  slave  State,  Maryland.  Here  all  the  public 
buildings  belonging  to  the  United  States  government  are  situated, 
and  when  an  American  speaks  of  Washington  he  embraces  under 
the  word  the  District  of  Columbia.  .  .  .  The  inhabitants  of 
this  District  have  no  votes,  and  no  voice  in  the  general  affairs  of 
their  nation.  The  only  votes  they  give  are  for  the  municipal 
offices,  such  as  our  mayor  and  aldermen,  and  they  are  only  taxed 
for  municipal  or  city  purposes.  The  nation,  out  of  the  general 
revenues  of  the  country,  has  built  all  these  magnificent  structures 
referred  to  in  my  last  letter.  The  people  of  Washington  have  not 
paid  a  penny  towards  them,  while  as  an  offset  for  their  disfranch- 
isement they  have  received  all  the  benefits  that  such  an  immense 
expenditure  of  millions  of  dollars  in  their  midst  would  necessarily 
bring.  Each  State  in  the  Union  has  laws  of  its  own,  harmonizing, 
of  course,  except  at  the  present  juncture,  and  on  the  slave  question, 
with  the  general  laws  of  the  Union.  This  District  of  Columbia, 
then,  is  governed  by  the  laws  of  the  State  of  Maryland,  with  which 
the  laws  of  the  municipal  corporation  or  city  must  harmonize. 
Now,  Maryland  being  a  slave  State,  slavery  can  exist  in  Washing- 
ton or  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  does  to  a  large  extent,  although 
Maryland,  as  a  whole,  does  not  contain,  I  believe,  more  than  84,000 
slaves,  in  fact  has  the  smallest  amount  of  human  property  of  any  of 
the  slave  States.  The  geographical  position  of  Washington,  in  the 
very  heart  of  one  slave  State,  and  bounded  on  the  south  by  another, 
Virginia,  is  likely  to  be,  under  the  existing  state  of  political  affairs, 
a  very  grave  question.  The  people  of  Maryland  and  Virginia,  I 
think,  have  pretty  well  concluded  to  join  the  Southern  Confederacy, 
and  as  a  gentleman  of  this  city,  highly  educated  and  influential, 
told  me  yesterday,  the  South  must  and  will  have  Washington  as 
their  seat  of  government.  At  the  same  time,  he  stated  that  they 
wanted  it  only  after  paying  their  fair  proportion  of  the  expendi- 
ture and  the  money  the  structures  now  used  by  the  general  govern- 
ment cost.  This  is  one  of  the  gravest  and  most  knotty  points  they 
have  to  settle ;  and  to  use  the  words  of  my  friend,  it  is  not  improb- 
able that  this  one  question  may  involve  the  country  in  war  and 
bloodshed.     The  North,  of  course,  will  not  care  to  yield  up  the 

160  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

millions  upon  millions  that  they  have  expended  from  that  section 
of  the  Union  for  these  great  public  works,  without  a  struggle, — 
works  that  they  have  always  looked  upon  as  the  pride  of  their 
country  and  as  indicative  of  their  country's  greatness  and  power, 
leaving  out  of  the  question  their  magnificence  and  grandeur  as 
works  of  art. 

Before  passing  to  my  journey  from  Washington  to  this  place 
I  will  just  inform  you  that  in  this  capital  (Richmond)  at  present 
the  Legislature  is  in  session,  and  there  is  also  in  session  what  is 
termed  a  State  Convention,  composed  of  men  from  all  sections  of 
the  State.     They  are  now  debating  the  momentous  question  of  the 
day.     The  general  feeling  of  the  State,  from  all  I  can  learn,  is 
in  favor  of  secession,  still  being,  for  the  most  part,  conservative  in 
their  views.     They  do  not  wish  to  act  hastily  or  to  give  other 
sections  of  the  country  the  idea  that  they  are  acting  without  due 
deliberation.     A  few  weeks  ago  the  city  was  entirely  for  Union, 
but  a  very  significant  fact  occurred  the  day  before  yesterday  which 
conveys  an  idea  of  the  change  that  is  taking  place  throughout  the 
State.     A  Secession  and  a  Union  man  ran  for  the  office  of  Mayor 
of  the  city.     The  former  beat  his  opponent  by  over  1,200  majority. 
This  revulsion  of  feeling  has  taken  place  within  a  few  weeks.     The 
United  States  Government  were  prevented  from  removing  guns 
that  they  had  contracted  for  with  an  iron  foundry  company  in 
Richmond,   and  the  Legislature  purchased  them  from  the   con- 
tractors for  State  purposes.    Besides,  Virginia  is  now  refitting  at 
its  own  expense  military  positions  formerly  occupied  by  United 
States  troops ;  and  within  a  gunshot  from  where  I  am  writing  they 
are  fitting  up  an  armory  and  a  large  foundry  for  the  manufacture 
of  cannon  and  small  arms, — which  localities  are  garrisoned  by 
Virginia  militia.     The  State  is  evidently  preparing  for  war,  and 
unless  President  Lincoln  disavows  the  Republican  principles  on 
which  he  was  elected,  and  the  laws  on  the  statute  book  of  many  of 
his  Northern  States  are  modified,   Virginia  will  be  out  of  the 
Union.     This  he  cannot  do,  and  the  North  will  not  permit  it,  if 
Lincoln  was  so  disposed.     So  I  take  it  for  granted  from  the  signs 
of  the  times  that  "old  Virginny"  will  secede,  not  in  a  hurry,  but  in 
the  end  with  certainty,  and,  she  being  the  keystone  of  the  arch,  as 
she  moves,  so  will  Maryland,  Kentucky,  and  Tennessee  and  North 
Carolina.     These  being  added  to  those  States  now  composing  the 
Southern  Confederacy,  will  make  such  a  powerful  nation  that  the 
North  will  be  helpless  to  regain  them  by  conquest.     I  find  a  large 
number  of  the  Democratic  party  of  the  Northern  States  entirely 
sympathize    with    the    South.     Their  business  was  largely  with 
Southern  men,  their  pockets  have  been  touched,  and  they  feel,  and 
express  themselves  in  the  strongest  terms,  in  favor  of  the  Southern 
movement  and  in  hostility  to  Lincoln.     The  very  general  Demo- 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  161 

cratic  feeling  in  the  North  renders  Lincoln's  administration  power- 
less to  reconquer  by  arms  the  seceding  States.  My  impression  is, 
it  will  be  better  for  both  parties,  the  country,  other  countries,  and 
for  humanity  that  a  peaceful  resignation  of  the  Southern  States 
should  be  made  by  the  North,  and  I  only  hope  and  pray  that  this 
may  be  the  finale  of  the  matter. 

You  must  excuse  me,  my  dear  wife,  for  writing  and  boring 
you  so  much  at  length  about  United  States  politics,  but  I  know 
your  father  and  others  will  like  to  hear  from  the  seat  of  war  what 
is  going  on  in  these  troublous  and  eventful  times. 

Stairs,  Johnnie  and  I  started  from  Washington  yesterday, 
April  4,  at  6  a.m.,  embarked  on  board  a  large  steamer,  and  sailed 
down  the  Potomac  River  50  miles  to  Aquia  Creek,  where  we  took 
the  train  for  Richmond.  The  Potomac  is  a  beautiful,  broad  river, 
with  fine  bold  scenery  on  both  its  shores.  .  .  .  We  saw,  as 
we  passed  along,  Washington's  house  and  tomb  at  Mount  Vernon. 
It  would  have  been  pleasant  could  we  have  landed  for  half  an  hour 
or  more.  Our  journey  terminated  for  the  day  at  this  place 
between  2  and  3  o'clock.  When  paying  my  fare  on  board  the 
steamer  I  heard  one  of  the  passengers  say  he  was  from  North 
Carolina.  I  asked  him  if  he  knew  anything  of  Fayetteville  (where 
my  grandfather  McNeill  came  from).  He  said  he  did  not,  but 
that  there  was  a  gentleman  on  board  from  the  very  place,  and  he 
introduced  me  to  him.  I  find  that  the  McNeills  at  Fayetteville 
and  in  its  neighborhood  are  as  thick  as  blueberries,  and,  as  he 
expressed  it,  "  they  are  all  fine,  responsible  people."  I  learned 
from  him  how  I  was  to  reach  the  place,  and  to-morrow  morning 
we  start  for  Raleigh,  the  capital  of  the  State,  and  then  travel  60 
miles  through  the  country  by  stage  coach  to  Fayetteville,  from 
which  place  we  take  steamer  down  a  river  to  Wilmington,  and 
thence  go  south  to  Charleston  and  Savannah.  This  will,  of  course, 
delay  our  progress  to  the  most  southern  part  of  our  journey,  but  we 
are  pretty  certain  to  reach  Savannah  during  next  week,  when  we 
hope  to  receive  the  much-thought-of  and  longed-for  letters  from 

Immediately  after  dining  we  sauntered  out  yesterday  to  look 
at  the  place  and  the  lions.  The  Capitol,  or  place  where  the  Legis- 
lature meets,  is  old  and  unworthy  of  remark.  One  of  the  senators, 
or  Lords,  who  had  bolted  his  dinner  and  returned  to  the  Senate 
room  before  his  colleagues,  was  stretched  out  on  a  sofa  asleep,  with 
his  boots  off,  his  heels  in  the  air,  his  head  shaggy  and  uncombed, — 
altogether  the  most  perfect  parody  on  "  otium  cum  dignitate,"  as 
the  Latin  has  it,  that  I  have  ever  witnessed.  Just  fancy  the  old 
gentleman,  the  Hon.  W.  A.  Black,  M.L.C.,  stretched  off  in  that 
style ! 

The  centre  of  attraction  for  both  ladies  and  gentlemen  appeared 


162  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

to  be  the  Mechanics'  Institute,  where  the  State  Convention  already- 
referred  to  was  in  session.  Thither  we  bent  our  steps  and  heard 
a  few  short,  spicy  speeches  from  some  very  old  and  some  very 
young  men.  The  Lincoln  government  appeared  to  be  the  target 
and  the  Union  got  heavy  blows.  One  old  grey-headed  man,  appar- 
ently a  Union  man,  went  into  it  strong.  I  lost  the  sense,  owing  to 
the  noise,  but  could  hear  such  expressions  as  "  the  gates  of  hell  " 
and  "  the  husband  of  the  devil  "  coming  from  the  old  fellow's  lips. 
I  came  away  impressed  with  the  belief  that  they  wanted  leading 
minds  to  direct  them,  and  dignity  of  demeanor  and  language,  to 
carry  weight  and  influence  with  their  deliberations.  Our  Legis- 
lature, bad  as  it  is  (don't  wound  the  feelings  of  Mr.  Johnston  and 
Tupper  by  repeating  in  their  presence  the  foregoing  words),  would 
impress  a  stranger,  especially  an  Englishman,  most  favorably,  when 
contrasted  with  the  deliberative  body  under  consideration. 

In  front  of  the  Capitol  is  a  beautiful  monument  erected  to 
Washington,  Jefferson,  Patrick  Henry  and  other  great  men  who 
took  part  in  the  eventful  struggle  of  1776,  men  of  this  State.  You 
will  recollect  reading  in  the  Christian  Messenger,  a  few  weeks 
since,  the  soul-stirring  defence  of  three  Baptist  ministers  who  were 
on  trial  here  years  ago,  made  by  this  same  Patrick  Henry.  They 
were  imprisoned  and  tried  "  for  preaching  the  gospel  of  Jesus 
Christ."  Henry's  statue  is  indicative  of  just  such  a  man,  and  his 
broad,  high  forehead  and  striking  features  would  at  once  point  him 
out  as  a  man,  not  massive  in  body  alone,  but  in  mind — a  man  with 
a  great  and  good  soul. 

Richmond  is  beautifully  situated  on  hill  and  dale,  with  streams 
of  water  running  through  it,  and  is  largely  engaged  in  manufac- 
turing flour,  tobacco,  iron,  cloth,  etc.,  etc.  We  went  through  a 
flour  mill  which  manufactures  about  1,400  barrels  of  flour  a  day; 
that  is,  takes  in  the  wheat,  grinds  it,  barrels  it  and  has  it  all  ready 
before  night  to  ship ;  and  there  are  many  such  mills,  all  driven  by 
water  power  from  the  James  River.  An  immense  quantity  of 
tobacco  is  grown  and  manufactured  in  this  State.  In  one  of  the 
London  docks  there  are  warehouses  covering  thirteen  acres  used  for 
tobacco  alone,  and  the  greater  part  of  this  is  derived  from  the  ports 
of  this  State  and  other  United  States  ports  which  ship  the  weed 
of  Virginia.  Iron  and  coal  exist  in  inexhaustible  quantity  in  the 
mountain  districts,  and  altogether  it  is  one  of  the  richest  States  in 
the  Union,  both  in  what  we  would  term  natural  resources  and  in 
human  beings  held  as  property.  The  slaves  of  Virginia  amount 
to  about  500,000. 

Raleigh,  "N.C.,  April  6th,  '61. — We  have  advanced  thus  far, 
having  left  Richmond  at  3  p.m.  yesterday  and  remained  all  night 
at  a  station  in  the  pine  forest  in  this  State,  near  the  Roanoke  River, 
called  Weldon.     We  reached  Weldon  about  nine  o'clock,  and  after 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  163 

dark  were  constantly  reminded  of  a  picture  in  the  London  Illus- 
trated News — of  a  black  boy  with  a  pine  torch  stopping  the  train. 
You  will  see  it  in  that  paper  of  some  date  about  February.  I  was 
very  much  amused  at  one  little  fellow  stopping  the  train  with  this 
bright,  glaring  flame,  the  torch  being  as  large  as  himself,  and  no 
place  visible.  All  he  wanted  to  send  south  was  two  bags  of  small 
live  pigs,  tied  up,  kicking  and  squealing  as  they  joined  us.  When- 
ever these  torches  appear  on  the  line  the  train  must  stop,  for  they 
frequently  appear  to  warn  of  danger.  We  wandered  about  Wel- 
don,  the  banks  of  the  Roanoke,  and  under  the  tall  pine  trees,  talk- 
ing to  "  niggers,"  as  they  are  here  designated,  about  rattlesnakes, 
fishing,  planting,  etc.,  and  in  this  way  passed  two  or  three  hours 
pleasantly  until  the  arrival  of  the  Northern  train,  which  we 
joined,  and  left  again  at  this  place.  Raleigh  is  a  small  place,  the 
capital  of  North  Carolina.  It  has  a  fine  Capitol,  or  building  cor- 
responding to  our  Province  Building,  an  asylum  for  the  insane, 
and  an  institution  for  the  deaf,  dumb,  and  blind,  combined  under 
one  roof.  As  we  walked  through  the  latter  this  afternoon  I  unex- 
pectedly pitched  upon  a  document  containing  my  name,  viz.,  the 
report  of  the  Deaf  and  Dumb  Institution  at  Halifax.  Mr.  Hutton 
had  forwarded  it  to  Mr.  Palmer,  the  principal  of  this  Institution. 
This,  of  course,  was  a  kind  of  bond  of  friendship,  and  we  became 
communicative.  He  is  a  Baptist,  and  nothing  would  do  but  we 
must  go  and  examine  a  beautiful  church  structure  erected  here 
by  our  denomination,  and  only  recently  opened.  We  were 
much  pleased  with  its  internal  beauty  and  arrangement. 
.  The  basement  of  this  chapel  is  not  only  for  Sunday- 
school  teaching,  but  in  the  afternoon  it  is  used  as  a  place 
of  worship  for  the  black  Baptists.  The  everlasting  Divine 
Institution  extends  even  into  the  house  of  God.  There,  as 
in  the  outer  world,  the  white  man  is  separated  from  his 
darker  brother.  In  Heaven,  however,  the  skin  will  not  by  its 
color  draw  a  line  of  demarkation  between  brethren  in  Christ.  All 
denominations  err  alike  in  this  particular.  I  find  this  tender 
ground  to  touch  on,  even  with  my  brethren  in  the  Church,  with 
whom  I  am  in  the  habit  of  speaking  pretty  plainly  on  all  subjects. 
But  here  it  is  well  to  be  guarded.  So  I  merely  glean  facts,  for 
information's  sake,  draw  my  own  conclusions,  keep  up  an  ever- 
lasting thinking  and  say  but  little.  I  find  here,  as  in  Virginia,  the 
popular  voice  is  for  secession.  Nearly  every  man  we  meet 
broaches  the  subject  to  us,  as  Englishmen,  and  talks  freely. 
Within  the  last  two  days  we  have  conversed  with  many  men,  on 
railways,  by  the  wayside,  and  at  hotels,  and  not  one  declared  him- 
self for  "  The  Black  Republic."  Even  as  I  write,  one  of  the 
natives  is  haranguing  Stairs  on  the  advantages  of  secession  and 
the  duty  of  North  Carolina  in  the  present  crisis.     A  few  days 


since  some  young  men  here  hoisted  the  Secession  Flag,  and,  being 
armed  with  revolvers,  surrounded  the  staff  on  which  it  proudly 
floated,  to  defend  it  if  it  should  be  attacked.  None  dare  come 
boldly  up  from  the  front,  but  from  a  hidden  spot  a  rifle  was  fired 
at  the  flag.  The  Union  man  was  hunted  out  from  his  hiding- 
place  and  ran  for  his  life,  escaping  a  dozen  shots  which  were  fired 
at  him  as  he  bolted.  The  crowd  saved  him.  The  men  who  in  the 
capital  of  North  Carolina  thus  hoisted  the  rebellious  flag  were 
gentlemen,  as  our  informant  stated.  They  kept  it  flying  for  an 
hour  and  a  half  after  sunset,  and  then  in  force  walked  down  to  the 
"  Palace  "  at  the  foot  of  the  street,  where  the  Governor  of  the 
State  resides,  and  with  the  flag  in  their  hands  gave  three  hearty 
cheers  for  his  Excellency. 

It  is  strange  how  one  pitches  upon  friend's  friends  when  far 
away  from  home.  Just  as  I  had  written  our  names  in  the  hotel 
book,  a  gentleman  who  was  examining  the  book  asked  if  we  were 
from  Halifax.  We  replied  in  the  affirmative,  when  he  asked  if 
we  knew  Mr.  Mulholland  and  Dr.  Donald.  I  told  him  I  knew 
them  both,  and  the  latter  intimately.  We  were  at  once  on  friendly 
terms,  and  our  new  acquaintance,  Mr.  Agnew,  from  Belfast,  Ire- 
land, many  years  since,  but  now  a  resident  of  this  State  and  an 
out-and-out  believer  in  the  Divine  Institution  and  Secession,  haa 
been  most  kind  and  attentive. 

Sunday  Afternoon. — Early  this  morning  we  went  to  the  Bap- 
tist Sabbath-school,  expecting  to  see  a  large  collection  of  children, 
but  the  day  being  a  little  wet  only  a  few  boys  came  out.  The 
pastor  was  absent  and  there  was  no  service.  We  attended  service 
in  the  Presbyterian  church,  but  there  was  only  a  handful  of  people 
out.  I  thought  we  of  Granville  St.  church  were  afraid  of  storms 
unnecessarily,  but  the  church-going  people  of  Kaleigh  are  still 
more  "  fair-weather  Christians  "  than  those  of  Halifax.  It  was 
only  a  Scotch  mist,  yet  they  called  it  a  rain-storm  and  the  parson 
prayed  for  those  that  had  been  detained  at  home  by  the  "  inclement 
weather."  I  wish  they  could  see  and  feel  a  snow  or  rain  storm  in 
Nova  Scotia  in  March !  It  has  been  altogether  a  dull  day  for  me. 
At  the  Southern  hotels  there  are  no  rooms  for  gentlemen  who  leave 
their  wives  at  home,  and  one  is  compelled  to  sit  in  the  common 
sitting-room,  where  are  collected  all  kinds  of  men  from  the  city, 
as  well  as  the  guests  of  the  house,  and  they  are  talking  of  nothing 
but  politics  and  "  niggers."  To  get  rid  of  this,  Stairs  and  I  took 
our  umbrellas  after  a  one-o'clock  dinner  and  walked  out  into  the 
country;  and  had  it  not  been  raining  we  would  have  had  a 
pleasant  afternoon  of  it.  We  struck  the  pine  forest,  and  taking 
a  path  which  was  before  us,  followed  it  for  some  distance.  We  did 
not  meet  with  any  snakes  except  a  dead  one,  which  some  son  of 
Eve  had  killed  a  short  time  before. 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  165 

A  traveller  who  loves  his  home  and  his  own  fireside  misses 
those  dear  to  him  more  on  the  Sabbath  than  on  any  other  day; 
at  least,  it  is  so  with  me,  and  I  would  give  much  just  to  pop  in  on 
you  in  your  quiet,  cozy  little  room  upstairs,  and  take  my  usual 
lounge  on  the  sofa,  chatting  with  you  and  the  older  bairns,  and 
bearding  the  poor  dear  baby.  With  God's  blessing  I  will  in  three 
weeks  or  a  little  more  be  able  thus  to  amuse  myself  in  my  very 
happy  home. 

Stairs  is  an  exceedingly  well-informed  man,  well  read  in  his- 
tory and  on  general  topics,  and  altogether  a  most  agreeable  com- 
panion. His  son  is  a  very  nice  and,  at  times,  a  very  amusing  boy. 
It  is  very  evident  he  has  been  well  brought  up.  I  do  not  know 
how  I  would  have  got  on  without  them.  It  would  have  been  ter- 
ribly dull  work  to  travel  all  this  distance  without  a  companion. 
I  feel  now  as  well  as  usual,  can  take  exercise  freely  without  fatigue, 
and  my  head  gives  me  but  little  trouble.  How  grateful  to  God  I 
should  be  for  His  goodness  to  me,  dear  wife.  I  very  well  know  that 
had  I  remained  at  work  in  Nova  Scotia  at  this  trying  and  inclem- 
ent season,  I  should  have  completely  broken  down  in  health. 
God's  goodness  to  me  in  furnishing  me  with  the  means  to  seek 
health  abroad  should  always  be  remembered  with  thankfulness. 
How  many  professional  men  are  there  whose  health  breaks  down 
under  their  incessant  labors,  and  who  die  for  want  of  such  relaxa- 
tion, not  being  able  to  afford  the  expense  of  going  abroad ! 

In  our  walk  we  passed  the  house  of  the  Baptist  minister,  Rev. 
Mr.  Skinner,  and  there  saw  verbenas  growing  in  the  open  air. 
This  gentleman  is,  in  a  pecuniary  point  of  view,  a  lucky  Baptist 
parson,  for  he  is  worth  £25,000,  has  a  large  and  elegant  establish- 
ment, and  his  "  nigger  fixin's  "  are  the  neatest  and  most  comfort- 
able I  have  seen  as  yet — that  is,  the  houses  for  his  niggers.  All 
proprietors  of  slaves  have  the  residences  of  the  latter  near  them, 
generally  in  small  houses  in  the  rear  and  on  one  or  both  sides  of 
their  own  residences. 

There  is  a  Judge  Alden,  of  Vermont,  staying  here  for  the 
health  of  his  daughter.  He  is  an  abolitionist  and  Unionist. 
While  chatting  before  the  fire  last  night,  he  said  he  had  come  to 
the  same  conclusion  on  the  secession  question  that  I  have,  viz., 
that  ere  very  long  Virginia,  Tennessee,  Maryland  and  Kentucky 
would  join  the  South.  Personal  observation,  in  mingling  with 
the  crowd  as  we  are  doing,  has  fixed  this  belief  unwillingly  upon 
him.  He  further  added  that  he,  for  one,  would  like  the  Northern 
States  and  his  own  Vermont  to  go  back  to  England  and  her  free 
constitution  and  government.  This  gentleman  is  at  present  a 
judge  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  when  a  man  in  his  position 
speaks  out  in  this  style,  you  may  depend  there  are  many  others 


who  think  as  he  does  on  this  matter.  The  judge  is  a  friend  of 
Carteret  Hill's,  having  frequently  met  him  in  Boston. 

Monday  morning,  April  8. — You  will  recollect  a  Mr.  Green- 
wood's panorama  of  Bunyan's  "  Pilgrim's  Progress  "  which  was 
exhibited  in  Halifax  a  year  or  two  ago.  He,  his  wife  and  son 
are  staying  here  just  now,  and  last  night,  learning  that  we  were 
from  Halifax,  he  came  and  introduced  himself  to  us.  I  recollect 
his  face  very  well.  .  .  .  He  asked  me  if  I  knew  Judge 
Wilmot,  of  Fredericton.  I  told  him  he  was  my  brother-in-law, 
and  he  then  stated  that  he  had  been  trying  to  immortalize  the 
judge  and  his  gardens,  having  just  delivered  a  lecture  to  the  Fay- 
etteville  people  in  the  Baptist  church  there,  which  lecture  was 
largely  taken  up  with  Wilmot,  his  gardens  and  Chinese  lamps, 
and  the  two  happy  occasions  when  he  was  permitted  there  to  take 
part  in  fetes  given  to  the  Sabbath-school  children  of  Fredericton. 
He  wished  to  be  remembered  to  the  judge  and  also  wanted  Allan 
to  know  that  he  was  making  him  known  to  the  Southerners — so 
that  should  he  come  South  at  any  time  he  will  not  be  likely  to  be 
tarred  and  feathered.  ...  I  am  going  with  Mr.  Palmer  to 
the  Asylum  for  the  Insane,  having  had  a  most  interesting  morning 
with  the  blind  and  the  deaf  and  dumb.  I  leave  at  5  o'clock  p.m. 
for  Fayetteville. 

Ever,  dearest  wife,  with  love  and  kisses  to  the  children,  Yours, 

D.   P. 

Fayetteville,  IST.C, 
Wednesday,  April  10th,  1861. 
My  Dear  Wife : 

I  left  Raleigh  shortly  after  mailing  my  letter  there  for  you,  in 
the  mail  coach  for  this  place,  in  a  rain-storm.  Stairs  and  Johnnie 
remained  there  until  yesterday,  and  then  took  a  train  for  Wil- 
mington. Of  all  the  roads  I  ever  travelled,  that  between  Raleigh 
and  this  place  is  the  worst.  Several  times  we  got  our  wheels  into 
a  deep  rut,  and  the  other  three  inside  passengers  and  a 
"  nigger "  on  the  box,  with  your  husband,  would  all  have 
to  huddle  together  on  the  opposite  side,  and  hold  on,  to  keep 
the  coach  from  toppling  over.  A  lady  passenger  with  us 
was  terribly  frightened,  as  the  same  driver  upset  the  coach  with 
her  in  it,  in  the  night,  when,  a  short  time  before,  she  was  going 
up  to  Raleigh.  But  the  last  fifteen  miles  were  terrible.  In  this 
State  some  years  ago  a  number  of  speculators  built  a  plank  road 
on  this  as  on  many  of  the  roads,  which  was  a  kind  of  toll  road.  It 
proved  bad  stock,  and  when  the  first  planks  were  out  or  got  dis- 
placed, for  want  of  dividends  they  were  not  renewed,  and  you 
can  readily  imagine  the  jumping  and  pitching  there  would  be 
under  such  circumstances.     A  young  lady  sat  opposite  me.     Some- 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUK  OF  1861  167 

times  our  heads  went  upward  to  the  roof,  sometimes  fore  and  aft, 
as  sailors  say,  and  we  found  ourselves  almost  butting,  like  sheep 
and  goats.  For  a  youngster  it  would  have  been  grand  sport,  but 
for  a  staid  old  fellow  like  myself,  half  asleep,  it  was  rather 
unpleasant.  So  I  just  pulled  my  fur  cap  well  down  over  my  eyes, 
to  protect  my  forehead  from  the  concussion,  should  it  come,  and 
in  this  way,  with  feet  braced,  stood  prepared  for  the  repeated 
shocks.  At  length  daylight  came,  and  with  it  Fayetteville  in  the 
distance,  and  the  long  pine  forest  was  left  behind.  At  half-past 
six  a.m.  I  was  deposited  at  my  hotel — rather  sore,  sleepy  and  tired. 
As  soon  as  breakfast  was  over  I  commenced  an  attack  on  the  clan 
McNeill,  but  met  with  nothing  but  disappointment  until  about 
11  o'clock.  Every  person  I  went  to  turned  out  to  be  the  wrong 
man,  and  many  from  whom  I  might  have  obtained  information 
relative  to  Captain  McNeill's  relations  were  absent  on  a  railway- 
extension  excursion  (the  opening  ceremonies  of  a  new  railway). 
Parson  McNeill,  Sheriff  McNeill,  and  the  President  of  one  of  the 
banks,  from  whom  I  expected  much,  were  thus  engaged  and  could 
not  be  reached.  At  length  the  old  inhabitants  were  thought  of. 
Col.  McRae  being  one  of  them,  I  went  to  him,  and  he  referred  me 
to  one  David  Torrance,  an  old  Scotchman  who  lived  about  a  mile 
out  of  town,  who  was  born  some  time  after  the  flood  and  has  a 
reputation  of  remembering  everything  that  had  occurred  since 
that  unhappy  occasion.  I  found  the  old  gentleman  at  home 
and  broached  the  subject  by  saying  that  I  was  in  search  of  the 
descendants  of  a  Loyalist  officer  called  McNeill  who  was  a  native 
of  North  Carolina,  but  who  had  settled  in  Nova  Scotia  at  the 
close  of  the  war.  He  looked  at  me  for  a  moment  and  promptly 
replied:  "You  are  a  descendant,  then,  of  Dan'l  McNeill  who 
came  on  here  on  a  visit  from  Nova  Scotia  in  1809."  He  then 
commenced  like  a  40-horsepower  steam  engine,  beginning  with 
Archie  Ban  and  Janet  Ban  (Ban  meaning,  in  Scotch,  fair  or  light- 
complexioned),  by  which  soubriquet  Capt.  McNeill's  parents  were 
known — and  he  ran  on  (there  was  no  such  thing  as  stopping  him) 
and  gave  me  the  names  and  the  descendants  of  all  my  great-uncles, 
brought  them  down  to  the  small  fry,  and  I  did  not  know  but  that 
he  was  going  into  the  future,  to  name  generations  yet  to  be  born — 
and  there  being  a  partially  colored  lady  present,  his  daughter,  I 
flushed,  and  boldly  came  to  the  charge  by  saying,  with  my  note- 
book in  hand :  "  Now  sir,  to  become  practical  and  get  at  the  pith 
of  this  matter,  give  me  the  names  of  Daniel  McNeill's  nearest 
living  relations."  He  looked  posed  when  he  viewed  the  pencil  and 
book,  but  at  length  gave  me  the  names  of  three  or  four  of  my  grand- 
father's nephews  and  nieces,  and  informed  me  that  they  all  lived  at 
McNeill's  Ferry,  twenty-five  miles  from  this  place.  Ascertaining 
that  I  had  been  in  Edinburgh  and  knew  something  of  Scotland, 

168  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

he  was  about  to  take  up  the  history  of  that  country  from  the  time 
the  dove  of  the  Ark  lighted  on  Ben  Lomond  or  Ben  Nevis,  as  these 
intensely  Scottish  men  will  almost  affirm,  when  I  took  up  my  hat, 
and  with  hurried  and  heartfelt  thanks  to  the  old  man  for  the 
information,  soon  gave  him  a  parting  look  at  my  coat-tails  round 
the  corner.  In  an  hour  more  I  was  behind  a  splendid  two-horse 
team,  with  a  nigger  driver,  on  my  way  to  Col.  McNeill's,  as  he 
is  called  in  these  parts.  On  the  road,  when  about  fourteen  miles 
from  here,  I  saw  a  very  old  white  lady  standing  at  her  door,  so  I 
pulled  up  to  ask  her  the  nearest  way  to  a  plantation  owned  by  the 
widow  of  a  first  cousin  of  my  mother.  She  told  me,  and  I  was  about 
to  drive  on,  when  the  old  lady,  guessing  I  was  a  stranger,  from  my 
appearance  and  speech,  asked  me  several  questions  and  gleaned 
from  me  that  I  was  a  descendant  of  Captain  McNeill's.  "  Oh 
dear,  oh  dear — Dan'l  McNeill,  Dan'l  McNeill!"  I  feared  she 
would  go  off — or  would  take  on — after  the  style  of  my  friend  Davy 
Torrance,  so  I  gave  the  word  to  go  on.  The  old  lady  stopped  me, 
and  what  question  do  you  suppose  she  asked  me?  She  only 
wanted  to  know  if  I  was  married !  I  told  her  I  was,  and  that  I 
was  the  happy  father  of  an  increasing  family,  when  she  said :  "  I 
didn't  know  but  what  you  were  going  a-courting,  for  there  are  some 
fine  gals  down  there,  mighty  rich,  and  Miss  McKay  is  a  great 
belle.  They  are  all  very  clever  people,  and  though  I'm  now  poor 
and  they  are  mighty  rich,  they  treat  me  very  sociable  like."  In 
this  style  she  was  going  on  when  I  left  her  abruptly,  feeling  rather 
flattered  that  a  man  of  thirty-nine  should  be  taken  for  a  boy  going 
a-courting.  I  afterwards  learned  that  in  my  grandfather's  day 
she  had  been  in  good  circumstances  and  he  knew  her  very  well  as  a 
neighbor.  About  the  spot  where  I  sat  talking  to  the  old  woman, 
sixty  years  ago  resided  my  grandfather's  brother  John — "  Cunning 
John,"  as  he  was  always  called,  and  although  long  since  dead  he  is 
still  remembered  and  spoken  of  by  this  soubriquet,  in  consequence 
of  the  active  part  he  played  in  these  parts  during  the  Revolutionary 
War.  He  was  a  leading  Loyalist  and  effectually  carried  the  war 
into  the  enemy's  camp,  and  could  never  be  conquered  or  taken. 
The  enemy  named  him  Cunning  John,  and  old  Davy  Torrance, 
when  he  began  to  name  over  my  great-grandfather's  children, 
headed  the  list  by  saying:  "  There  was  Cunning  John,  he,"  etc., 

I  pulled  up  at  the  Colonel's,  Archibald  S.  McNeill,  son  of 
Neill  McNeill,  my  grandfather's  brother,  and  ascertained  that  our 
cousin  Archie  was  attending  a  funeral  at  some  neighboring  plan- 
tation. I  then  asked  if  there  were  any  young  ladies  in  the  house, 
or  if  there  was  a  Mrs.  McNeill  to  be  found.  The  dark  portress 
replied :  "  Young  Missus  away.  Missus  is  to  home."  "  Tell  her 
I  want  to  see  her,"  said  I.     So  in  a  few  minutes  a  young-looking 

THE  AMERICAN  TOIR  OF  1861  169 

lady  of  thirty-four  or  thirty-five  walked  in.     I  introduced  myself 
as  a  relative  from  Nova  Scotia  by  the  name  of  Parker.     She  said 
she  knew  the  Colonel  had  relatives  "  out  there/'  but  neither  he  nor 
she  knew  their  names  before.     She  was  very  cordial,  sent  half  a 
dozen  niggers  after  half  a  dozen  more  to  go  for  the  foreman  to  see 
that  my  horses  and  servant  were  attended  to,  told  me  her  history 
and  everything  she  knew  of  the  McNeills,  which  was  not  much 
beyond  those  who  were  settled  near  their  own  estate.     She  said  she 
was  the  Colonel's  second  wife.     Her  first  husband,  a  lawyer,  died 
and  left  her  with  two  children.     The  Colonel,  she  said,  fell  in  love 
with  the  children  and  married  the  mother.     Her  son  and  daughter, 
with  a  daughter  of  McNeill's,  were  away  in  a  distant  part  of  the 
State  at  school.     We  chatted  away  for  an  hour,  when  I  walked  out 
to  find  the  foreman  and  get  all  the  information  I  could  relative 
to  their  mode  of  managing  a  large  plantation  in  North  Carolina. 
As  I  walked  past  the  small  houses  of  the  slaves,  any  quantity  of 
small  niggers  came  out  and  followed  me  like  so  many  little  dogs, 
and  piloted  me  to  where  the  foreman  was  engaged  with  a  working 
gang.     I  heard  the  people  calling  him  Mr.  Parker,  so  I  introduced 
myself  to  him  as  his  brother  by  Adam,  our  common  father,  and 
we  soon  fraternized,  but  not  before  I  told  him  I  was  a  relative  of 
the  Colonel's.     I  daresay  he  took  me  for  one  of  those  "  tarnal 
'bolishionists  "  and  nigger  stealers,  a  conductor  of  the  underground 
railroad,  or  something  of  the  sort.     So  much  for  having  a  Blue- 
nose  countenance.     The  ice  soon  melted  when  he  found  out  where 
I  was  located  and  that  his  little  niggers  were  safe.     I  then  put 
him  through  a  pretty  strict  examination  on  agriculture  as  practised 
down  here.     At  length  I  came  to  the  item  of  stock,  when  I  was 
informed  that  they  had  seventy  head  of  niggers,  over  one  hun- 
dred head  of  pigs,  more  than  one  hundred  head  of  cattle,  eight 
or  ten  mules  and  about  as  many  "  hosses."     It  is  a  common  thing 
here  to  speak  of  negroes  in  this  way,  especially  among  the  blacks 
themselves.     The  "  free  nigger "  that  drove  me,  when  I   asked 
how  many  slaves  the  Colonel  had,  told  me  he  guessed  "  between 
sixty  and  eighty  head."     I  also  learned  that  our  friend  McNeill 
had   three   plantations,   on   one   of  which  he,    the   overseer,   had 
already  planted  this  year  three  hundred  acres  in  Indian  corn, 
besides   other    things.     The   field    hands   were    then   engaged    in 
preparing'  ground  for  cotton.     Eight  or  ten  ploughs  were  running 
in  close  pursuit  of  each  other  through  the  sandy  soil  of  one  large 
field.     The  soil  being  light  and  sandy,  one  mule  or  one  horse  could 
almost   run  away  with  the  little  bits  of  ploughs  they  used  for 
cotton  culture.     On  this  gentleman's  plantation,  besides  corn  and 
cotton,  they  grow  largely  wheat,  oats,  sweet  and  common  potatoes, 
rice  and  all  kinds  of  fruit  such  as  we  meet  with   in   northern 
latitudes.     You    see    large    apple    orchards.      Pears,    plums,  and 


peach  groves  are  abundant.  In  short,  there  is  nothing  that  I  know 
of  that  will  not  grow  in  North  Carolina.  After  pumping  my 
namesake  almost  dry  and  finding  out  that  he  knew  a  thing  or  two 
about  managing  a  plantation,  and  especially  niggers,  I  returned 
to  the  house  and  waited  for  McNeill  to  come  home.  At  length 
he  came  in,  and  I  commenced  the  attack  as  agreed  on  by  his  better 
half  and  myself.  "  Well,  Colonel,  who  am  I  ?"  "  Don't  know." 
"  My  name  is  Parker."  "  Never  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you 
before."  "  I  am  your  cousin."  "  Indeed !"  His  open  counten- 
ance became  more  open;  he  smiled  and  said  he  was  puzzled. 
Then  I  told  him  all  about  our  relationship.  He  recollected  my 
grandfather  very  well,  although  he  was  very  young  when  my 
grandfather  finally  left  North  Carolina,  and  says  that  the  impres- 
sion left  on  his  mind  by  the  appearance  of  the  man  has  never  been 
removed.  His  recollections  of  him  are,  that  he  was  slight,  rather 
tall,  with  great  energy  and  fluency  of  speech — a  man  for  action 
and  much  beloved.  In  proof  of  his  being  a  favorite  I  find  that  the 
name  of  Daniel  McNeill  is  borne  by  any  number  of  his  relatives 
and  friends;  and  one  of  his  grand-nephews,  a  son  of  the  late  Dr. 
McKay,  to  whom  I  was  introduced,  is  called  Daniel  McNeill 
McKay.  He,  Colonel  McNeill,  was  delighted  to  see  me,  hoped 
that  I  had  come  to  spend  a  long  time  with  them,  and  with  true 
Southern  hospitality  made  me  welcome.  I  at  once  felt  as  if  I  had 
known  the  man  all  my  life.  He  is  a  well-educated  and  most  intelli- 
gent man  of  about  fifty-five  years  of  age,  well  known  throughout 
this  part  of  North  Carolina.  When  I  told  the  proprietor  of  the  Fay- 
etteville  hotel  where  I  put  up  that  I  had  got  hold  of  the  right 
McNeill  at  last,  he  said :  "  Wal,  sir,  the  Colonel  is  a  mighty  fine 
man,  a  fust-rate  man.  I've  only  one  fault  to  find  with  him — he 
is  a  Tory."  The  name  Tory  still  sticks  to  the  old  Loyalists  and 
their  descendants,  especially  to  the  descendants  of  those  who  bore 
arms  against  the  Americans  in  the  Revolutionary  struggle.  Of 
the  sons  of  my  great-grandfather  all  took  a  most  active  part  on 
behalf  of  the  king  and  mother  country  but  one,  who  was  at  the 
time  sheriff  of  the  county  and  did  not  live  near  enough  to  his 
father  to  be  much  under  his  influence,  else,  as  the  Colonel  observed, 
he  too  would  have  been  a  Tory.  As  it  was  he  remained  neutral, 
and  became  the  receptacle  of  all  the  valuable  documents,  deeds, 
mortgages,  etc.,  of  this  part  of  the  country,  for  both  sides;  and 
when  peace  was  declared  he  was  mainly  instrumental  in  saving 
the  property  of  his  loyal  relatives  and  friends  from  confiscation. 
The  intermarriage  of  the  McNeills  with  families  who  took  the 
opposite  side  of  the  question  also  materially  aided  in  bringing 
about  this  satisfactory  result.  To  show  you  how  attached  the 
relatives  of  my  grandfather  were  to  him,  and  how  they  respect 
his  memory — the  Colonel  has  now  in  his  possession  a  military 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  171 

coat,  or  rather  jacket,  which  the  old  gentleman  wore  during  the 
struggle  and  in  which  he  was  probably  twice  wounded.  It  waa 
handed  down  to  the  Colonel,  I  presume,  by  his  father.  Nothing 
would  do  but  that  I  must  try  it  on.  I  found  it  tight  in  the  arms 
and  too  narrow  across  the  chest,  so  that  I  presume  he  must  have 
been  in  early  life  rather  slight.  Nothing  would  induce  the  Colonel 
to  give  it  up.  They  are  all  fond  of  military  relics,  and  my  grand- 
father appears  to  have  been  greatly  beloved.  His  brother  Hector, 
also  in  the  king's  service,  a  major,  I  think,  a  very  brave,  dar- 
ing man  and  a  great  thorn  in  the  sides  of  his  rebel  country- 
men, does  not  appear  to  have  been  so  great  a  favorite.  The  Colonel 
mentioned  to  me  one  scene  especially  where  this  Hector,  then  a 
junior  officer,  after  his  seniors  had  been  slain,  led  his  men  on  to 
victory  in  such  a  way  that  all  the  old  people  here  talk  of  him  and 
his  conduct  yet,  and  I  have  several  times  been  asked  if  I  was 
Hector's  grandson  or  descendant.  His  children  and  descendants 
were  out  of  my  track  and  I  did  not  see  them.  One  of  them, 
Dr.  Wm.  M.  McNeill,  lives  on  a  plantation  only  a  few  miles  from 
the  Colonel's. 

I  arrived  at  McNeill's  Ferry  Tuesday  afternoon,  and  after 
an  early  breakfast  next  morning  the  Colonel  took  me  in  his 
carriage  across  Cape  Fear  River  to  see  his  only  sister,  Mrs.  Dr. 
Turner.  The  crossing  was  rather  exciting  as  the  river  was  much 
swollen  by  the  recent  rain,  but  the  colored  ferrymen,  who  are  his 
slaves,  managed  the  broad  barge  admirably,  and  we  at  length 
landed  safely  on  the  other  side.  The  horses  stood  as  quietly  in  the 
barge  as  if  they  had  been  in  their  stables,  while  the  men  labored 
against  the  rapid  current,  making  as  much  noise  as  they  possibly 
could.  In  fact  it  is  the  hardest  thing  in  the  world  for  them  to 
do  any  kind  of  work  in  silence.  They  talk  about  the  mercurial 
Irishman.  I'll  pit  a  Southern  nigger  against  the  son  of  the  sod 
any  day,  for  mercurialism.  We  found  Dr.  Turner,  his  wife, 
daughter,  daughter-in-law  and  son-in-law  (Mr.  and  Mrs.  Spears) 
awaiting  our  arrival,  as  a  messenger  had  been  dispatched  to  tell 
them  to  be  on  hand  to  receive  their  Nova  Scotia  cousin.  They 
also  were  pleased  to  see  me  and  wanted  me  to  remain  and  go  over 
the  country  with  them  to  see  the  rest  of  the  clan.  The  next 
plantation  belongs  to  the  estate  of  the  late  Dr.  McKay,  or  rather 
to  his  son  Daniel  McNeill  McKay,  and  the  "  mightly  rich  belle," 
who  live  here  with  their  stepmother,  Cousin  Bell,  as  the  Colonel 
calls  her.  Dr.  McKay's  first  wife  was  Mary  McNeill,  my  mother's 
cousin,  and  his  second  wife,  "  Cousin  Bell,"  was  her  sister.  The 
Doctor  married  her  not  long  before  his  death — the  second  sister. 
She  is  now  eighty-six  years  of  age,  and  she  and  her  nephew  and 
niece,  or,  I  may  also  add,  step-children,  live  here  together  happily. 
Cousin   Bell,    or   Mrs.    McKay,    and   her   sister   Mary,    the   first 


Mrs.  McKay,  were  the  children  of  my  grandfather's  only  sister 

We  returned  to  dinner  at  the  Colonel's,  and  after  inviting  them 
all  to  visit  us  in  Nova  Scotia,  I  harnessed  up  and  drove  back  to 
Fayetteville.  The  Colonel  says  we  must  not  be  surprised  if 
unexpectedly  some  fine  morning  Halifax  is  startled  by  the  sight 
of  a  regiment  of  McNeills  marching  up  its  streets  to  our  house, 
and  when  the  startled  citizens  ask  what  is  the  matter,  they  will 
be  told  it  is  only  the  clan  McNeill  of  North  Carolina  down  on  a 
visit  to  their  Nova  Scotia  cousins.  I  have  told  him  we  will  hire 
the  officers'  barracks  to  accommodate  the  regiment  when  it  arrives. 

The  drive  to  McNeill's  Ferry  is  through  a  pine  forest  of 
great  beauty  and  value.  It  is  the  species  of  pine  which  yields  all 
the  turpentine  or  resin  for  which  this  State  is  famous,  and  I 
made  myself  familiar  with  the  whole  process  of  obtaining  and 
manufacturing  these  articles  of  commerce,  from  tapping  the  tree 
until  the  product  is  landed  in  Wilmington  for  exportation.  On 
McNeill's  property  the  timber  alone  is  worth  a  number  of  fortunes. 
Magnificent  pines,  oak,  ash  and  all  kinds  of  trees  used  here  are 
there  in  abundance,  and  on  that  part  of  his  plantation  where  his 
cornmill  is  situated,  he  has  a  fine  sawmill  in  active  operation, 
preparing  timber  for  the  Wilmington  market.  This  he  sends 
down  the  Cape  Fear  Eiver  in  immense  rafts,  with  a  party  of  slaves 
who  have  been  long  engaged  in  the  business  and  are  thorough 
raftsmen.  The  distance  to  Wilmington  is  about  150  miles. 
It  is  an  interesting  sight  to  see  these  long  rafts  floating  rapidly 
down  stream  with  a  cheerful  fire  of  pine  knots  placed  on  a  little 
heap  of  earth  in  the  centre.  The  men  with  their  tents,  and  cheer- 
ful, happy  faces,  are  singing  as  they  pass  along,  making  one  almost 
envious  of  their  happy  vocation. 

On  board  steamer  North  Carolina  on  the  Cape  Fear  Eiver, 
Thursday,  April  11th,  1861. — I  found  Fayetteville  rather  hot 
and  excited  last  night  in  consequence  of  warlike  reports  from 
Charleston.  North  Carolina  is  gradually  progressing  towards 
secession.  It  is  openly  avowed,  and  public  secession  meetings 
are  now  being  held  by  its  leaders  in  various  parts  of  the  State. 
Secession  flags  are  flying  from  private  houses,  and  the  young  men 
are  openly  walking  the  streets  with  Secession  ribbons  flying  from 
the  sides  of  their  hats,  and  rosettes  attached  thereto  as  badges, 
indicating  in  the  most  open  way  their  opinions.  My  relatives, 
the  McNeills,  etc.,  as  well  as  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  men 
of  property  in  this  part  of  the  State  are  conservative  in  their  views, 
and  wish  to  hang  on  to  the  old  flag,  but  the  Colonel  says  if  the 
North  fires  a  single  gun,  or  attempts  to  coerce  the  South  in  any 
way,  although  elected  as  a  Union  man  to  represent  his  country 
at  a  contemplated  convention  of  the  State,   he   and  every  man 

THE  AMERICAX  TOUR  OF  1861  173 

holding  his  views  will  at  once  coalesce  with  the  opposite  party, 
and  join  the  State  to  the  Southern  Confederacy.  And  such  a 
course  as  would  produce  this  result  as  regards  Xorth  Carolina 
will  have  the  same  result  on  the  other  border  States,  Virginia, 
Maryland,  Kentucky,  and  Tennessee.  At  Fayetteville  there  is 
the  largest  arsenal  in  the  Southern  States.  The  United  States 
have  there  now  more  than  100,000  stand  of  fire-arms  (rifles,  etc.), 
besides  heavy  artillery,  gunpowder,  shot  and  shell  in  great  abund- 
ance. Xorth  Carolina  says  to  the  President  and  his  Govern- 
ment :  "  You  shall  not  take  a  single  gun  from  this  arsenal. 
It  belongs  to  our  State,  and  we  intend  to  keep  these  arms  and 
munitions  of  war  to  meet  any  emergency  that  may  arrive."  And 
the  Xorthern  government  is  so  weak  that  it  cannot  take  a  bold, 
aggressive  position.  The  United  States  government  paid  millions 
of  money  for  this  arsenal  and  what  it  contains,  and  now  one  of 
the  weakest  States  in  the  Union  sets  that  government  at  defiance 
and  tells  it  "  We  intend  to  keep  what  you  have  paid  for  and  placed 
in  that  arsenal."  Verily  the  glory  hath  departed  from  the  Stars 
and  Stripes.  A  few  months  ago  they  were  strong  to  all  appearance, 
and  perhaps  as  regards  foreign  nations,  were  a  year  since  practi- 
cally so.  But  to  quell  internal  commotion  and  rebellion  the 
United  States  government  is  as  helpless  as  a  child,  and  the 
veriest  brat  she  has  and  calls  a  State  doubles  up  its  fist  and 
hits  its  mother  in  the  face,  tumbles  the  old  lady  helplessly  over, 
and  there  she  lies,  weak  and  enfeebled,  knowing  not  which  way  to 
turn  or  what  to  do  to  ward  off  similar  blows  from  other  quarters. 
A  large  standing  army  and  an  efficient  navy,  if  the  officers  had 
been  true  to  their  flag,  would  have  crushed  out  the  rebellion  and 
secession  in  the  beginning.  But  not  having  such  elements  at  her 
command  (as  dear  old  England  has)  she  is  weakened  and  under- 
mined in  her  own  estimation  and  in  the  eyes  of  the  universal 
world.  Her  prestige  is  gone,  perhaps  forever,  and  with  it  the 
glory  of  the  Republican  form  of  government. 

I  am  now  gliding  down  the  river  at  the  rate  of  eight  miles 
an  hour.  The  water  is  shallow  and  muddy  and  the  breadth  of  the 
stream  is  not  greater  than  from  our  corner  to  Uniacke's  corner. 
The  foliage  of  the  sycamore,  elm,  oak,  cedar,  etc.,  is  just  being 
well  developed.  The  day  is  delightful  and  warm,  there  is  a  nice 
breeze  blowing  up  the  river.  The  turns  in  the  stream  are  sharp 
and  at  no  part  can  we  see  further  ahead  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile. 
There  are  no  snags  as  in  the  Mississippi,  and  the  only  things  to 
be  avoided  are  the  dead  logs  which  float  lazily  down  the  stream. 
Altogether,  the  scene,  the  day,  and  all  nature  are  delightful,  and 
I  only  wish  you  were  my  companion — and  it  would  be  enjoyed  ten- 
fold. But,  dear  Fanny,  now  that  I  have  discovered  the  clan 
McXeill  and  know  their  stamp,  their  hospitality,  and  have  received 


invitations  to  return  with  my  Northern  wife  as  early  as  possible 
and  pay  them  a  longer  visit,  it  is  not  improbable,  if  God  spares 
our  lives  a  little  longer,  that  you  shall  enjoy  the  same  scenes. 
We  shall  enjoy  it  together.  Should  all  go  well,  I  have  figured  out 
a  delightful  excursion  for  some  future  day,  that  is,  after  visiting 
the  clan  McNeill,  to  go  south  to  Memphis,  Tennessee,  sail  up 
the  Mississippi  and  Ohio  Rivers,  the  Cumberland  River  also, 
visit  the  vast  cave  of  Kentucky,  Cincinnati  and  other  western 
cities,  and  return  home  by  the  way  of  Quebec,  the  River  St. 
Lawrence  and  Pictou.  I  look  forward  to  this  excursion,  which 
will  take  six  weeks,  with  great  pleasure,  but  "  the  best-laid 
plans  o'  mice  and  men  gang  aft  aglee."  And  as  we  do  not 
know  what  God  has  in  store  for  us  in  the  future,  it  will  not  do  to 
think  too  much  of  it,  but  if  God  wills  we  shall  accomplish  it. 

The  steamer  in  which  I  am  now  sailing  and  writing  draws 
but  little  water,  has  her  paddle-wheel  in  the  stern,  her  furnace 
on  the  very  bow.  This  latter  arrangement  is  for  the  purpose  of 
lighting  up  the  track  in  dark  nights,  as  they  then  open  up  the 
door  of  the  furnace  and  the  turpentine  pine-wood,  with  which  they 
feed  the  fire,  makes  a  tremendous  blaze.  The  river  far  ahead 
and  on  both  sides  is  made  as  light  as  day.  We  embarked  at  6 
o'clock  a.m.  and  have  a  load  of  turpentine,  resin,  and  cotton  for 
Wilmington,  which  place  we  hope  to  reach  at  9  o'clock  to-night. 
I  took  a  good  breakfast  on  board.  Everything  is  neat  and  clean, 
and  as  we  shall  arrive  too  late  for  the  Southern  train,  I  purpose 
to  sleep  on  board  instead  of  going  to  a  hotel,  and  then  take  the 
early  train  for  Charleston.  Whenever  we  want  more  wood  we 
just  stop  at  one  of  the  many  piles  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  take 
on  board  as  much  as  we  need,  and  there  being  no  person  on  hand 
to  receive  the  money,  the  captain  hangs  a  ticket  on  the  pile,  signed 
by  himself,  stating  how  much  he  has  walked  off  with,  and  then  in 
a  few  minutes  we  are  away  again.  This  ticket  is  sent  to  the  agent's 
office  either  in  Fayetteville  or  Wilmington,  and  the  owner  of  the 
wood  is  paid — not  a  bad  system,  but  the  men  on  shore  must  have 
great  confidence  in  the  honesty  of  the  captain.  As  a  general 
thing,  I  think  the  men  of  the  South  are  an  honorable,  honest 
people ;  but  the  hot  weather,  especially  in  these  times,  makes  their 
blood  hot,  and  they  become  excitable  and  hot-headed. 

Since  I  entered  Southern  ground  I  have  felt  perfectly  safe, 
have  been  treated  with  respect  and  attention,  and  altogether  feel 
more  confortable  than  I  did  when  further  North,  as  regards  safety. 
Altogether,  I  have  enjoyed  my  visit  thus  far;  and  having  now  a 
fair  share  of  health  and  strength,  am  able  to  rough  it,  should  this 
become  necessary.  I  think  that  from  our  appearance  we  are 
generally  taken  for  Englishmen,  and  as  citizens  of  that  country 
and  her  dependencies  we  may  expect  more  kindly  treatment  and 
consideration  than  if  we  were  from  the  North.    I  have  written  you 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1863  175 

very  long  letters,  and  always  so  hurriedly  that  I  fear  you  will 
hardly  be  able  to  make  them  out.  I  am  generally  obliged  to 
write  in  the  common  sitting-room  of  the  hotels,  not  having  any 
fires  in  the  various  bedrooms  I  have  occupied,  and  amidst  the  noise 
of  politics  and  general  conversation.  Consequently  I  cannot  think 
as  I  would  like,  as  I  drive  over  the  ground  headlong,  so  that  the 
talking  of  my  neighbors  may  not  distract  my  attention.  In  this 
way,  I  daresay,  I  often  forget  incidents  that  would  amUse  and 
interest  you.  I  wish  you  would  keep  all  my  letters,  as  I  have  not 
made  memoranda  of  many  things  I  may  subsequently  wish  to 
refer  to  as  refreshers  to  my  memory,  and  I  may,  at  some  future 
time,  wish  to  make  such  reference.  Much  that  I  have  written 
about  the  MeXeills  will  not  be  of  interest  to  you,  but  my  mother 
will  take  in  every  word  of  it,  and  I  know  it  will  afford  her  the 
utmost  pleasure  thus  to  learn  something  of  her  far-off  relatives. 
I  will,  therefore,  thank  you,  dear  Fanny,  to  copy,  that  part  of 
the  letter  referring  to  the  clan  McNeill  and  send  it  to  her  as 
early  as  convenient. 

You  must  not  think  that,  from  the  shaky  and  irregular  appear- 
ance of  the  writing  in  this  letter,  I  have  been  drinking.     The  fact 
is,  the  vibration  of  the  boat  is  so  great  at  times  that  I  cannot, 
without  great  difficulty,  keep  the  pen  at  work  without  making 
scrawls,  like  a  man  of  ninety  years  of  age.     I  rather  think  the 
loungers   at   the  hotels,   as  well   as   the  passengers  of  this  boat, 
seeing  my  pen  going  so  rapidly  and  so  often,  have  come  to  the  con- 
clusion  that   "  that   there   fellow "    is   the   special    correspondent 
of  some  English  newspaper,  and  that  I  am  travelling  about  like 
one  of  those  gentlemen,  prying  into  everything  and  picking  up 
everything  at  this  exciting  time  in  connection  with  the  present 
difficulties,   that  will  tickle  the  palates  and  inform  the  readers 
of  the  paper  which  patronizes  me,  all  about  the  peculiar  institu- 
tion, Uncle  Sam  and  his  country.     One  gentleman  rather  signifi- 
cantly observed  to  me  since  I  came  on  board  here,  that  the  English 
seldom   wrote   fairly    about    America,    and   especially   about   the 
South.       Dickens   I   think  he   would   hang   and   quarter   for   his 
caricatures    of   their    national    peculiarities.      He    acknowledged 
that  there  was  one  man,  a  barrister  of  Edinburgh  named  McKay, 
who  had  done  his  subjects,  the  country  and  its  people,  justice, 
and  only  one.     I  fear  if  my  "  jottings  by  the  way  "  were  to  meet 
his  eye  he  would  have  a  little  tar  and  cotton  ready  for  me  on  my 
return  to  North  Carolina.     Although  I  think  I  have  used  them 
fairly  and  from  proper  points  of  observation,  my  risible  faculties 
are  not  unfrequently  excited  by  their  peculiarities,  and  as  I  am 
only  outlining  my  journey,  I  will  have  much  left  to  tell  you  on  my 
return.     My  only  fear,  however,  is  that  I  shall  never  get  the  time 
to  tell  you  all  I  have  not  put  on  paper,  or  if  time  is  obtained, 
that  my  memory  will  fail  before  the  leisure  comes. 


Charleston,  S.  C,  Friday  Morning,  April  12. 
I  little  expected  to  reach  this  place  until  late  to-night,  but 
our  Cape  Fear  River  captain,  being  urged  on  by  myself  and  others, 
packed  the  furnaces  well  with  turpentine  pine,  and  we  landed 
at  Wilmington,  1ST.  C,  about  a  quarter  to  eight  last  night.  I  at 
once  crossed  the  river  to  its  southern  side  in  a  boat,  and  was  in 
time  to  get  on  the  Charleston  train,  and  consequently  saved 
myself  a  night  among  the  Wilmington  bugs.  Wilmington  is  a 
dirty  place  and  abounds  in  these  animals.  You  can  get  plenty  to 
eat,  but  a  clean  bed  is  out  of  the  question.  Stairs  wanted  to  remain 
there  a  second  night  but  was  afraid  of  the  consequences,  so  he 
and  his  son  spent  Wednesday  night  on  the  Southern  train.  I  could 
not  get  a  bed,  but  the  car  in  which  I  travelled  half  the  night  had  a 
rest  for  the  head  like  those  you  see  attached  to  the  shaving  chairs 
in  a  barber  shop.  On  this  I  slept  a  good  deal.  When  we  arrived 
at  Florence  on  the  borders  of  South  Carolina  we  met  a  custom 
house  officer  of  the  new  Confederacy,  who  examined  the  luggage. 
He  saw  "  Nova  Scotia  "  on  mine,  and  I  presume  thought  I  did 
not  look  like  a  Yankee  abolitionist,  so  he  let  me  pass  without 
opening  up  my  trunk  and  chattels. 

Friday  night.  As  we  neared  the  city  about  half  past  seven 
o'clock,  we  heard  the  booming  of  heavy  artillery,  and  in  a  few 
minutes  the  wind  brought  the  smell  of  gunpowder  down  upon  us. 
We,  of  course,  knew  that  the  reports  we  had  heard  for  a  week  before 
about  an  attack  on  Major  Anderson  and  Fort  Sumter  were 
being  verified.  The  train  brought  to  the  city  volunteers  of  all 
kinds  who  chatted  pleasantly  over  the  future  as  it  had  reference 
to  themselves,  and  spoke  lightly  of  death.  I  hope,  poor  fellows, 
they  may  not  unexpectedly  have  to  meet  the  King  of  Terrors. 
We,  that  is  Stairs,  Johnnie  and  myself,  met,  as  previously 
arranged,  at  the  Mills  House,  and  we  found  also  Mr.  Duncan 
of  Savannah,  a  cousin  of  Mr.  Stairs,  here.  He  came  up  last 
night  to  see  the  ball  open.  The  firing  has  been  heavy  and  con- 
tinuous all  day,  shaking  our  hotel,  and  we  have  been  on  board 
a  government  steamer  a  large  part  of  the  time,  from  which  we 
could  better  witness  the  shot  and  shell  practice.  The  greatest 
excitement  prevails.  Nearly  everyone  in  the  city  has  father, 
son,  or  brother  engaged  on  some  of  the  island  forts,  and,  of  course, 
all  seem  affected  and  anxious.  But  all,  even  ladies,  are  anxious 
that  the  existing  state  of  things  should  be  terminated,  even  at 
the  sacrifice  of  human  blood.  Ten  thousand  troops  are  in  and 
about  the  city — rather  raw  material  as  yet,  but  I  daresay  eventu- 
ally they  will  make  good  practice  with  light  and  heavy  guns. 
Indeed,  some  first  rate  practice  in  shelling  Sumter  was  made  from 
one  of  the  batteries.  Major  Anderson's  force  is  weak — under  one 
hundred  men,  but  there  are  three  men-of-war  in  sight  of  the  town, 

THE  AMERICAN"  TOUR  OF  1861  177 

trying  to  reinforce  and  provision  the  fort.  I  think  they  will 
hardly  succeed,  unless  the  darkness  of  night  favors  them.  We 
cannot  tell  what  effect  the  day's  work  has  had  on  Fort  Sumter, 
as  it  is  a  mile  away  from  the  nearest  opposing  fort,  and,  of  course, 
there  has  been  no  communication  with  it.  Many  shells  exploded 
in  it,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  Anderson's  numbers  to-night 
are  less  than  in  the  morning.  All  the  shops  are  closed,  and  the 
whole  city  was  out,  men,  women,  children  and  niggers,  to  see 
the  game  of  ball,  as  they  call  it  here. 

This  work  of  to-day,  I  think,  will  settle  the  question  as  to 
the  border  slave  States.  They  will  now  doubtless  fall  in  with 
the  Southern  Confederacy.  Indeed,  Virginia  and  North  Carolina 
have  sent  their  volunteers  to  this  place  in  large  numbers  already. 
To-day,  the  mail  and  railway  communication  from  this  city 
were  stopped  by  order  of  the  government,  and  we  found  ourselves 
prisoners,  not  of  war,  exactly,  but  almost  as  bad.  Knowing 
that  you  would  naturally  feel  anxious  about  us  as  soon  as  you 
heard  war  was  declared  and  going  on  in  this  locality,  I  telegraphed 
to  Frank  to  write  you  and  say  how  we  were  situated.  The  wording 
of  the  telegram  had  to  be  inspected  and  modified,  as  the  govern- 
ment would  not  allow  a  word  to  be  sent  over  the  wires  relating 
to  the  passing  events.  To-night  I  learned  that  the  mail  com- 
munication north  is  re-opened,  so  I  shall  close  my  letter  and  trust 
it  to  the  Post  Office  authorities,  hoping  that  it  may  reach  you  in 
safety,  although  I  fear  it  is  too  late  to  go  by  the  Boston  steamer 
next  Wednesday.  We  are  off  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning  for 
Savannah.  Since  eight  o'clock  this  evening  there  has  been  no 
firing.  It  will  commence  again  at  daylight  I  suppose.  I  have 
missed  seeing  Mr.  Brunck,  the  Consul.  When  I  called  he  was  out, 
and  when  he  returned  I  was  viewing  the  fight.  Love  and 
kisses  to  the  children,  and  remember  me  most  kindly  to  all  the 
rest.     God  bless  you,  dear  wife. 

Ever  your  afft.  husband, 

D.  McN.  Parker. 

Mills  House,  Charleston,  S.  C, 

April  15,  1861,-  Monday,  7  a.m. 
Dearest  Fanny: 

Here  I  am  still — at  the  present  moment  I  am  in  my  bed- 
room four  or  five  stories  up,  having  just  finished  packing  pre- 
paratory to  leaving  for  Savannah,  Ga.,  by  the  8.30  train,  where 
I  hope  to  meet  the  long-hoped-for  letters  from  home.  I  wrote 
you  a  lengthy  letter,  the  last  part  of  it  from  this  place,  and 
despatched  it  on  Saturday  morning.  Whether  you  will  receive 
it  or  not  I  cannot  say,  as  everything  connected  with  the  post  office 



and  railway  communications  has  been  disarranged  in  consequence 
of  the  declaration  and  commencement  of  war  between  the  Southern 
and  Northern  Confederacies.  Now  we  are  informed  at  the  office 
of  this  hotel  that  matters  are  being  straightened  up,  and  that  both 
letters  and  persons  can  leave  without  difficulty  for  the  North  and 
South.  I  closed  my  letter  to  you  just  before  going  to  bed  last 
Friday  night,  and  stated  that  the  cannonading  of  Fort  Sumter 
had  ceased.  I  was  mistaken,  for  just  as  I  had  blown  out  the 
candle,  the  heavy  booming  sound  of  artillery  was  distinctly  heard, 
and  it  continued  all  night.  The  reason  we  could  not  hear  it,  as 
in  the  early  part  of  the  evening,  was  in  consequence  of  the  wind 
shifting.  It  now  blew  directly  off  the  land.  At  early  day  all  the 
city  was  in  great  excitement,  the  bustle,  noise  and  confusion 
were  very  great.  The  Stars  and  Stripes  were  still  floating  proudly 
over  Sumter,  and  Anderson  was  still  blazing  away  at  all  the  land 
forts.  The  excitement  continued  until  about  eleven  o'clock,  when 
it  became  more  intense  in  consequence  of  the  vast  columns  of 
smoke  arising  from  Fort  Sumter.  Of  course  all  was  surmise 
as  to  its  origin.  Some  said  they  were  heating  up  their  furnaces 
preparatory  to  firing  hot  shot;  others,  that  Anderson  had  fired 
the  casemates,  wooden  buildings,  and  gun  carriages  so  as  to 
destroy  all  he  could  before  giving  up  the  Fort.  It  was  soon 
very  evident  to  me  that  a  large  surface  within  the  ramparts  was 
being  destroyed  by  fire,  and  the  volume  of  flame  began  to  rise 
over  the  high  stone  walls,  making  it  appear  to  all  that  the  defend- 
ing force  must  soon  be  burned  and  smoked  out.  Their  fire  slack- 
ened and  soon  ceased,  that  is,  from  the  guns  within  the  fort,  but 
no  white  flag  appearing,  the  batteries  on  Fort  Moultrie  continued 
with  others  to  play  away  on  the  burning  fort.  At  this  time  a 
shot  or  shell  from  Moultrie  struck  the  flagstaff,  a  very  high  one, 
in  the  centre  of  Sumter,  and  carried  away  the  Stars  and  Stripes. 
A  smaller  one  was  raised  in  its  stead,  which  could  only  be 
occasionally  seen  through  the  clouds  ol  smoke.  A  small  boat,  at 
this  juncture,  put  off  from  Fort  Morris  with  one  of  General 
Beauregard's  aides-de-camp  on  board,  who  hoisted  a  white  flag, 
made  from  his  shirt  sleeve,  on  the  point  of  his  sword.  When  he 
reached  the  fort  no  person  could  see  him  for  the  smoke,  and  he 
crawled  up  through  one  of  the  embrasures,  and  at  length,  after 
many  difficulties,  came  in  contact  with  the  commander,  to  whom 
he  suggested  the  propriety  of  running  up  a  white  flag.  This 
Anderson  at  first  declined  to  do,  but  seeing  his  case  hopeless, 
up  went,  I  daresay  a  shirt  tail — at  least  something  white,  and 
this,  as  soon  as  discovered,  caused  the  forts  to  cease  firing.  You 
cannot  imiagine  the  excitement  when  it  was  discovered  that  the 
white  flag  was  on  the  ramparts.  Old  men,  women  and  children 
all  felt  and  looked  as  if  the  Northern  Yankee  was  for  ever  used 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  179 

up  and  done  for.  Such  shaking  of  hands  and  congratulations 
"  as  I  never  did  see."  Every  person  at  once  began  to  discuss 
the  propriety  of  hanging  Major  Anderson — a  la  Lynch — for  tiring 
the  fort,  and  for  holding  it  when  he  knew  there  was  no  earthly 
chance  of  success.  Some  of  the  older  men  shook  their  heads,  but 
the  young  soldiers  (volunteers)  vowed  death  was  his  due  and  he 
must  go  up,  on  the  suspension  principle.  I  could  not  say  a  word 
in  the  poor  fellow's  behalf  for  having  only  done  his  duty.  One 
or  two  suggestions  of  this  kind  coming  from  me  made  these  hot- 
headed boys  look  at  me  very  comically — so  I  shut  up. 

At  length  the  report  reached  the  city  that  the  fort  had  been 
fired  by  hot  shot  and  shell  from  the  mainland,  and  this  appeared 
to  throw  oil  on  the  troubled  waters.    But  still  they  wanted  to  see  a 
Captain    Doubleday — a    rank    Republican    officer    of    Sumter's 
garrison — despatched  summarily.      This  poor  fellow's  name  was 
in  everybody's  mouth,  and  if  he  had  landed  I  don't  know  what 
would  have  become  of  him.     The  final  surrender  of  the  fort  did 
not  take  place  until  yesterday,   Sunday,   when   all  the   arrange- 
ments being  made,   in   the   afternoon  Anderson  was   allowed   to 
embark  his  men  and  accoutrements,  with  their  baggage,  on  board 
a  small  steamer.      The  men  went  on  board  the  American  fleet 
in  the  offing,  as  I  understand,  while  Anderson  was  permitted  to 
take  the  steamer  to  New  York.     He  declined  embarking  himself 
on  board   any   of   the   frigates,    being   excessively    annoyed   that 
their  officers  did  not  attempt  boldly  to  run  in  and  reinforce  him 
with  men,  arms  and  provisions.      They  had  on  board   1,500  to 
2,000  soldiers  and  artillerymen,  and  they  were  six  ships  in  all, 
plainly  visible  from  where  I  viewed  the  bombardment.     Yet  there 
they   remained   during  all   the   engagement,   without    attempting 
to  run  the  gauntlet  either  by  day  or  by  night.     It  is  true  they 
might  have  been  sunk,  but  under  the  circumstances,  I  feel  certain 
that  British  officers  would  have  made  the  attempt.      Old   Lord 
Dundonald  would  have  gone  in  with  a  fishing  smack  if  he  could 
have  got  nothing  better.    I  was  very  kindly  treated  by  the  Surgeon- 
General  of  the  Southern  army,  who  kept  me  booked  up  on  all  that 
was  going  on.     When  he  went  off  to  the  fort  with  the  General 
to  take  possession,  one  of  the  United  States  soldiers  told  him 
that  if  Major  Anderson  would  have  allowed  them  the   Sumter 
artillerymen  would  gladly  have  turned  their  guns  on  the  ships 
of  war.     "  The  cowardly  scoundrels  " — as  he  designated   them. 
He  was  an  Irishman.     What  is  very  surprising,  connected  with 
the  bombardment,  is  the  fact  that  not  a  single  man  was  killed 
on  either  side.     The  guns  were  playing  continuously  forv  thirty- 
six  hours,  and  there  were  many  narrow  escapes,  yet  a  horse  was 
the  only  thing  killed.     General  Beauregard,  until  recently,  has 
been  serving  as   a  captain  under  Major  Anderson,   and   having 


a  great  respect  for  him,  as  a  soldier  and  man  of  honor,  he  gave 
the  Major  leave  to  salute  the  United  States  flag  ere  he  left  the 
fort.  This  request  had  been  made,  I  believe,  by  Anderson.  In  the 
afternoon  of  Sunday  this  ceremony  took  place,  and  in  firing  the 
salute,  some  cartridges  were  ignited,  killing,  accidentally,  one  man 
on  the  spot,  and  wounding  five  more,  two  of  whom  have  since 
died.  The  Southern  men  looked  upon  the  bloodless  engagement  at 
Fort  Sumter  and  its  successful  issue,  as  a  mark  of  direct  inter- 
ference on  their  behalf  by  Providence.  As  I  walked  into  a 
Baptist  church  yesterday  afternoon,  I  was  informed  of  the  acci- 
dent above  referred  to,  by  a  good  brother  Baptist,  who  looked 
upon  it  as  a  mark  of  Divine  anger  upon  the  "  Black  Republican 
Government "  of  the  North,  as  Lincoln's  government  is  here 
designated.  All  classes  and  denominations,  ministers  as  well  as 
lay  members  of  churches,  are  unanimous  for  war.  I  went  with 
Mr.  Mure,  a  Scotch  merchant  of  this  place,  and  the  agent  of  the 
Roseneath  and  other  ships  of  Kidston's  of  Glasgow,  a  friend  of 
Stairs,  to  a  Presbyterian  church,  and  there  heard  an  old  man 
on  the  verge  of  the  grave,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Forrest,  preach  a  thanks- 
giving sermon  for  the  victory  and  its  bloodless  results.  He  spoke 
of  the  cause  as  a  just  and  righteous  one,  and  feelingly  alluded 
to  the  many  mothers  and  fathers,  whose  sons  had  taken  their 
lives  in  their  hands  to  defend  their  country's  rights  and  honor. 
He,  the  reverend  Doctor,  had  a  son  engaged  in  one  of  the  forts. 

The  possession  of  this  fort  is  a  great  matter.  It  is  placed  in 
the  very  centre  of  the  entrance  to  the  harbor  of  Charleston,  just  as 
George's  Island  is  situated  in  reference  to  the  harbor  of  Halifax. 
It  cost  millions  of  money  and  years  of  labor  to  complete  it,  as 
the  foundation  had  to  be  made  with  stone  thrown  into  deep  water. 
Yon  can  imagine  the  expense  of  the  undertaking  when  I  tell 
you  that  within  the  walls  of  Sumter  there  is  a  surface  of  over 
three  acres  of  ground.  The  Yankees  looked  upon  it  as  their 
Gibraltar — but  they  do  not  know  what  a  Gibraltar  is.  One  of  the 
forts  opposed  to  it  they  called  Moultrie,  and  on  its  site  the  first 
successful  blow  against  the  British,  in  the  South,  was  struck  in 
the  War  of  Independence  of  1776 — rather  a  singular  coincidence — 
and  this  fort  was  the  most  formidable  opponent  of  Sumter  on 
this  occasion. 

The  streets  of  Charleston  present  a  most  singular  appearance 
just  now — full  of  troops,  armed  horsemen,  and  almost  every 
man  with  a  revolver  or  two  hung  by  his  side.  The  unanimity 
of  feeling  pervading  all  classes  is  a  singular  feature  of  this 
struggle.  All  the  States  now  out  of  the  Union  are  firmly  united. 
One  thing  strikes  even  a  common  observer.  All  the  soldiers  are 
men  having  a  stake  in  the  country,  most  of  them  men  of  property, 
owning  both  real  estate  and  slaves.     Gentlemen  of  wealth  are 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  181 

in  the  ranks,  doing  common  soldiers'  duty.  In  some  instances 
they  have  their  slaves  with  them  to  perform  the  more  menial 
duties,  but  these  they  generally  do  themselves.  No  slaves  are 
allowed  to  carry  arms,  although  I  am  informed  that  they  occasion- 
ally ask  to  be  allowed  to  enter  the  ranks  as  soldiers. 

The  North  is  impressed  with  the  belief  that  the  slaves  will 
rise  and  aid  them,  while  they  will  in  this  way  intimidate  the 
South  and  to  some  extent  cripple  them.  In  this  impression  I 
think  they  are  decidedly  wrong.  All  the  men  of  the  South  to 
whom  I  speak  place  the  utmost  reliance  on  the  fidelity  of  the 
blacks  and  dread  no  evil  from  this  source.  McNeill  told  me  that 
he  would  not  hesitate  to  arm  his  slaves  and  those  in  his  neighbor- 
hood and  oppose  them  to  the  Northern  men,  while  he  felt  the 
utmost  confidence  in  leaving  them  as  he  expected  to  do,  in  case 
war  began.  In  fact  every  Southerner  looks  upon  the  slave 
as  a  means  of  strength,  inasmuch  as  the  masters  and  men  of 
property  can  fight  and  act  as  soldiers  while  the  agricultural 
interests  of  the  country  are  being  attended  to,  and  their  families 
protected,  by  the  very  slaves  from  whom  the  North  expect 
material  strength.  Even  should  the  slaves  have  the  disposition 
to  rise,  it  would  not,  I  think,  result  in  anything  very  serious,  as 
they  are  timid,  entirely  unaccustomed  to  the  use  of  firearms, 
and  it  would  take  an  immense  time  to  organize  them,  situated 
as  they  now  are,  scattered  over  such  an  extent  of  country.  The 
want  of  education  and  mental  training  would  unfit  them  for  the 
higher  branches  of  the  art  of  war.  Altogether,  from  personal 
observation,  I  think  that  in  the  war  just  initiated,  the  old  United 
States  will  have  to  trust  entirely  to  Northern  men  and  that  the 
slave  element  will  not  strengthen  them,  but  their  opponents. 

Yesterday  afternoon  we  heard  an  address  to  the  Sabbath  school 
children  of  the  First  Baptist  Church  of  Charleston.  This  old 
church  is  situated  in  the  midst  of  a  burying  ground,  and  the 
graves  are  surrounded  by  roses  in  bloom,  and  all  kinds  of  beauti- 
ful shrubbery.  Stairs,  Johnnie  and  I  spent  an  hour  most  pleas- 
antly in  the  place,  listening  to  the  children  singing  before  the 
service  commenced.  The  old  black  people  love  to  congregate 
about  these  gravestones  and  talk  over  by-gone  days.  One  old 
woman  was  weeping  over  the  graves  of  her  mistress,  master  and 
their  children,  to  whom  she  must  have  been  tenderly  attached. 
The  graves  contained  the  remains  of  the  former  pastor  of  the 
church,  his  wife  and  sons,  and  this  poor  old  woman  had  been 
their  property.  It  was  a  touching  incident,  and  demonstrated 
the  fact  that  some  at  least  of  the  slave  proprietors  had  hearts 
and  feelings.  The  sermon  having  commenced,  or  rather  the  pre- 
liminary service,  we  were  disturbed  by  the  roar  of  artillery 
which  announced  the  final  evacuation  of  Fort   Sumter  and  the 


permanent  raising  of  the  flag  of  the  new  confederacy.  But  few  of 
any  sex  or  age  were  present  at  church.  All  Charleston  appeared 
to  be  sailing  on  the  harbor,  viewing  the  scene  of  the  late  conflict, 
or  looking  at  it  from  almost  every  point  of  view  afforded  by  the 
city.  Sunday  appeared  like  one  great  gala  day.  All  was  rejoicing 
and  mirth,  without  drunkenness  or  disorderly  conduct.  Indeed, 
the  most  perfect  order  was  preserved,  notwithstanding  the 

Savannah,  Ga.,  Wednesday  morning,  April  17. — We  started 
from  Charleston  with  a  heavy  human  freight,  the  train  being 
filled  to  overflowing  with  Georgians  who  had  been  up  to  look 
at  the  fight  or  view  the  conquered  fort.  Many  of  them  were  carry- 
ing home,  to  hand  down  to  their  descendants,  cannon  balls,  pieces 
of  broken  and  exploded  shells,  in  short  anything  and  everything 
that  would  serve  as  a  memento  of  "  the  great  and  glorious  com- 
mencement of  a  glorious  war."  As  we  passed  along,  every  tree 
appeared  to  have  a  horse  or  horse  and  carriage  beneath  its  shade 
held  by  a  black  man  or  boy,  while  its  owner  rushed  frantically 
to  the  stopping-places  to  hear  the  news,  get  a  newspaper,  or  some 
small  piece  of  shot  or  shell  to  carry  through  the  woods  to  his 
home,  to  exhibit  to  his  excited  family  and  neighbors.  Women, 
too,  were  in  the  throng,  as  anxious  as  the  men,  perhaps  more  so, 
as  very  likely  many  mothers  came  to  hear  what  had  befallen  their 
sons  in  "  the  great  battle."  For  the  sound  of  the  artillery  and 
mortars  reached  even  as  far  as  forty  miles  from  the  scene  of  con- 
flict, and  all  supposed  much  human  blood  had  been  shed.  You 
can  judge  of  their  surprise  when  they  were  told  that  no  person 
was  hurt  in  the  fight,  and  only  a  horse  killed. 

The  country  between  Charleston  and  Savannah  for  a  hun- 
dred miles,  is  low,  wet  and  unhealthy.  From  the  appearance  of 
the  dismal  swamp,  the  moss-clad  trees  and  the  rank,  deep  vege- 
tation of  this  section  of  country,  I  can  easily  imagine  that  even 
snakes  and  wild  animals  would  gladly  give  it  a  wide  berth. 
Every  man  and  boy  in  the  country  being  seized  with  a  military 
and  fire-eating  spirit,  and  all  being  armed  with  revolvers  and 
bowie  knives,  we  had  to  submit  to  a  constant  din  and  noise  of 
their  small  arms.  The  poor  helpless  trees  and  telegraph  posts 
had  their  feelings  hurt,  "  considerable  I  guess,"  as  they  were 
penetrated  by  the  bullets  from  revolvers  discharged  at  them  from 
the  windows  of  our  passing  train.  I  rather  think  these  youngsters 
will  be  cooled  down  ere  long  if  the  sad  realities  of  war  are 
brought  practically  to  their  attention.  The  unoffending  trees 
and  posts  will  then  be  apt  to  escape.  The  heat  in  travelling 
through  the  low,  swampy  region  had  been  extreme,  and  not  being 
very  well  when  I  left,  I  became  seasick — as  violently  so  as  if  I  had 
been  on  the  Atlantic;  so  that  on  my  arrival  at  the  Pulaski  Hotel 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  183 

I  had  to  go  to  bed  for  some  hours.  The  next  morning,  however, 
I  was  as  well  as  usual.  When  in  North  Carolina  it  was  rather 
cool.  Indeed,  before  reaching  Charleston,  we  had  only  one  warm 
day,  and  that  was  at  Philadelphia.  The  thermometer  ranged 
from  45  to  55.  After  leaving  Fayetteville,  it  grew  warmer,  and 
the  climate  here  at  present,  especially  since  a  violent  rainstorm 
on  Monday  night,  has  been  delightful.  We  found  our  letters  at 
the  hotel,  and  as  you  can  readily  conceive,  were  delighted  to  get 
them  and  hear  from  our  dear  ones  at  home.  I  only  received 
one  from  you,  sent  by  packet,  dated  March  2.9th.  Stairs,  however, 
had  one  from  his  wife  of  April  2nd,  saying  she  had  seen  you  the 
day  before,  and  that  you  were  all  well.  I  presume  the  early 
arrival  of  the  English  boat  took  you  all  by  surprise,  and  you  were 
not  prepared  to  mail  a  second  letter.  Frank  will  have  a  large 
pile  on  hand  when  we  reach  New  York,  as  I  hope  to  do  in 
about  ten  days.  We  have  read  with  much  interest  the  six  news- 
papers forwarded  through  Frank,  and  would  be  glad  of  more  of 
the  same  sort.  Poor  Charlie  Campbell,  as  I  expected,  is  gone 
back  to  his  mountain  home  to  fight  another  Gaelic  warfare  with 
his  late  Christian  friends  and  ministers  of  Victoria.  I  wish  him 
well  through  his  difficulty,  and  back  again  in  the  House.  I  wish 
Charles  or  Tupper  had  written;  however,  I  hope  to  get  letters 
from  them  on  my  arrival  at  New  York. 

Stairs  having  relations  and  commercial  correspondents  in 
this  city,  we  have  been  most  kindly  received  and  have  had  much 
attention  paid  us.  We  dine  out  to-day.  I  took  tea  with  a 
Mr.  Johnston,  a  grandson  of  Andrew  Johnston,  last  night,  and 
to-morrow  expect  to  dine  with  one  of  the  leading  merchants  of 
the  South  and  the  president  of  the  great  bank  of  the  place. 

As  soon  as  I  recovered  from  my  temporary  illness  I  set  about 
looking  up  the  Clan  Johnston,  and  had  no  difficulty  in  finding 
them  and  their  connections.  Stair's  cousin,  Mr.  Duncan,  has 
two  sons  and  one  daughter.  This  daughter  is  married  to  a  Mr. 
Johnston,  a  relative  of  our  Mr.  Johnston.  He  is  the  son  of 
James,  who  was  the  grandson  of  Andrew  Johnston,  who  was  born 
in  1735  and  died  sixty-six  years  after,  in  1801,  leaving  a  large 
number  of  children.  It  is  his  descendants  that  I  have  been 
brought  in  contact  with.  The  story  is  too  long  to  commence  with. 
I  have  given  the  matter  two  or  three  hard  hours'  writing.  I  got 
hold  of  an  old  Bible  of  the  date  of  1757,  and  another  of  more 
recent  date,  and  have  got  the  family  tree  in  my  pocket,  com- 
mencing with  the  birth  of  one  James  Johnston,  born  in  1686 — 
the  father  of  Lewis  Johnston,  the  ancestor  of  the  No^a  Scotia 
Johnstons.  Mr.  Molyneux,  the  British  Consul  here,  is  married 
to  George  Houston  Johnston's  sister  (the  gentleman  at  whose 
house  I  was  last  night).     He  has  a  son  in  England  in  the  7th 


Dragoon  Guards.  This  Mr.  Molyneux  has  a  brother  married  to  a 
Miss  Mitchell,  formerly  of  Halifax,  daughter  of  Admiral  Mitchell, 
who  married  a  Uniacke.  George  Houston  Johnston's  grand- 
father was  Sir  George  Houston,  Bart.,  the  son  of  Sir  Patrick 
Houston,  Bart.,  President  of  the  Council  of  Georgia  when  it  was 
a  British  colony.  His  successor  in  office  was  Lewis  Johnston, 
the  great-grandfather,  or  grandfather  (I  cannot  now  look  and  see) 
of  our  Mr.  Johnston.  I  learned  that  many  of  the  old  documents, 
deeds,  etc.,  have  the  name  spelt  with  an  e,  but  all  the  family  here 
for  fifty  years  past  have  dropped  the  e,  and  spell  it  as  Mr.  J.  does. 
The  family  connection  have  two  or  three  places  called  Annandale, 
after  their  ancient  Scottish  home.  I  do  not  know  that  I  shall  be 
able  to  visit  the  island  of  Shiddenay.  It  is  about  nine  or  ten  miles 
away  from  this  place,  has  several  plantations  on  it,  only  one  of 
which  belongs  to  the  family.  Tell  Mr.  Johnston  that  I  fear  the 
chances  of  his  becoming  a  cotton  planter  on  Shiddenay  are  but 

Savannah  is  a  very  large  place  commercially,  although  it  has 
but  30,000  inhabitants.  It  exports  immense  quantities  of  cotton, 
island  cotton,  rice,  corn,  pitch-pine,  timber,  etc.  We  strolled  along 
its  wharves  yesterday  and  boarded  a  Yarmouth  vessel  belonging  to 
Moses  &  Co.  of  that  place.  There  are  several  New  Brunswick 
vessels  in  port,  loading  with  pine  timber,  and  the  lumber  used  in 
shipbuilding  at  St.  John.  The  public  squares  are  small  and 
numerous,  the  streets  broad  and  lined  with  evergreen  trees,  prin- 
cipally water-oak.  It  has  a  fine  park.  A  large  parade  is  spread 
over  a  considerable  surface  of  black,  sandy  land.  The  city  has  two 
principal  monuments,  one  a  very  fine  work  of  art  erected  after  the 
visit  of  Lafayette  in  1821,  to  Pulaski,  the  Pole,  who  fell  at  the 
siege  of  Savannah  in  July,  1779 — also  another  to  General  Greene, 
the  general  who  defeated  Lord  Cornwallis  and  other  British  gen- 
erals in  the  Southern  struggles  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  George 
Houston  Johnston  married  a  Miss  Turner,  General  Greene's  grand- 
daughter. Altogether,  at  this  season  of  the  year,  with  the  foliage 
fully  out,  the  roses  and  other  flowers  in  bloom,  Savannah  is  a  most 
delightful  place  to  sojourn  in  for  a  few  days. 

The  war  spirit  is  as  firm  and  as  general  as  it  is  in  South  Caro- 
lina. Old  men  and  young  are  deeply  bitten  by  it.  Old  Mr. 
Duncan  has  two  sons  (one  a  surgeon)  in  the  army  of  Georgia,  his 
son-in-law,  Mr.  Johnston,  is  in  a  dragoon  regiment,  while  the  old 
gentleman  himself  is  a  member  of  the  crack  artillery  corps  of 
Savannah.  Young  Mr.  Johnston  took  me  to  the  Planters'  Bank, 
where  his  uncle  George  was  to  be  found  as  one  of  its  officers.  On 
the  president's  table  (Mr.  Roberts  is  his  name)  was  placed  a  May- 
nard's  rifle  with  which  he  had  been  practising  at  a  target,  the 
better  to  fit  him  for  the  work  of  bringing  down  the  "  Black  Repub- 

THE  AMERICAN"  TOUR  OF  1861  185 

lican  Yankees,"  and  I  put  in  my  pocket  the  piece  of  card  at  which 
he  had  been  firing,  to  show  your  father,  Mr.  Binney,  and  other  bank 
men  how  presidents  of  banks  down  here  amuse  themselves,  and 
what  crack  shots  they  are.  Mr.  Duncan  exhibited  to  me  with 
great  delight  his  Minie  rifle,  which  cost  him  $270 — a  splendid 
instrument  of  destruction.  This  state  of  things — what  we  see  and 
what  we  hear — gives  us  a  pretty  correct  estimate  of  the  kind  of 
men  and  mettle  the  Northern  Yankee  will  have  to  meet  on  his 
journey  down  South. 

I  hear  that  Virginia  and  North  Carolina  are  on  the  eve  of 
coming  out  and  joining  the  South,  with  which  they  warmly  sym- 
pathize. A  few  days  will  determine  the  point  with  them,  and  this 
junction  will  necessarily  involve  the  further  secession  of  four 
more  border  slave  States,  which,  with  the  seven  now  united  in  the 
Southern  Confederacy,  will  present  such  a  formidable  array  as 
will,  I  have  no  doubt,  cause  Lincoln  and  his  government  to  pause 
and  consider  well  what  they  have  to  meet,  and  eventually  to 
acknowledge  the  new  nation  as  among  the  things  accomplished 
and  in  existence.  Then,  an  amicable  arrangement  may  be  made 
as  to  the  property  taken  possession  of  by  the  Southern  States,  as  a 
matter  of  business,  bloodshed  may  be  prevented,  and  the  world  will 
be  saved  the  pain  of  witnessing  a  long  and  bloody  war  of  brethren 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  race.  They  will  never  again  coalesce  as  one 
nation.  They  are  now  and  forever  two  distinct  peoples,  distinct 
in  feeling,  interests,  education,  and  everything  that  essentially 
binds  nations  and  people  together.  The  South  to-day  is  and  will 
be  for  very  many  years  to  come,  more  friendly  and  more  disposed 
to  co-operate  commercially,  and  in  every  other  way,  with  her  old 
enemy  England,  notwithstanding  the  strong  anti-slavery  feeling 
and  tendencies  of  the  latter  country,  than  with  the  Northern  States 
of  the  late  Union. 

I  remarked  in  a  former  letter  how  often  one  tumbles  on  the 
friends  of  friends.  I  have  had  another  interesting  illustration  of 
the  fact.  Just  as  I  was  on  the  eve  of  leaving  the  Mills  House  to 
join  the  Southern  train  at  Charleston,  a  casual  acquaintance  came 
up  to  me  and  told  me  that  a  Dr.  Curtis  wanted  to  see  me.  I  was 
introduced  to  him  by  my  new  friend.  He,  Curtis,  told  me  that 
he  had  noticed  my  name  on  the  hotel  book  as  from  Halifax,  and 
having  been  there  years  ago  he  wished  to  know  something  about 
some  friends  there  and  in  the  adjoining  country.  I  asked  him  who 
were  known  to  him  there.  He  replied,  the  Crawleys  of  Cape 
Breton.  I  told  him  I  knew  them  well,  and  expected  to  visit 
Dr.  Crawley  at  Spartanburgh,  S.C.,  in  a  few  days.  He  said  he 
had  left  him  only  two  or  three  days  before,  and  that  the  Crawleys 
were  living  in  his  house.  I  then  found  out  that  he  was  Dr.  Curtis 
(D.C.L.),  a  co-principal  with  Crawley  in  a  large  female  Institu- 


tion  at  Limestone  Springs,  a  place  owned  by  him.  The  history  of 
this  man  is  singular.  He,  with  his  father,  Dr.  Curtis  (D.D.),  of 
London,  on  their  way  to  Canada  were  wrecked  on  the  coast  of  New- 
foundland, and  found  their  way  to  Sydney,  C.B.  Captain  Crawley 
took  them  in  and  kept  them  all  winter.  They  afterwards  came  to 
Charleston,  S.C.  Dr.  Curtis,  Sr.,  became  pastor  of  a  Baptist 
church  in  that  city.  Afterwards,  father  and  son  bought  this  large 
property  of  Limestone  Springs,  a  watering-place,  and  commenced 
a  ladies'  seminary,  which  has  at  present  about  one  hundred  and 
eighty  Southern  young  ladies  being  educated  within  its  walls. 
His  father  was  burned  to  death  on  board  a  steamer  going  north 
from  Norfolk  to  Baltimore  two  years  since,  and  it  became  neces- 
sary for  the  young  man  to  supply  his  place.  He  at  once  thought 
of  his  old  friend  Dr.  Edmund  Crawley  as  just  the  man  for 
the  position,  and  offered  him  the  situation ;  and  he  adds  that 
Crawley  is  now  happily  and  comfortably  situated  at  Limestone 
Springs.  Dr.  Curtis  told  me  that  his  deceased  father  was  at 
one  time  the  editor  of  the  Metropolitan  Encyclopedia,  in  con- 
junction with  the  celebrated  Coleridge,  and  while  occupying 
that  position  gave  the  present  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  while 
a  young  man  and  poor,  the  first  guinea  he  ever  earned — for 
some  article  he  undertook  for  their  Encyclopedia.  Dr.  Curtis 
was  going  South  to  look  after  an  estate  in  Georgia.  I  believe 
he  is  rich,  is  very  well  known  here  by  every  person,  and  at 
present,  although  a  Baptist  minister,  is  a  member  of  a  Convention 
of  South  Carolina,  to  which  office  he  was  elected  at  the  beginning 
of  the  present  troubles.  I  hope  to  see  the  Crawleys  the  last  of 
this  week.  I  cannot  accept  Mr.  Greene's  invitation  to  dine  with 
him  to-morrow,  as  I  leave,  if  God  wills,  about  2  p.m.  of  that  day 
for  Crawley's  residence,  far  back  in  South  Carolina — two  hun- 
dred or  two  hundred  and  fifty  miles  from  Charleston.  In  the 
meantime  Stairs  and  Johnnie  go  to  see  one  of  their  relatives,  and 
we  meet  again  on  Monday  at  Charleston,  S.C,  and  then  commence 
our  homeward  journey. 

You  perhaps  may  hear  from  me  once  more  before  we  leave. 
Say  to  my  mother  that  I  had  overcome  all  the  difficulties  which 
surrounded  the  Clan  McNeill,  before  getting  her  letter.  Give  my 
best  love  and  regards  to  all  in  Halifax  and  Dartmouth.  May  God 
bless  you,  my  own  dear  wife,  and  our  dear  ones,  and  permit  us 
again  to  meet  on  earth — is  the  prayer  of 

Your  afft.  husband, 

D.  McN.  Parker. 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  187 

Limestone  Springs, 

Spartanburgh  District,  S.C. 
April  20th,  1861. 
My  dearest  Fanny : 

I  wrote  you  from  Savannah  on  Wednesday  last,  the  17th  inst., 
and  mailed  my  letter  just  as  I  was  on  my  way  to  dine  with  our 
friend  Mr.  Duncan.  We  had  a  very  pleasant  and  a  very  good 
dinner.  The  party  consisted  of  his  two  sons,  now  engaged  in  the 
Southern  army,  his  son-in-law,  Mr.  Johnston,  who,  with  his  wife 
and  two  children,  live  with  the  old  gentleman, — and  our  own  Nova 
Scotia  party  of  three.  Mrs.  Johnston,  Mr.  Duncan's  daughter,  is 
the  housekeeper,  her  mother  having  been  many  years  dead.  She 
has  two  dear  children,  a  boy  and  an  infant  of  the  age  of  our  dear 
little  fellow.  She  and  her  elder  brother  were  brought  in  as  dessert, 
and  made  me  think  more  of  my  own  little  ones  than,  under  such 
circumstances,  I  would  otherwise  have  done.  I  nursed  the  little 
girl  for  some  time,  and  she  was  as  good  as  our  dear  little  babe. 
The  boy,  although  only  three  years  of  age,  was  being  drilled  as  a 
soldier  by  all  hands,  and  really  marched,  halted  and  went  through 
the  various  evolutions  and  gun  exercises  with  wonderful  accuracy 
for  a  mere  child.  Thus  early  do  they  commence  down  South  "  to 
teach  the  young  idea  to  shoot."  We  had  for  dinner  salad,  green 
peas,  strawberries  and  other  delicacies,  the  very  rudiments  of 
which  are  frozen  up  as  yet  in  cold  Nova  Scotia.  Tell  the  old 
gentleman  not  to  let  his  mouth  water  at  the  thoughts  of  such  early 
luxuries.  After  dinner  Stairs  said  he  was  sorry  we  had  refused 
to  dine  with  our  friend  the  bank  president  the  next  day — to  havo 
some  more  of  them.  But  we  had  refused  his  invitation  and  it 
was  then  too  late.  We  met  him,  however,  at  the  station  just  as 
we  were  leaving,  and  told  him  that  we  half  regretted  having 
refused  him,  when  the  old  gentleman  almost  coerced  us  back  to 
pot-luck,  peas  and  strawberries. 

We  all  left  Savannah  Thursday  at  half-past  two  p.m.,  and 
Stairs  accompanied  me  to  Beaufort,  fifty  miles  on  the  Charleston 
road,  where  he  and  his  son  remained  to  visit  Mrs.  Smith,  formerly 
a  Mass  Duncan,  married  to  a  rich  planter.  She  is  the  niece  of 
Mr.  Duncan  of  Savannah,  the  daughter  of  a  Kirk  clergyman, 
recently  deceased  in  Scotland,  who  was  a  cousin  of  Stairs'  mother, 
and  a  brother  of  Mr.  Duncan  of  Savannah.  Our  arrangement  is 
to  be  in  Charleston  on  Monday  night  next,  the  22nd  inst.,  and  to 
start  the  next  morning  for  the  North. 

I  arrived  in  Charleston  just  in  time  to  take  the  night  train  for 
Columbia,  the  capital  of  this  State,  which  place  we  reached  about 
5  a.m.  yesterday  morning.  I  was  too  much  hurried  to  take  tea  in 
Charleston,  and  when  I  found  at  this  early  hour  a  breakfast  spread 
under  the  station-house  roof — without  ends  or  sides — although  it 


was  "  like  all  outdoors,"  I  took  coffee  and  a  light  meal,  which  had 
to  suffice  me  until  I  reached  here  at  nine  o'clock  last  night.  The 
station  is  a  mile  from  Columbia  City,  and  I  preferred  remaining 
by  the  train  for  the  two  hours  rather  than  go  to  a  city  hotel  only 
to  leave  it  in  haste  again.  It  would  have  amused  you  to  see  me 
under  this  railway  roof  engaged  in  my  ablutions  and  toilet.  I  saw 
some  soldiers  washing  their  hands  and  faces,  and  water  being  good 
and  refreshing  in  any  form,  after  such  a  journey,  I  stripped  off 
my  coat,  rolled  up  my  sleeves,  and  went  at  it  just  as  if  I  had  been 
in  my  dressing-room.  A  nigger  man  poured  the  water  in  my 
hands,  and  a  colored  lady  stood  by  with  a  quantity  of  towels  "  to 
dry  Mar'sr  with."  The  people  stared  and  doubtless  thought  I 
was  some  eccentric  Englishman.  However,  I  enjoyed  the  wash, 
and  then  unlocked  my  carpet  bag  and  with  comb  and  brush  in 
hand  improved  my  personal  appearance  not  a  little.  Then,  Brit- 
isher-like, I  was  soon  deep  in  the  pages  of  a  Columbian  morning 

At  Jonesville,  twenty  miles  or  thereabouts  from  Spartanburgh, 
I  left  the  train  and  hired  a  wagon  to  drive  through  to  this  place. 
We  left  about  5  o'clock,  but  not  until  I  had  tried  hard  to  get  some- 
thing to  eat,  without  effect.  The  innkeeper  had  gone  off  to  the 
war,  the  hotel  was  shut  up,  and  his  wife  was  sick.  So  I  had  to  eat 
and  digest  my  thoughts,  over  one  of  the  roughest  and  most  hilly 
roads  in  creation.  The  post-boy,  whose  horse  I  drove,  had  gone 
to  Jonesville  on  a  saddle.  The  man  who  kept  horses  for  hire  at 
this  place,  like  everybody  else,  had  joined  the  army  and  was  away, 
suffering  and  bleeding,  patriot-like,  for  his  country  and  his  niggers. 
So  I  had  either  to  mount  up  behind  the  post-boy  and  lash  my 
luggage  to  my  back,  or  hire  a  buggy.  After  great  exertions  we 
found  a  man  who  owned  a  vehicle  and  who  was  not  "  away  at  the 
war,"  and  he,  for  a  consideration,  let  the  boy  have  it.  The  wagon 
was  old,  dirty  and  shaky,  the  harness  ditto,  the  horse  ditto.  The 
boy  and  I  got  him  harnessed  (the  'oss),  then  we  set  ourselves  to 
work  to  grease  the  wheels.  After  a  time  we  got  the  luggage 
lashed  on,  some  behind,  some  before.  In  this  way  an  hour  or  more 
went  quickly  by,  and  we  were  late  in  starting.  Everything  about 
the  concern  looked  ancient.  The  wagon,  'oss  and  harness  looked 
as  if  they  had  seen  service  in  the  first  war,  the  Revolution  of  1776. 
The  post-boy  looked  like  an  old  boy.  In  short,  the  only  thing 
young  about  the  whole  concern  was  your  husband.  The  driver 
was  a  shoemaker,  who  guessed  it  would  take  about  six  hours  to 
land  me  at  Limestone.  I  guessed  I  would  try  it  on  a  little  harder. 
The  evening  was  cold,  and  the  old  boy  had  left  his  coat  and  gloves 
at  Limestone,  and  he  beginning  to  feel  chilly,  as  a  medical  man  I 
began  to  advise  him  how  dangerous  colds  were,  and  strongly  urged 
him  to  keep  his  hands  warm  in  his  pockets,  or  rolled  up  in  my 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  189 

railway  wrapper.  He  guessed  the  latter  was  best.  I  got  the  reins 
into  my  hands  by  this  suggestion,  cut  a  stick  by  the  wayside,  and, 
you  may  depend,  worked  my  passage — hard — to  this  place.  The 
shoemaker's  faculties  appeared  benumbed,  his  eyes  closed,  and  you 
can  imagine  his  surprise  when  he  found  himself  landed  in  Lime- 
stone two  hours  earlier  than  he  had  "  callated  on."  He  guessed  he 
would,  after  this,  drive  a  buggy  instead  of  going  on  horseback,  as 
the  old  horse  appeared  to  like  it,  and  somehow  to  get  over  the 
road  "  kinder  quicker."  When  I  asked  him  how  much  was  to 
pay,  he  said  the  charge  was  three  dollars,  but  he  guessed  he'd  take 
fifty  cents  off,  because  I  had  driven  him  instead  of  his  driving  me. 

All  the  active,  young  men  and  middle-aged,  are  away  playing 
the  soldier.  The  old  men,  in  many  instances  those  of  three-score 
years  and  ten,  are  doing  the  same.  The  niggers,  all  along  the 
country,  are  working  the  plantations,  while  the  women,  children 
and  useless  "  critters  "  of  whites  only  are  left  behind.  In  every 
district  the  old  men  are  enrolled  as  volunteers — in  the  "  silver- 
gray  companies,"  not  so  much  for  purposes  of  war,  but  to  have  an 
organized  body  of  men  with  arms,  in  case  difficulties  from  without 
or  within  should  arise — that  is,  should  stray  abolitionists  come 
along,  after  the  manner  of  John  Brown  of  Harper's  Ferry  notor- 
iety, instigating  the  slaves  to  rise  and  throw  off  their  allegiance. 

After  I  had  washed  the  dust  off  and  taken  a  hearty  dinner, 
tea  and  supper  all  in  one,  I  left  the  Curtis  Hotel,  where  I  put  up, 
and  about  ten  o'clock  walked  over  to  Dr.  Crawley's.  They  were 
just  going  to  bed  when  I  knocked.  The  Doctor  was  called  to  speak 
to  me  at  the  door,  did  not  know  me  or  my  voice,  asked  me  in  the 
dark  to  walk  into  his  study,  where  a  light  was  struck.  "  Take  a 
chair,  sir,"  he  said.  I  could  hardly  keep  my  countenance.  He 
began  to  look  me  over,  scrutinizing  my  features  closely,  and  at 
last  said,  "  Is  it — yes,  it  is — is  it  possible  that  I  see  before  me 
Dr.  Parker  ?"  I  told  him  I  was  the  man.  He  went  to  call  his 
wife,  but  did  not  tell  her  what  he  wanted.  She  came  in,  and  quick 
as  thought  said,  "  It  is  Dr.  Parker,"  and  gave  me  such  a  greeting, 
and  with  it  a  good  Nova  Scotia  kiss.  Don't  be  jealous,  old  woman ! 
It  is  the  first  I  have  had  since  we  parted,  and  is  likely  to  be  the 
last  until  we  meet  again.  Well,  we  sat  down  and  chatted  away 
for  an  hour,  when  I  left  and  came  back  to  my  hotel.  I  have  had 
a  good  night's  sleep,  a  good  breakfast,  and  presently  shall  step 
over  to  spend  the  day  with  the  Crawleys  in  their  immense  estab- 
lishment. It  looks  like  a  great  barracks  for  soldiers,  from  where 
I  write,  and  is  full  of  young  ladies — about  a  hundred  and  fifty  in 

Saturday  Evening. — I  have  visited  the  institution,  and  find  it 
very  extensive.  All  the  higher  branches  are  taught  in  it,  includ- 
ing Latin  and  Greek.     In  all  there  are  about  fourteen  teachers, 


exclusive  of  housekeeper  and  others  not  specially  engaged  in  the 
educational  department.  All  the  teachers  dine  with  the  pupils. 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Crawley,  their  family  and  myself  sat  at  the  head  of 
one  table,  Dr.  Curtis's  family  at  the  head  of  another,  and  the  male 
and  female  teachers  occupied  their  various  positions  among  the 
regiment  of  girls.  It  was  a  very  interesting  sight.  Everything 
was  quiet  and  orderly,  where,  so  many  female  tongues  being 
present,  one  would  naturally  expect  the  contrary.  In  the  evening 
at  eight  o'clock  the  prayer  bell  rang  and  we  all  joined  the  school. 
Dr.  Crawley  gave  out  a  hymn.  The  two  head  teachers  of  music 
(men)  set  the  tune,  one  at  a  piano,  and  the  other  led  the  one 
hundred  and  fifty  voices.  It  was  a  delightful  sight.  Then  Dr. 
Crawley  read,  with  his  deep,  full  voice,  so  familiar  to  my  ears,  a 
chapter  in  the  New  Testament,  and  prayed.  Then,  in  the  regular 
order  of  their  seats,  the  girls  all  passed  before  the  Doctor  and, 
shaking  hands  with  him,  said  good-night. 

After  this  we  went  to  Dr.  Crawley's  house,  where  we  found  the 
mail  waiting,  and  the  girls  most  anxious  for  their  letters  and 
papers.  All  of  them  are  deeply  interested  in  the  struggle  now 
going  on.  They  have  fathers  and  brothers  away  from  home  bear- 
ing arms,  ready  for  the  strife  whenever  it  may  occur.  Dr.  Craw- 
ley says,  when  the  news  of  the  bombardment  of  Sumter  reached 
them,  and  it  was  not  known  what  the  result  would  be — the  sup- 
position being  that  very  many  lives  would  be  lost — it  was  a  most 
painful  and  distressing  sight  to  see  the  whole  school,  or  nearly  so, 
in  tears  and  distress.  This,  however,  soon  changed  to  joy  and 
laughter,  when  they  learned  that  the  South  had  been  successful 
and  no  lives  had  been  sacrificed. 

The  main  building  of  the  school  is  two  hundred  and  seventy 
feet  long,  four  stories  high  and  has  every  convenience.  It  was 
built,  years  ago,  for  a  hotel,  and  Dr.  Curtis  purchased  it  for 
this  school.  I  am  taking  home  an  engraving  of  the  building 
and  grounds  for  Mrs.  Dr.  Johnston,  when  you  and  the  friends 
will  be  able  to  see  it.  Drs.  Curtis  and  Crawley  have  two  neat, 
large  houses  detached  from  the  great  building,  facing  each  othe**, 
and  in  the  square  are  other  small  houses  for  male  teachers  and 
their  families,  as  also  for  servants.  In  short,  the  large  square 
occupied  by  these  school  buildings  is  quite  a  little  village  in 
itself.  This  school  possesses  one  great  advantage — it  is  away 
from  railroads,  cities  and  such  nuisances  to  schools.  Parents, 
relatives  and  young  men  about  town  cannot  be  calling  upon 
the  girls  and  interfering  with  their  studies.  Without  even 
teachers,  the  scholars  can  walk  along  the  roads,  through  the  paths 
in  the  woods,  in  short,  anywhere,  without  the  slightest  fear  of 
being  molested.  Their  world  is  the  school,  and  to  those  engaged 
in    it,    during   the   regular   term   there    is   no   outer   world.      It 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  191 

is  just  as  if  such  a  school  village  had  been  planted  twenty  miles 
back  in  the  woods  in  the  rear  of  Sam's  farm  at  Windsor.  Their 
mail  and  commissariat  arrangements  are  most  complete,  and, 
although  out  of  the  world  and  difficult  of  access,  every  day  brings 
them,  through  the  post,  letters  and  newspapers.  Dr.  Crawley 
gave  me  a  very  pleasant  drive  a  few  miles  out  of  the  village,  and 
we  ascended  a  small  mountain  from  which  a  fine,  commanding 
view  can  be  obtained.  On  the  top  of  this  mount,  as  everywhere 
else,  a  high  liberty  pole  was  erected,  and  a  torn  palmetto  flag  waved 
in  the  breeze.  .  .  .  One  of  the  male  teachers  acts  as  tutor  to 
Curtis's  and  Crawley's  boys,  in  addition  to  performing  some 
special  duty  in  the  school.  This  tutor,  being  a  member  of  a  volun- 
teer company  at  Charleston  which  has  been  lately  drafted  into  the 
regular  Southern  army,  is  ordered  away,  and  the  Crawleys  are 
consequently  in  distress,  fearing  that  they  shall  have  great  diffi- 
culty, under  existing  circumstances,  in  supplying  his  place. 

The  news  of  a  bloody  combat  at  Baltimore  has  just  reached  us. 
I  fear  there  is  trouble  of  no  light  kind  ahead  of  these  two  con- 
tending sections  of  the  old  United  States. 

Charleston,  S.C.,  April  23rd,  1861. — I  have  to  resume  the 
thread  of  my  discourse,  and  take  up  and  finish  Limestone  Springs. 
On  Sunday  morning  I  attended  meeting  in  the  chapel  of  the  insti- 
tution. Dr.  Crawley  preached  ably,  touchingly,  and,  while  strik- 
ing high  at  the  understanding,  reached  the  emotional  part  of  our 
natures.  Old  associations  were  revived.  Granville  Street  and 
days  and  years  gone  by  were  before  me.  Would  that  some  of  his 
old  hearers  could  have  listened  to  his  lofty  thought  and  been  mel- 
lowed by  the  softer  touches  interspersed  throughout  his  discourse. 
They  may  never  hear  him  more.  I  may  never  again  have  that 
pleasure.  Very  likely  we  have  said  the  last  farewell  on  earth,  and 
God  grant  that  in  Heaven  we  may  be  reunited,  in  a  closer  and 
higher  brotherhood  with  Christ  as  our  Elder  Brother  and  great 
High  Priest.  The  singing,  as  you  may  imagine,  was  splendid. 
Altogether  the  occasion  was  one  long  to  be  remembered,  and  its 
like  is  not,  in  all  probability,  to  be  witnessed  by  me  again. 

I  was  obliged  to  take  the  train  from  Spartanburgh  at  six  o'clock 
a.m.  the  following  morning,  and  to  effect  this  had  to  say  good-bye 
to  the  Crawleys  at  two  o'clock  on  Sunday  afternoon,  and  perform 
my  first  Sunday  journey  since  leaving  Boston.  I  drove  over  this 
distance,  twenty  miles,  in  time  to  get  my  tea  and  attend  Methodist 
meeting  at  seven  o'clock.  The  preacher  had  selected,  I  daresay, 
an  appropriate  subject  for  the  locality,  and  he  handled  it  with  a 
good  deal  of  ability,  but  I  had  rather  he  had  chosen  another,  as  far 
as  I  was  concerned.  His  sermon  was  on  the  sin  and  impropriety 
of  cheating  in  business,  making  great  bargains,  selling  short 
measure  and  weight,  taking  advantage  of  the  necessities  of  the 


poor  in  purchasing  real  estate,  cotton,  corn,  etc.  The  fellow  spoke 
out  right  home,  charged  his  hearers  with  these  offences,  and  then 
walked  them  right  up  to  the  Judgment  Seat  on  the  last  day,  and 
pictured  there  these  stock-jobbing,  cotton-purchasing  tricks, — 
which  must  have  rather  startled  the  guilty.  How  long  he  would 
have  gone  on  in  this  strain  I  know  not,  but  the  first  curfew  bell 
rang,  calling  the  niggers  in,  and  their  tramp  on  the  stairs  brought 
forth  his  "  Lastly."     .     .     . 

When  driving  across  the  country  on  Sunday  afternoon  I  heard 
some  marvellous  stories,  from  blacks  and  whites,  about  a  balloon 
that  had  landed  on  Saturday  between  Spartanburgh  and  Lime- 
stone. The  whole  neighborhood  was  excited,  thinking  that  Abe 
Lincoln  had  adopted  this  mode  of  spying  out  the  nakedness  of  the 
land  and  sending  abolitionists  to  originate  an  insurrection  among 
the  niggers.  At  Spartanburgh  it  was  all  the  talk,  and  in  the  morn- 
ing there  was  nothing  else  mentioned  on  the  train.  But  before  I 
go  any  further  I  must  say  that  this  same  Spartanburgh,  a  town  of 
about  2,000  inhabitants,  is  one  of  the  prettiest  spots  in  the  world. 
It  has  a  brand-new,  band-box  appearance,  and  as  you  pass  through 
its  streets  you  see  large,  fine  houses  placed  well  back  in  the  midst 
of  the  original  forest  trees.  It  is  spread  over  a  broad  surface  of 
gently  undulating  ground  and  has  a  most  unique  and  pleasing 
appearance.  Its  inhabitants  were  away  at  the  war,  and  one  of  my 
brethren,  a  Baptist  minister  whom  I  had  hoped  to  hear,  had  fol- 
lowed suit.  He  is  the  chaplain  of  the  Spartanburgh  regiment,  and 
had  marched  with  it  to  preach,  pray,  and  fight  the  Yankees. 

Now  for  the  balloon.  I  started  for  Charleston  at  six  a.m.,  and 
when  at  Union,  a  few  miles  away  from  Spartanburgh,  fell  in  with 
the  aerial  machine  and  its  proprietor.  At  the  station  he  was  sur- 
rounded by  a  crowd,  all  gleaning  what  they  could  from  the  heights 
above.  It  turned  out  that  I  was  in  luck,  and  that  the  gentleman 
who  had  come  down  from  the  heavens  was  the  celebrated  Professor 
Lowe,  of  aeronautic  notoriety,  who  has  been  preparing  for  the  last 
two  years  for  his  transatlantic  voyage.  I  took  my  seat  by  his 
side  and  had  one  of  the  most  pleasant  and  instructive  chats  that  I 
have  ever  had  in  my  life.  He  started  from  Cincinnati  at  four 
o'clock  a.m.,  intending  to  go  to  Washington,  but  when  crossing 
the  Alleghany  and  Blue  Mountains — covered  with  snow — the  cold 
region  altered  the  current  of  air  to  a  southerly  course,  and  he  had 
to  come  to  earth  near  Limestone  Springs.  When  seen,  the  balloon 
caused  a  perfect  panic,  both  among  whites  and  blacks.  The 
darkies  cleared  like  mad,  and  the  whites  armed  themselves  for  a 
combat,  with  the  devil  or  Lincoln,  they  did  not  know  which.  At 
one  o'clock  p.m.  he  had  travelled  1,200  miles  at  a  speed  of  125 
miles  an  hour,  the  greatest  distance  ever  accomplished  in  that 
space  of  time.     He  came  to  earth  then,  but  was  obliged  to  rise 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  193 

again,  as  the  people  all  fled  or  showed  hostile  intentions,  and  he 
descended  two  hours  later  near  the  railway  track  in  the  Union 
district.  Here  the  men  failed  him,  but  a  woman  came  forward 
and  seized  the  rope  he  had  thrown  out — fancying,  I  imagine,  that 
she  had  his  Satanic  majesty  fairly  by  the  tail.  When  he  got  out 
of  his  basket  he  was  arrested.  One  old  woman  shook  her  fist  at 
him  and  said,  "  Xow  do  we  know  that  you  are  old  Abe  Lincoln's 
son!"  He  assured  them  that  his  intentions  were  purely  scientific 
and  pacific,  but  they  had  him  carried  to  Union  village  to  imprison 
him,  when,  being  a  Freemason,  and  meeting  among  the  crowd  with 
some  of  the  officers  of  that  fraternity,  he  very  fortunately  escaped 
being  lynched.  He  gave  me  a  Cincinnati  newspaper  of  Saturday 
morning,  the  20th  inst.,  which  I  shall  always  keep  as  a  memento 
of  my  interview  with  him,  and  also  to  remind  me  of  the  fact  that 
this  was  the  first  newspaper  that  had  ever  travelled  125  miles  an 
hour  or  had  come  to  earth  from  a  height  of  over  four  miles.  This 
was  the  elevation  he  had  reached  when  crossing  the  mountain 
ridges.  He  gave  me  an  accurate  description  and  showed  me  dia- 
grams of  the  balloon  he  intends  crossing  the  Atlantic  with  in  Ma) 
or  June  next.  It  is  so  large  that  he  can  only  fill  it  with  gas  at 
one  place  on  this  continent — Philadelphia.  Its  capacity  is  750,000 
cubic  feet,  its  depth  135  feet,  diameter  100  feet,  and  it  will  carry 
23  tons  weight.  Beside  the  place  in  which  he  and  his  companions 
will  live  for  the  thirty  to  thirty-six  hours'  ride  to  Europe,  it  will 
have  connected  with  it  a  metallic  lifeboat.  This  boat  is  of  suffi- 
cient capacity  to  carry  twenty-three  men  and  provisions,  but  he 
will  have  with  him  only  six  men.  The  capacity  of  the  balloon 
which  he  carried  on  his  basket-car  was  40,000  cubic  feet.  While 
on  this,  his  forty-seventh  voyage,  the  thermometer  was  at  and  below 
zero  for  some  time,  and  his  supply  of  water  was  soon  converted 
into  ice,  which  melted  again  under  the  heat  of  South  Carolina 
when  he  reached  the  earth.  I  told  him  I  hoped  to  have  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  him  descend  at  Halifax  some  time  soon.  He 
took  my  address,  and  will  probably  come  down  some  fine  afternoon 
in  our  children's  playground.  Should  he  arrive  there  before  my 
return,  do  not  let  the  natives  fire  at  him  while  in  the  air,  as  they 
did  in  Carolina,  and  entertain  him  hospitably.  This  adventurous 
man  is  only  twenty-nine  years  of  age,  with  pleasing  features  and 
gentlemanly  address,  tall  and  fine-looking.  Poor  fellow,  he  came 
to  earth  at  a  bad  time  and  in  a  dangerous  neighborhood.  It  is  very 
lucky  he  did  not  swing  on  a  tree  as  a  spy.  I  am  writing  on  board 
a  steamer,  and  must  give  it  up. 

Smyrxa,  Delaware  State,  Tuesday,  April  25,  1861. — I  com- 
menced writing  on  board  a  Chesapeake  Bay  steamer  this  morning, 
but  the  vibration  was  so  great  that  I  was  obliged  to  give  it  up. 
Before  retiring  for  the  night  I  will  add  a  few  lines.     After  parting 


194  DANIEL  McNEILL  pakkee,  m.d. 

from  my  friend  Mr.  Lowe,  from  the  cloudy  region  above,  I  kept 
on  my  journey  and  reached  Charleston  at  10.30  p.m.,  where  I 
found  Stairs  awaiting  my  arrival.  The  hotel  people  advised  us 
to  follow  in  the  footsteps  of  a  number  of  Northern  travellers  and 
return  by  the  way  of  the  Mississippi  and  Cincinnati,  to  avoid  diffi- 
culties in  Virginia  and  Maryland,  where  the  seat  of  war  is  likely 
to  be  located.  Indeed,  it  was  assumed  in  Charleston  that  the  two 
armies  would  come  in  contact  yesterday  or  to-day  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Washington,  and  that  it  would  be  dangerous,  if  not  impos- 
sible, to  pass,  as  the  railway  bridges  had  all  been  destroyed  in  that 
neighborhood  and  the  connecting  steamers  as  well.  We  thought  it 
best  to  consult  the  British  Consul,  and  he  also  advised  the  same 
course.  But  as  that  would  have  kept  us  at  least  two  or  three  weeks 
longer  away  from  home  in  weather  too  hot  to  be  comfortable,  we 
concluded  we  would  run  the  gauntlet  and  try  our  luck.  We  knew 
very  well  that,  although  disposed  to  act  as  savages  towards  each 
other,  both  North  and  South  would  act  as  Christians  towards 
foreigners.  I  am  delighted  that  we  came  on  this  way,  as  we  have 
now  passed  through  all  the  difficulties  and  are  in  a  fair  way  of 
being  with  you  again  in  a  few  days.  The  trains  have  all  been 
loaded  with  Southern  soldiers  for  the  last  three  weeks,  and  now 
that  we  are  near  Northern  territory  I  learned  that  those  coming 
South  are  filled  with  the  opposing  forces — both  sides  converging 
upon  Washington. 

We  left  Charleston  at  2.30  p.m.  on  Tuesday,  and  travelled  con- 
stantly with  the  Southern  troops  until  6  p.m.  yesterday,  when  we 
reached  Norfolk,  Virginia,  and  there  were  fortunate  enough  to 
catch  a  steamer  bound  for  Baltimore.  We  saw  the  wreck  and 
ruins  of  the  celebrated  navy  yard  at  Norfolk,  as  we  steamed  down 
the  bay,  also  the  frigate  "  United  States  "  anchored  near  this  yard, 
this  being  the  only  vessel  that  the  Virginians  got  possession  of. 
Nine  other  ships  of  war  were  burned  a  few  nights  ago — or  rather, 
six  were  sunk  and  three  burned — by  the  United  States  troops  and 
sailors  ere  they  retired  from  the  navy  yard.  One  more  frigate 
was  burned  on  the  stocks,  and  they  succeeded  in  carrying  out  the 
frigate  "  Cumberland,"  after  throwing  over  some  of  her  guns,  and 
we  passed  her  at  Fort  Monroe,  Old  Point  Comfort,  four  or  five 
miles  lower  down  the  bay.  The  Virginians  had  rendered  this  step 
necessary  by  sinking  ships  across  the  navigable  passage  of  the 
river,  and  they  hoped  to  gain  possession  of  the  whole  fleet.  They 
would  have  done  so  in  a  day  or  two  but  for  this  procedure  on  the 
part  of  Commodore  McCauley.  The  United  States  Government 
in  this  way  has  lost  two  of  the  finest  ships  of  its  navy,  and  eight 
others  that  could  have  been  rendered  available  for  active  warfare. 
The  steamer  in  which  we  sailed  was  brought  to  at  Fort  Monroe  to 
be  searched  by  United  States  officers,  but  we  had  no  difficulty,  and 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  195 

after  a  substantial  tea  I  retired  to  rest  and  had  a  most  delightful 
sleep  of  six  hours,  awaking  about  sunrise  to  view  the  beauties  of 
Chesapeake  Bay.  About  seven  o'clock  we  passed  Fort  McHenry 
and  reached  Baltimore.  The  difficulty  now  was  how  to  go  further. 
Fortunately  a  small  steamer  had  a  permit  from  the  commanding 
officer  at  the  United  States  fort — McHenry — to  pass  down  stream 
for  that  day.  We  jumped  on  board  her  and  ran  along  the  coast 
and  Chester  River  for  sixty  miles  to  Chester,  in  Maryland.  There 
we  disembarked  and  hired  a  wagon  for  ourselves  and  an  express 
wagon  for  our  luggage.  We  reached  this  place  about  half-past 
seven  p.m.  this  evening,  after  a  drive  of  nearly  thirty  miles  through 
a  pleasant  agricultural  part  of  Maryland.  Here  we  are  safe  from 
strife  and  difficulty.  The  railroads  have  not  been  torn  up  nor  the 
bridges  destroyed  beyond  this,  so  we  hope,  God  willing,  to  leave 
by  the  seven  a.m.  train  to-morrow  for  Philadelphia. 

Maryland  will  secede  in  a  few  days.  Delaware,  the  small 
State  in  which  we  now  are,  is  troubled  and  knows  not  what  to  do. 
She,  too,  when  all  the  border  slave  States  have  retired,  will,  I  dare- 
say, cut  herself  adrift  and  join  the  new  Confederacy.  Matters 
are  in  an  awful  state  in  this  country.  Nothing  but  the  interference 
of  God's  strong  but  peaceful  arm  can  stay  this  bloodshed  and  ruin. 
We  have  been  living  for  the  last  three  or  four  weeks  in  the  midst 
of  all  the  emblems  of  war.  Excitement  such  as  you  cannot  con- 
ceive of  has  surrounded  us.  Soldiers  of  all  classes,  with  their 
muskets,  revolvers  and  bowie-knives,  have  been  our  companions,  at 
the  hotels,  in  the  street  and  on  the  railways,  and  you  cannot  tell 
how  pleasant  it  is  to  be  located,  if  only  for  a  single  night,  in  a 
country  village,  away  from  such  signs  of  war  and  where  men  are 
dressed  in  ordinary  garb. 

New  York,  Saturday  night,  April  27. — After  starting  from 
Smyrna  with  a  trainload  of  Southern  fugitives,  we  reached  Phila- 
delphia about  eleven  a.m..  There  we  saw  Northern  excitement, 
bayonets  bristling,  raw  and  ragged  recruits  drilling,  and  all  the 
paraphernalia  of  war.  But  the  city  being  larger  than  those  in  the 
South,  this  warlike  sight  was  diluted  by  a  larger  amount  of  civilian 
life.  "  Death  and  destruction  to  the  Southerner !"  is  the  watchword 
here,  and  Brother  Jonathan  has  got  his  Northern  blood  up  like 
the  men  of  the  South.  But,  unlike  the  men  of  the  South,  the 
blood  they  have  provided  for  spilling  is  mostly  Irish  and  German. 
It  is  true  there  is  a  larger  sprinkling  of  the  Yankee  blood  in  the 
volunteers  than  has  been  seen  in  any  of  their  conflicts  since  the 
Revolutionary  War  of  1776,  but  the  blood  that  will  principally 
flow  on  this  occasion,  unless  I  am  vastly  mistaken,  will  be  hired, 
and  of  European  origin.  There  are  Irish,  German  and  French 
regiments,  and  I  deeply  regret  to  say  that  the  English  of  New 
York  are  forming  a  company  to  oppose  the  South.     The  Southern 


army  is  composed  of  real  Southerners,  men  having  a  stake  in  the 
country.  In  one  regiment  of  volunteers  there  are  two  privates 
who  are  worth  together  three  millions  of  dollars.  The  North  are 
laboring  under  the  impression  that  they  will  speedily  overrun  the 
South  and  conquer  them ;  but  I  tell  them  they  will  never  be  able 
to  accomplish  it  if  they  live  to  be  as  old  as  Methusaleh. 

In  Philadelphia,  opposite  the  Continental,  is  the  Gerard  House, 
unoccupied  as  a  hotel.  There  are  employed  there  now  300  cutters 
and  an  immense  number  of  women  with  sewing-machines,  making 
up  military  clothing  and  necessaries.  The  women  here,  as  in  the 
South,  are  similarly  employed.  In  fact,  men,  women  and  children 
are  all  either  on  one  side  or  the  other,  and  all  employed.  The 
women  as  usual  are  working  their  tongues  in  unison.  While 
Stairs  was  attending  to  some  business  in  Philadelphia,  Johnnie 
and  I  went  out  to  Laurel  Hill  cemetery  by  train  and  returned  by 
steamer  down  the  Schuylkill  River — the  same  route  that  we  all 
took  in  1854.  It  is  not  seen  now  to  so  great  advantage  as  then, 
as  the  foliage  is  not  fully  out,  but  it  is  extended  more — by  the  hand 
of  death. 

We  left  by  the  6.30  p.m.  train  and  arrived  here  at  11  p.m.,  being 
anxious  to  hear  from  home.  We  telegraphed  from  Philadelphia 
to  Frank  to  have  our  letters  at  the  Fifth  Avenue  Hotel  awaiting  us, 
and  as  soon  as  the  office  was  reached  they  were  in  our  hands  and 
opened.  I  was  delighted,  dearest  wife,  to  hear  from  you,  and  am 
very  grateful  to  God  to  learn  that  you  and  our  dear  ones  are  well, 
or  comparatively  so.     .  Death  has  been  in  your  midst,  dear 

Fanny.  Many  changes  have  taken  place  since  I  left  you.  We 
should  be  grateful  to  God  that  we  are  as  well  as  we  are  and  that 
we  have  not  to  mourn  the  loss  of  those  near  and  dear  to  us. 
Give  Mary  Ann  and  Mr.  Binney  my  love,  and  say  to  her  that  her 
"  Pest  "  has  been  long  enough  away  to  permit  her  to  get  quite  well. 
I  generally  find  my  patients  improve  rapidly  after  I  leave  home, 
and  find  them  well  on  my  return.  I  was  surprised  to  meet  Martyr 
Nutting  here  to-day.  I  went  in  to  Tom  Whitman's  office  and 
found  him  sitting  there  quite  at  home.  .  .  .  He  goes  to 
Halifax  by  this  steamer.  I  am  sorry  our  dear  little  boy  is  troubled 
with  his  teeth.  I  trust  God  will  spare  him  to  us.  He  is  very 
dear  to  me,  and  I  would  not  like  to  part  with  him,  although  I 
know  if  God  took  him  it  would  be  for  his  good.  You  do  not  men- 
tion whether  or  not  Johnston  has  been  a  good  and  obedient  boy 
during  my  absence.  I  sincerely  trust  to  hear  that  he  has.  Tell 
him  with  Papa's  kindest  love  that  I  often  think  of  and  pray  for 
him,  that  he  may  be  kept  in  the  right  way.  Dear  little  Mary  Ann 
must  be  kissed  for  Papa ;  and  tell  them  all  I  hope  to  be  able  to  do 
it  soon  myself.  Joseph  Northup  is  here  with  his  wife  and  sister 
at  this  hotel.     He  tells  me  you  were  all  anxious  about  us  when  you 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  197 

learned  that  we  were  at  the  seat  of  war.  Stairs  telegraphed  yes- 
terday and  told  them  to  let  you  know  that  I  was  safe  and  well  in 
Philadelphia.  Mr.  Archibald  was  glad  to  see  us  back  in  New 
York.  He  felt  uneasy  about  us,  knowing  our  locality  and  the 
difficulty  that  there  would  be  in  getting  North.  He  says  he  tele- 
graphed to  Kinnear  four  days  ago  that  we  were  safe  at  Charleston, 
Mr.  Brunck,  the  Consul,  having  told  him  of  our  whereabouts  and 
welfare.  He  felt  the  more  anxious  because  he  has  been  cut  off 
from  all  communications  with  Lord  Lyons  at  Washington  for  ten 
days,  and  only  yesterday  could  get  a  messenger  through.  Two  of 
Lord  Lyons'  special  messengers  were  turned  back  by  the  United 
States  authorities,  and  his  Lordship  has  been  cut  off  from  all  com- 
munication with  the  British  government  for  that  period.  Archi- 
bald detained  the  "  Persia  "  twenty-four  hours  at  New  York,  and 
then  had  to  let  her  go  without  his  despatches.  We  were  very  for- 
tunate to  get  off  so  cheaply.  Many  of  the  Northern  fugitives  had 
to  pay  as  high  as  eighty  or  one  hundred  dollars  to  be  conveyed  only 
twenty  or  thirty  miles.  One  man  told  Archibald  that  it  cost  him 
one  hundred  dollars  for  that  distance  alone.  He  reached  here 
yesterday,  and  had  a  hurried,  dangerous  and  expensive  journey. 
Thank  God  it  is  now  all  over  and  we  are  out  of  the  way  of  actual 

I  observe  from  your  letter  that  you  had  received  only  mine  of 
the  8th  inst.,  dated  at  Raleigh,  N.C.  I  have  written  two  or  three 
since  that  date,  from  Charleston  and  Savannah,  which  I  hope  have 
not  gone  astray,  as  they  contain  a  kind  of  journal  of  my  move- 
ments, sayings  and  doings.  ...  I  shall  stay  a  day  or  two 
each  in  Boston,  Portland  and  St.  John,  after  leaving  here.  I  am 
now  very  well,  having  got  a  good  night's  sleep,  and  being  rested 
after  so  much  hurried  and  night  travel.  We  thought  it  best,  as 
the  weather  is  cold  in  Nova  Scotia,  not  to  return  by  the  steamer, 
but  to  go  via  Portland  and  St.  John.  This  will  detain  us  a  week 
or  ten  days  later.  I  am  very  much  obliged  for  the  newspapers, 
but  as  yet  I  have  only  had  time  to  glance  at  them.  I  learn  enough 
to  make  me  feel  anxious  about  the  political  doings  of  the  next 
month.  I  am  strongly  in  hope  that  we  shall  carry  King's  and 
Victoria.  ...  I  am  much  obliged  to  Tupper  for  his  two 
letters  and  shall  write  him  on  Monday  morning.  .  .  .  Ask 
Charles  or  Dr.  Tupper  to  attend  to  my  resignation  as  chairman 
of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Club,  if  they  have  not  already 
done  it.  I  have  made  up  my  mind  that  it  will  be  necessary  for  me 
to  work  less  than  ever  I  have  done ;  and  what  work  I  do  will  have 
to  be  professional.  I  have  suffered  long  with  my  head,  and, 
worked  as  I  am,  to  continue  slaving  myself  will  be  more  than 
injudicious.  .  .  .  Frank  is  recovering  from  a  slight  attack  of 
rheumatism.     He  is  at  his  office  again  after  an  absence  of  three  or 

198  DANIEL  McNEILL  pakkek,  m.d. 

four  days.  I  may  perhaps  be  able  to  write  you  a  few  lines  from 

Monday,  April  29. — I  shall  not  leave  here,  dear  Fanny,  until 
to-morrow  night.  I  have  written  T upper,  and  by  getting  his 
letter  you  will  be  able  to  learn  what  a  queer  Sunday  I  spent,  and 
how  unprofitably  the  evening  service  fell  upon  our  ears.  Little 
Jack  said,  when  we  came  out,  "  Well !  I  don't  think  that  sermon 
of  Mr.  Beecher's  will  convert  anyone."  If  I  were  Henry  Ward 
Beecher  I  would  not  like  to  be  shaved  by  a  Southern  barber.  .  .  . 

I  feel  pretty  well.  Say  to  the  dear  children  that  Papa  hopes 
soon  to  be  able  to  kiss  them  all.  I  have  not  time  to  write  to 
Johnston,  as  Stairs  is  waiting  for  me  to  go  out  with  him.  Love 
to  all.     God  bless  you,  dearest  wife. 

Ever  your  afft.  husband, 

D.  McN.  Parker. 

Notes  on  the  Letters  of  1861. 

In  the  Boston  letter,  Mr.  Laurie  is  probably  a  brother  of 
General  Laurie.  "  Tupper "  is  the  doctor  (Sir  Charles). 
Ben  Gray  is  the  Halifax  lawyer,  B.  G.  Gray.  "  The  Pryors  " 
are  Dr.  John  Pryor  and  family.  He  was  Principal  of  Horton 
Academy,  in  my  father's  time,  was  now  pastor  of  the  old  Cam- 
bridge Baptist  Church,  and  shortly  afterwards  became  pastor  of 
the  Granville  Street  Church,  Halifax.  Fairbanks  and  Greenwood 
were  scions  of  well  known  Halifax  families. 

Mr.  Archibald  of  the  New  York  letters  was  then,  and  for  many 
years  afterwards,  British  Consul  at  New  York.  For  his  services 
there  he  was  afterwards  knighted.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
family  of  Nova  Scotia  Archibalds.  Samuel  Story  was  a  Halifax 
man  who  had  removed  to  New  York,  and  was  apparently  much 
given  to  relieving  the  necessities  of  Haligonians  stranded  or  gone 
to  the  bad  in  that  city.  It  is  too  early  in  the  history  of  some 
Halifax  families  to  reveal  what  he  told  on  the  journey  from  Boston 
to  New  York,  and  a  portion  of  the  letter  in  which  he  figures  is 
therefore  omitted.  My  uncle,  Francis  G.  Parker,  was  then  in 
business  in  New  York,  and  will  be  recognized  as  the  "  Frank  " 
of  these  letters.  Sir  Dominick  Daly  was  the  father  of  Sir  Malachi 
Daly,  and  the  son  referred  to  in  the  first  New  York  letter  is 
doubtless  the  latter. 

My  mother's  cousin  "  James,"  of  Philadelphia,  was  James 
Black,  son  of  Samuel,  who  was  the  youngest  son  of  Reverend 
William  Black.  Samuel's  widow  married  a  Methodist  minister 
named  Taylor  who  died  about  1860.  She  died  in  Philadelphia 
in  1873.    Mrs.  Darst  was  Rebecca  Black,  her  only  daughter,  and 

THE  AMERICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  199 

a  widow,  who  removed  to  Philadelphia  with  her  mother  and  died 
there  in  1867. 

Miss  Dix,  mentioned  in  the  Washington  letter,  was  the  cele- 
brated Dorothea  Dix  whose  efforts  on  behalf  of  the  insane  revolu- 
tionized the  system  of  their  treatment  and  stimulated  public  senti- 
ment, everywhere,  for  the  amelioration  of  their  lot.  My  father 
had  met  her  before.  She  was  one  of  America's  greatest  women, 
and  her  biography  should  be  read  by  everyone. 

In  regard  to  the  Charleston  letter  of  April  15th,  it  is  worthy 
of  remark  that  Daniel  McNeill's  grandson,  bearing  his  name, 
should  witness  Fort  Moultrie  in  action  for  the  first  time  since  the 
Revolutionary  War,  when  he  himself,  on  the  first  occasion  when 
hostile  shot  were  ever  fired  from  that  fort,  took  part  in  the  assault 
upon  it. 

With  further  reference  to  this  Charleston  letter,  my  father  has 
told  me  that  when  Major  Anderson  came  ashore  from  Fort 
Sumter  as  a  prisoner  of  war,  he  was  conducted  along  the  side- 
walk past  the  Mills  house,  from  the  steps  of  which  he  (my  father) 
obtained  a  close  inspection  of  this  man  who  has  since  figured 
among  the  military  heroes  of  the  United  States  as  a  history  maker* 

"  The  Clan  Johnston,"  at  Savannah,  is  a  playful  designation 
of  the  family  of  J.  W.  Johnson,  Sr.,  whose  descent  is  noted  in 
the  paper  on  Daniel  McNeill  and  his  descendants. 

Dr.  Crawley,  visited  at  Limestone  Springs,  South  Carolina, 
was  Dr.  Edmund  A.  Crawley,  formerly  pastor  of  the  Granville 
Street  Church,  afterwards  President  of  Acadia  College,  and 
who  returned  to  that  College  as  professor  in  1866. 

"  Tom  Whitman,"  found  in  New  York  on  the  return  trip,  was 
one  of  the  Annapolis  Whitmans. 

The  "  unprofitable  evening  service  "  on  Sunday,  April  28th 
(which,  by  the  way,  was  my  father's  thirty-ninth  birthday),  men- 
tioned in  the  last  of  these  letters,  was  at  the  Tabernacle  in  Brook- 
lyn, where  the  mountebank  preacher  and  savage  abolitionist  Henry 
Ward  Beecher  conducted  his  performances,  and  was  one  of  "  the 
lions  "  of  the  day  to  be  seen  and  heard  by  travellers.  That  even- 
ing he  preached  a  farewell  sermon  (?)  to  a  New  York  regiment 
which  was  going  to  the  front.  The  "  sermon "  was  a  brutal, 
blood-thirsty,  blasphemous  tirade  against  the  Confederacy,  in  which 
the  spirit  of  the  evil  one  himself  would  appear  to  have  usurped 
the  pulpit.  At  its  close,  when  the  orator,  by  playing  upon  every 
string  of  the  worst  human  passions,  had  worked  the  thousands  of 
his  audience  into  a  sufficient  degree  of  frenzy,  he  dramatically 
announced  that  a  collection  would  be  taken  up,  to  the  glory  of  God, 
for  the  purchase  of  army  revolvers  to  add  to  the  equipment  of 
the  troops  about  to  go  forth,  in  the  strength  of  the  Lord,  upon 
His  service.     My  father  had  stood  the  sermon  pretty  well,  taking 


it  as  a  curious  exhibition  of  the  spirit  of  the  times  in  the  North; 
"  but,"  said  he  in  relating  the  incident,  "  this  was  too  much  for 
Stairs  and  me.  We  buttoned  up  our  pockets  and  marched  out." 
Certain  pockets  had  buttons  in  those  days.  It  is  safe  to  assert 
that  this  was  the  only  church  collection  he  ever  evaded. 

When  travelling,  he  was  accustomed  to  jot  down  on  paper 
facts,  statistics  and  other  notes  of  anything  which  impressed  him 
as  noteworthy,  for  future  reference,  and  also  brief  memoranda 
of  observations  or  comment.  He  was  never  without  a  pocket  note- 
book, at  home  or  abroad.  It  was  part  of  his  dress,  almost,  like 
the  pocket  stethoscope  and  instrument  case.  For  the  most  part, 
it  had  a  professional  use,  but  from  the  hundreds  of  these  little 
books  which  he  left  might  be  gathered  extracts  from  his  reading, 
thoughts,  facts,  figures,  heads  of  his  own  public  addresses,  secular 
and  religious,  and  notes  of  travel, — all  strikingly  reflective  of 
himself.  Unfortunately,  however,  his  style  of  note-making  was 
so  terse  and  elliptical  that  any  attempt  to  edit  them  would  not  be 
judicious.  No  mind  but  his  own  could  fill  out  the  structure  from 
the  outlined  sketches,  as  he  left  them.  Yet,  as  an  illustration  of 
his  method,  and  because  of  the  unusual  subject-matter,  I  venture 
to  reproduce  some  notes  and  observations  touching  upon  one  or 
more  aspects  of  slavery  as  he  saw  it  in  his  Southern  tour  of  1861. 

"  Sabbath  School  instruction  in  Northern  and  Southern  States. 
The  Nursery  of  the  Church.  Arrangements  in  basements  of  all 
the  churches  for  this  object — For  Bible  Classes  and  Infant  schools 
— maps,  figures,  stories  in  prints,  illustrated. 

"  Airy  rooms — divisions — used  for  negro  service  in  the  after- 
noon. Hours  early — 9  a.m System  of  instruc- 
tion— both  North   and   South   the   same   as   ours 

Legal  enactments  against  educating  the  blacks.  To  my  mind 
one  of  the  worst  features  of  slavery  and  in  direct  opposition  to 
Christ's  command — go  preach,  etc.,  etc.    Search  the  Scriptures,  etc. 

"  The  missionary  may  be  sent  abroad — he  cannot  teach  the 
colored  child  or  man  (unless  he  breaks  the  law  of  some  of  the 
States)  to  read  God's  precious  Word  at  home — for  obvious  reasons 
— they  are  orally  instructed — and  religious  men  (I  use  the 
term  advisedly)  on  the  Sabbath,  on  their  estates  where  there  is 
no  church  near,  collect  their  slaves  and  families  together  and  read 
and  expound  God's  word  to  them — as  in  Mr.  Smith's  case  at 
Beaufort.  As  a  people  the  blacks  are  not  anxious  for  education — 
at  least  if  they  yearned  for  it  as  a  people  they  could  in  secret  obtain 
it,  but  not  publicly.  Some  of  them  are  very  apt  to  learn. 
Mr.  Smith's  lad  instructed  in  three  days  by  another — lying  down 
on  the  grass — observed  by  his  master  with  a  spy  glass,  and  when 

THE  AMEEICAN  TOUR  OF  1861  201 

they  noticed  that  they  were  objects  of  attention,  moved  their  posi- 
tion— but  in  three  days  when  the  stranger  left,  the  slave  could 

"  No  Sabbath  school  instruction  for  them  as  a  class.  At  Raleigh 
my  Baptist  friend  told  me  that  the  different  denominations  united 
for  this  purpose  and  had  a  union  school — but  a  significant  fact 
is  to  be  observed — it  fell  through.  Religious  men  touch  this 
matter  of  direct  Scriptural  teaching,  to  this  class,  tenderly. 
I  occasionally  broached  the  subject  in  delicate  and  suggestive 
language — but  found  always  that  the  ground  was  boggy.  We  gen- 
erally, I  may  say  invariably  got  stuck  fast,  could  not  advance,  but 
retreated  and  branched  off  by  some  other  track — Dr.  Curtis'  son 
teaching  a  class  on  Sunday.  Blacks,  mostly  Baptists  and  Metho- 

"  Their  privileges.  Cannot  give  testimony  in  courts  of  justice 
against  white  men.  To  strike  a  white  man  would  be  almost 
death.  '  Can  a  nigger  swear  agin  a  white  man  in  your  country?' 
— said  by  a  freeman  (to  me). 

Curfew  Bell  in  Charleston — Savannah — and  Spartanburg — 
In  latter  place  left  the  church,  Methodist,  at  first  curfew. 

"  Police  force  always  large.  In  Savannah  100  men — of  whom 
twenty  are  horsemen.  Slaves  cannot  carry  firearms  and  know  not 
how  to  use  them. 

"  This  system  dwarfs  their  intellect  and  unfits  them  for  intel- 
lectual or  physical  organization.  Hence  not  so  dangerous  or 
dreaded  by  their  masters  as  if  they  were  educated. 

"  Are  not  allowed  to  drink.  Heavy  fines  imposed  on  those  who 
sell  liquor — consequently  are  a  temperate  class — good,  and  almost 
the  only  good  about  the  system,  except  that  they  are  well  fed. 

"  Their  diet — Hours  of  work  small — Make  money  and  often 
purchase  themselves,  and  I  presume  being  considered  thus  as 
property  and  talked  of  as  such — a  man  may  be  said  correctly 
to  own  himself. 

"  MeXeills — Timber  gang  leave  work  on  Wednesday.  Their 
tasks — not  heavy.     350  hands  cotton  picking  the  average. 

"  Their  privileges — Cow,  pis;,  hens,  rice,  potatoes,  doctors. 

"  Happy  in  the  evening  with  their  music  and  their  games. 

"  Imitative  qualities — Their  wood  cries,  like  a  railroad  whistle 
— on  rafts  between  Cape  Fear  and  Fayetteville. 

"  Like  children — lose  their  clothes. 

"  Respectful  and  quiet  and  orderly. 

"  Affectionate,  as  in  the  First  Baptist  chapel,  at  the  tombstone 
in  Charleston — touching  scene. 

"  Their  freedom  is  not  to  be  brought  about  suddenly,  but  by 
gradual  legislation.  Education  an  essential  element,  and  of  this 
a  large  part  should  be  religious  instruction  to  fit  them  morally  and 


intellectually  for  their  change  of  position  and  status.  Northern 
men  who  know  the  South  and  have  studied  the  question  concur  in 
this  opinion.  Violent  abolitionists,  who  only  think  and  speak  of 
freedom  and  the  chains,  would  have  them  suddenly  uplifted. 
It  would  be  ruinous  to  them,  morally  and  spiritually. 

"  The  free  negro — who  evidently  wished  them  free  as  air — 
said  (to  me)  '  Lord,  Mar'sr,  they  all  starve.' 

"  If  conquered  and  brought  back  into  the  Union  they  will  still 
retain  slavery  within  its  present  bounds  and  limits,  doubtless 
looking  eventually  to  future  relief  and  final  but  gradual  emancipa- 
tion from  the  present  thraldom." 

My  impression  is  that  these  notes  were  designed  as  the  outline 
for  some  public  address  to  be  given  after  his  return  home. 


1861  to  1871. 

"  The  kindly-earnest,  brave,  foreseeing  man. 
Sagacious,  patient,  dreading  praise,  not  blame.'" 

— James  Russell  Lowell. 

In  the  closing  letter  of  the  series  in  the  chapter  just  concluded, 
the  writer  said :  "  I  have  made  up  my  mind  that  it  will  be  neces- 
sary for  me  to  work  less  than  ever  I  have  done,  and  what  work  I 
do  will  have  to  be  professional.  I  have  suffered  long  with  my  head, 
and,  worked  as  I  am,  to  continue  slaving  myself  will  be  more 
than  injudicious." 

Though  he  did  not  adhere  to  this  self-imposed  prescription  for 
his  case,  he  did  follow  a  resolution  he  made  to  break  away  more 
frequently  for  recreation,  and  from  this  time  his  "  runs,"  as  he 
called  his  brief  trips  in  the  various  Provinces  and  the  Eastern 
States,  became  more  frequent.  One  favorite  and  healthful  diver- 
sion was  a  drive  of  a  week  or  two  with  my  mother  through  some 
favorable  section  of  Nova  Scotia,  using  his  own  horse  and  carriage. 
A  place  frequently  resorted  to  in  New  Brunswick  was  Fredericton, 
to  visit  the  Wilmots  and  enjoy  the  delights  of  the  St.  John  river 
and  "  Evelyn  Grove."  He  took  more  time,  too,  for  combining 
recreation  with  professional  profit  in  attending  meetings  of  various 
medical  societies,  both  in  the  upper  and  lower  provinces. 

His  outing  for  1862  was  in  company  with  an  old  friend  and 
patient,  Mr.  Robert  Morrow,  of  Halifax,  who  was  travelling  for 
health's  sake.  They  sailed  from  Halifax  on  September  10th,  in 
a  Greek  steamship  bound  up  the  St.  Lawrence.  The  letters  which 
follow  will  tell  of  this  tour,  and  other  things. 

River  St.  Lawrence, 

Near  the  Island  of  Bic, 
September  13th,  1862. 

Saturday,  6  p.m. 
My  Dearest  Fanny, — 

We  have  arrived  thus  far  on  our  voyage  with  nothing  to  alloy 
its  pleasure.  After  parting  from  you  and  waving  adieus  to  the 
children  at  the  cottage  I  took  a  cup  of  coffee  at  breakfast  by  way 
of  an  introduction  to  the  table.  The  passage  to  the  Gut  of  Canso 
was  delightful.     We  entered  its  narrow  part  at  8.30  o'clock  on 



Thursday  morning  and  had  a  delightful  sail  through  its  beauti- 
ful and  varied  scenery  (which  Capt.  Ewing  says  closely  resembles 
the  Bosphorus) ;  passed  outside  of  Prince  Edward  Island,  not  far 
from  the  shore,  near  to  but  not  in  sight  of  the  Magdalen  Islands, 
and  then  shaped  our  course  for  Gaspe,  the  nearest  Canadian  land. 
Since  making  this  point  we  have  passed  the  dreaded  island  of 
Anticosti — but  not  to  see  it — and  have  had  the  Labrador  coast  on 
our  starboard  side  nearly  all  day  while  running  within  four  miles 
of  the  Canadian  land,  examining  as  we  pass  them,  with  our 
glasses,  the  numerous  villages,  churches  and  fishermen's  houses 
which  skirt  the  shore,  while  rising,  amphitheatre-like,  in  the  rear 
is  a  range  of  mountains  very  elevated,  so  much  so  at  one  point  as 
to  measure  3,973  feet  above  the  level  of  the  water  it  overlooks. 
Altogether  the  scenery  is  bold  and  picturesque,  made  up  as  it  is 
of  so  many  elements  of  interest.  Until  last  night  the  sea  and 
gulf  have  been  as  placid  as  the  first  lake  at  Dartmouth  on  a  fine 
day.  We  had  then  heavy  squalls  with  thunder  and  lightning  for 
an  hour,  after  which  it  settled  down  and  became  calm  or  com- 
paratively so,  but  I  was  disturbed  in  the  stomach  while  dressing, 
and  could  not  appear  at  breakfast,  but  made  up  for  the  omission  at 
12  and  3  when  the  luncheon  and  dinner  bells  rang.  Yesterday 
the  wind  came  from  the  Canadian  land  hot  and  almost  oppressive. 
In  the  evening  it  was  like  a  West  Indian  night  and  we  paced  the 
deck  until  11  o'clock — thinly  clad — viewing  the  sheet  lightning 
far  away  on  the  Labrador  coast.  To-day  the  wind  comes  over 
the  high  lands  of  Labrador  from  the  icy  regions  beyond,  so  cold 
and  chilly  that  we  have  all  taken  to  our  greatcoats,  and  I  am 
writing  by  a  cosy  bright  fire  which  burns,  home-like,  in  a  large 
and  familiar-looking  grate,  making  us  all  look  and  feel  happy  and 
comfortable.  Our  captain,  Ewing  by  name,  is  a  very  gentlemanly 
man,  and  a  good  and  watchful  sailor,  always  at  his  post.  His 
first  officer  is  also  a  fine  sailor-like  man,  well  educated,  who  has 
been  for  years  with  this  captain  in  the  Australian  and  Mediter- 
ranean trade.  He  knew  the  Coxworthys  out  in  Australia  and  was 
asking  after  them.  The  second  officer  is  a  Mr.  Parrot,  a  nephew  of 
Mr.  Bourinot,  of  Sydney.  He  knows  the  Marshalls  well.  These 
two  officers,  with  the  chief  engineer,  dine  in  the  cabin  with  us. 
The  only  cabin  passengers  besides  Morrow  and  myself  are  Mr. 
Mellidew,  an  Edinburgh  medical  student,  and  his  young  brother, 
a  lad  about  thirteen  years  of  age, — the  sons  of  the  charterer  of 
the  ship,  who  are  taking  advantage  of  this  good  opportunity  to 
see  something  of  America.  Their  father  is  a  London  merchant, 
and  one  of  his  clerks,  a  Mr.  Jacobson — a  Dane — is  on  board  also 
as  supercargo.  You  have  now  a  list  and  some  idea  of  our  com- 
panions of  the  past  four  days.  The  ship  is  a  splendid  vessel  of 
nearly  1,000  tons  and  about  400  horse-power.     She  is  owned  by  a 

1861  TO  1871  205 

Greek  merchant  in  London,  and  is  named  the  "  Mavroeordatos  " 
after  a  friend  of  the  owner,  who  delights  in  this  lengthy  handle — 
and  who,  until  recently,  was  minister  of  finance  to  King  Otho, 
of  Greece.  This,  then,  is  the  explanation  of  the  mystery  that  hung 
round  the  unusual  name  of  the  ship  in  which  you  saw  your  hus- 
band embark.  We  have  amused  ourselves  principally  with  eating 
and  drinking,  any  amount  of  deck  exercise,  quoits — using  Indian 
rubber  quoits  instead  of  iron,  watching  the  ship's  company  at 
their  work — occasionally  splitting  our  sides  with  laughter  when 
Jack  is  in  chase  of  the  pigs — five  of  which  are  on  board,  of  small 
size  and  with  short  bristles  and  most  of  them  without  tails.  Every 
now  and  then  they  are  turned  out  from  their  coops  for  air  and 
exercise  and  then  the  whole  ship's  company  set  to  work  to  catch 
them  when  their  health  has  been  thus  improved.  Such  a  row  and 
such  fun!  We  big  children  enjoy  it  almost  as  much  as  Johnston 
and  Mary  Ann  or  Willie  would.  Besides  this  the  crew  and  a  fore 
passenger  give  us  nightly  concerts  with  the  flute  and  other  instru- 
ments. Then  I  have  always  my  books  to  fall  back  upon,  or  if  not 
my  own,  those  of  somebody  else.  I  have  read  Wilkie  Collins' 
"  Dead  Secret,"  Longfellow's  "  Evangeline "  and  am  now  at 
"  Hiawatha."  These  latter  bear  reading  over  and  over  again. 
"  British  India  "  I  shall  be  next  at.  Tell  Mary  Ann  and  dear 
little  Willie  that  we  have  brought  any  quantity  of  little  birds 
from  Xova  Scotia  and  Prince  Edward  Island.  They  came  on 
board  exhausted  and  became  so  tame  that  they  ran  all  about  our 
feet  as  unconcerned  as  if  they  had  been  reared  in  a  house.  One 
or  two  came  into  the  cabin  while  we  were  at  meals.  Young  Ross 
Mellidew,  urged  on  by  Morrow  and  myself,  put  some  salt  on  the 
tail  of  one  and  then  seized  the  bird  amid  shouts  of  laughter.  This 
is  the  first  prize  of  the  kind  that  I  have  ever  seen  taken  in  this 
way.  I  can  well  recollect  when  I  was  not  so  successful  as  I  chased 
the  sparrows  and  robins  from  field  to  field  wasting  salt  to  no 
purpose.  We  are  just  off  Father  Point,  the  first  station  for 
pilots,  and  the  mate  is  carrying  up  powder  to  fire  a  cannon  to 
bring  one  on  board.  I  hope  he  will  bring  us  some  late  American 
news — as  we  are  languishing  for  it,  not  having  seen  a  telegram  or 
paper  now  for  three  days  or  more.  If  we  learn  that  "  Washing- 
ton is  safe  " — in  the  hands  of  the  Southerners,  and  Baltimore 
also,  none  on  board  will  weep  for  the  calamity  that  has  befallen 
"  the  greatest  nation  and  the  best  government  on  the  face  of  the 
earth."  George  Francis  Train,  of  English  Tram  railway  notoriety, 
and  the  great  stump  orator  for  the  Union  in  England,  came  out 
to  Halifax  in  this  ship  and  left  her  for  the  United  States  as  soon 
as  she  reached  port.  I  should  think  they  had  pretty  high  times 
on  board  during  his  stay,  from  what  I  can  learn.  He  is  an  ultra 
and  a  most  violent  Yankee,  and  all  on  board  beside  were  John 


Bulls  and  a  trifle  "  secesh  "  in  their  opinions.  Long  after  mid- 
night the  arguments  and  noise  went  on — but  now  the  sound  of  such 
oral  warfare  is  hushed — we  are  "  all  one  brother  "  and  cannot  so 
much  as  get  up  an  argument.  Morrow  has  improved  greatly. 
He  eats  all  the  time,  walks  the  deck  from  morning  till  night,  and 
sleeps  like  a  top.  Tell  his  wife  that  he  is  as  jolly  as  a  lord — 
indeed  I  think  I  may  say  the  same  of  both  of  us.  As  regards  sleep 
I  am  making  up  for  lost  time  and  now  make  a  business  of  it — 
there  is  no  retail  about  it  as  there  was  in  Halifax.  I  do  the  thing 
wholesale.  Our  guns  and  rockets  were  answered  by  rockets  and 
three  lights  from  the  lighthouse  at  Father  Point,  but  all  the  pilots 
are  away.  This  is  the  terminal  point  of  the  telegraph  line  on  the 
St.  Lawrence,  and  Mr.  Jacobson  has  telegraphed  to  his  agents  in 
Montreal  to  announce  our  approach.  The  telegraph  operator  inter- 
cepts ships  and  steamers  here  by  a  boat  and  announces  their  arrival 
promptly  so  that  parties  in  England  interested  in  the  shipping  of 
this  great  river  may  get  the  earliest  intelligence  of  the  arrivals 

Quebec,  Monday,  September  15th.  After  leaving  Father 
Point  I  turned  in,  and  on  going  on  deck  at  8  o'clock  on  Sunday 
morning  found  our  gallant  ship  in  charge  of  a  French  pilot,  who 
had  been  brought  on  board  by  our  guns  and  rockets  when  off  the 
Island  of  Bic,  150  miles  below  Quebec.  Our  sail  up  the  St. 
Lawrence  was  delightful.  All  yesterday  was  fine,  and  as  far 
as  the  eye  could  reach,  both  up  and  down  the  river — especially 
on  the  south  side — there  was  to  be  seen  one  continuous  line  of 
beautifully  white  villages  and  towns,  with  churches  of  immense 
size  studding  the  whole  coast  every  here  and  there.  The  stream 
of  houses  occupies  the  low  lands  near  the  margins  of  the  river, 
while  stretching  far  back  up  the  sides  of  the  hills  and  mountains 
are  the  cultivated  farms  all  regularly  laid  out  and  divided  into 
narrow  strips  as  the  manner  of  the  French  is — while  far  away 
in  the  distance  are  the  mountainous  scenery  and  woodland,  adding 
additional  beauty  by  giving  a  bold  and  picturesque  background. 
I  had  not  the  most  remote  idea  that  the  population  of  the  St. 
Lawrence  was  anything  like  as  great  as  it  is.  I  should  think 
that  from  Bic  to  Quebec  (inclusive)  it  must  amount  to  nearly 
our  whole  population.  We  passed  by  and  between  numerous 
islands.  Gros  Island,  thirty  miles  below  Quebec,  on  which  the 
quarantine  establishment  of  the  St.  Lawrence  is  located,  arid 
Orleans  Island,  thirty  miles  in  length  and  densely  populated, 
stretch  along  the  river  and  are  beautiful  objects.  At  9  o'clock 
last  evening  we  cast  anchor  below  the  port,  remained  on  board  all 
night  and  disembarked  at  6  o'clock  this  morning,  the  "  Mavro- 
cordatos  "  proceeding  onwards  to  Montreal.  We  have  taken  up 
our  quarters  at  Russel's  hotel  where  we  are  very  comfortable. 

1861  TO  1871  207 

After  breakfast  I  went  to  the  post  office  for  letters — found  none — 
but  hope  that  one  may  arrive  by  to-night's  mail  from  you — and 
also  some  Halifax  papers,  which,  if  not  already  sent,  ask  Mr. 
Venables  to  mail  for  me  as  I  shall  presently  direct.  I  then  went 
to  the  military  hospital  to  see  Dr.  Crerar  of  the  GOth  Rifles,  who 
was  greatly  surprised  and  very  glad  to  see  me.  He  showed  me 
all  around  the  Citadel,  from  which  there  is  a  magnificent  view  of 
the  river,  the  city  and  the  surrounding  country,  as  also  of  the 
Plains  of  Abraham,  where  Wolfe  and  Montcalm  met  and  fell  in 
battle  just  as  victory  crowned  the  English  arms.  Monuments 
to  both  have  been  erected  and  are  objects  of  great  interest  to  all 
visitors.  I  called  at  the  Governor-General's  and  saw  Lord  and 
Lady  Mulgrave,  Lady  Laura  and  Katey.  They  were  all  pleased 
to  see  me,  and  roared  when  I  told  them  of  the  coachman  and  the 
'osses.  Lord  Mulgrave  said  they  wished  to  telegraph  to  me  to  join 
them  at  Shediac  and  come  on  with  them  in  the  Canadian  yacht — 
"  but  they  diddle."  Of  course  I  took  the  measure  of  the  com- 
pliment. They  all  leave  here  this  afternoon  for  Montreal  and 
Niagara.  The  delegates  have  all  sloped  for  Montreal,  Niagara 
and  Boston.  The  newspapers  will  give  you  the  result  of  their 
deliberations.  I  imagine  they  have  spent  some  money  and  accom- 
plished nothing.  Would  that  it  were  otherwise  for  the  good  of  the 
country.  I  hope  your  father  is  better.  Tell  him  to  take  care  of 
his  feet  and  his  stomach  and  caution  Emma  to  keep  the  goodies 
in  the  background.  Give  them  all  my  love.  Tell  M.  A.  Binny 
to  be  cautious  until  my  return,  and  then  if  she  wishes  to  have  a 
blow  out  I  will  be  on  hand  to  correct  the  after-consequences. 
Remember  me  most  kindly  to  Mrs.  Katzman  and  Anna  and  all 
the  neighbors.  I  hope  Johnston  is  a  good  and  obedient  boy, 
learning  his  lessons  thoroughly  and  keeping  himself  neat  and 
tidy.  Give  him  a  great  deal  of  love  from  his  papa  and  say  all 
kinds  of  loving  things  to  Mary  Ann  and  Willie.  Poor  little 
"  Small  Potatoes  "  is  yet  too  young  and  innocent  to  appreciate  affec- 
tionate messages.  I  shall  leave  here  for  Montreal,  Kingston  and 
Niagara  in  two  or  three  days  and  you  may  look  for  us  in  the 
next  Boston  steamer  unless  we  should  change  our  minds,  of  which 
you  will  be  duly  apprised.  Ever,  dearest  Fanny, 
Your  affectionate  husband, 

D.  McN.  Parker. 

P.S. — The  steamer  has  ceased  to  run  on  the  pleasure  trips  to 
the  river  Saguenay  so  I  shall  miss  seeing  its  beautiful  scenery. 
It  would  have  taken  us  three  days  to  accomplish  the  thing.  So  this 
will  be  something  in  store  for  you,  my  dear  wife,  at  some  future 
day — when  we  will  visit  it  together.  I  very  much  wish  you  were 
my  travelling  companion  now.     I  often  think  of  you  and  our  dear 

208  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

ones  and  pray  that  God  will  spare  our  lives  to  meet  again,  and 
that  we  may,  by  His  grace,  be  enabled  to  bring  up  those  entrusted 
to  our  care  for  a  time  in  the  fear  and  love  of  Him  who  died  for 
them  and  for  us.  Say  to  Mr.  Johnston  that  I  shall  see  Minnie. 
I  very  much  regret  not  having  seen  him  before  leaving.  I  did 
not  know  that  he  had  returned  until  the  afternoon  preceding  my 
departure.  I  wish  you  would  open  all  letters — and  tell  Venables 
to  reply  in  accordance  with  circumstances  to  those  that  he  can 
attend  to.  We  have  no  news  from  the  contending  armies  that 
can  be  relied  on.  The  general  impression  here  is  that  the 
Northern  army  is  disorganized  and  demoralized  by  repeated 
defeats  and  bad  handling,  and  that  they  (the  soldiers  and  officers) 
are  growing  restive  and  hard  to  manage  and  keep  in  check.  I  hope 
your  letter  will  bring  me  cheering  news  from  Foster.  Write  to 
him,  dear  Fanny,  and  call  his  attention  to  the  one  thing  needful, 
the  salvation  of  his  soul.  A  word  in  season  now  while  God  is 
afflicting  his  body  may  prove  of  incalculable  benefit  to  his  never 
dying  spirit.  I  long  to  hear  all  about  your  movements — what 
you  are  doing,  how  the  children  are  getting  on, — in  short,  all 
that  a  loving  wife  can  write  and  tell  a  loving  husband.  What  of 
Dr.  Pryor's  sermon  on  Sunday,  and  the  attendance  ?  Who  has 
charge  of  my  Bible  class  ?  Please  call  and  see  Mr.  Selden  relative 
to  it.  I  came  away  in  such  a  hurry  that  I  could  not  make  pro- 
vision for  it.  I  hope  he  has  done  so.  It  should  be  looked  after  by 
some  competent  person  every  Lord's  day,  so  that  the  scholars  may 
not  stray  away  and  become  careless.  The  "  Arabia "  leaves 
Boston,  Wednesday,  October  1st,  and  we  will,  God  willing,  be 
with  you  on  her.  As  soon  as  this  reaches  you  write  to  me  immedi- 
ately at  the  "  Clifton  House,  Niagara,  Canada."  Tell  Johnston  to 
enclose  me  a  letter  and  tell  me  all  about  his  success  in  reference 
to  the  half  dollar  prize — as  also  how  he  is  getting  on  with  his 
fun  and  frolics.  The  dinner  bell  has  just  rimg.  So  farewell, 
dearest  wife. 

D.  P. 

Call  and  see  Mrs.  Morrow  as  soon  as  you  can  and  tell  her  all 
about  our  run,  as  Morrow's  head  will  not  stand  writing  very  well 
as  yet,  and  she  will  wish  to  hear  all  about  him. 

Quebec,  Wednesday,  September  17th,  1862. 
My  Dear  Wife, — 

Ere  taking  our  departure  from  this  city,  which  we  do  to-day  at 
4  o'clock  p.m.,  by  steamer  "Columbia"  for  Montreal,  I  will 
occupy  a  few  minutes  by  giving  you  a  few  of  my  jottings  by 
the  way.  Yesterday  we  unexpectedly  found  Tremain  Twining's 
name  on  the  hotel  books  and  soon  announced  ourselves  to  him. 

1861  TO  1871  209 

Morrow  has  a  friend  here,  J.  J.  W.,  formerly  a  merchant  of  Hali- 
fax, but  now  in  business  here.  He  has  been  very  kind  in  show- 
ing us  the  lions,  and  in  tit  is  tray  has  discharged  a  bill  which  he 
left  on  my  books  when  taking  his  departure  from  Xova  Scotia. 
I  have  also  met  Dr.  Miles  of  the  Artillery,  and  yesterday  paid  a 
very  pleasant  visit  to  my  old  patients  the  Peters',  who  were  in 
Halifax  living  in  Brunswick  Street  during  the  construction  of 
the  new  barracks.  They  came  near  eating  me  up,  and  the  old 
mother,  a  French-Canadian  woman,  almost  embraced  me.  They 
have  a  very  lively  recollection  of  the  kindness  of  the  Halifax 
people,  and  take  every  opportuity  of  reciprocating.  You  will 
remember  Mrs.  Simon  Peters,  who  was  a  passenger  with  us  when 
we  came  on  to  Canada  after  our  marriage.  After  closing  my 
last  letter,  under  W.'s  guidance  we  embarked  in  a  carriage  to 
inspect  more  closely  the  Plains  of  Abraham  and  the  heights  up 
which  Wolfe  carried  his  army  ere  engaging  Montcalm.  The  in- 
scription on  his  small  and  unimposing  monument  briefly  but  elo- 
quently tells  the  result  as  far  as  that  brave  man  is  concerned. 
It  reads :  "  Here  fell  Wolfe,  September  13th,  1759."  They  might 
have  added  the  word  "  victorious  " — but  soldiers  generally  like 
brevity,  unless  they  belong  to  the  neighboring  Union,  and  this 
monument  having  been  erected  by  soldiers  to  his  memory  on  the 
very  spot  where  he  fell,  tells  the  tale  of  a  nation's  loss  in  as  few 
words  as  possible.  From  this  we  drove  to  Spencer's  Wood,  the 
beautiful  seat  of  the  former  Governors  of  Lower  Canada.  The 
residence  was  destroyed  some  years  since  by  fire  and  a  large  and 
commodious  building  is  only  now  being  placed  on  the  site  of  the 
old  one.  It  is  a  brick  structure  and  the  Peters'  have  the  contract. 
The  drives  through  the  grounds  are  extensive  and  English  park- 
like. We  next  visited  the  cemetery,  which  has  natural  beauties, 
and  these  are  aided  by  art,  but  it  cannot  be  named  in  comparison 
with  those  of  Boston,  Xew  York,  and  Philadelphia,  all  of  which 
you  have  seen.  On  our  way  there  we  came  across  quite  a  large 
encampment  of  gypsies.  We  got  out  of  the  carriage  and  went  to 
inspect  their  cold  and  dreary-looking  houses  or  camps,  and  to 
converse  with  them.  As  much  as  I  have  travelled  through  Eng- 
land and  Scotland  I  never  before  fell  in  with  any  of  the  tribe- 
Their  tents  are  merely  bent  sticks  covered  with  blankets  and 
closely  resemble  the  covering  of  our  ice  carts.  They  are  about 
six  or  eight  feet  long  by  six  in  width,  closed  at  one  end  and  open 
at  the  other,  not  nearly  so  warm  or  comfortable  either  for  summer 
or  winter  as  our  Indian  camps.  Their  fires  are  all  outside  their 
camps,  on  stones.  They  had  any  quantity  of  children,  some  of 
them  perhaps  stolen  from  more  comfortable  English  homes.  This 
encampment  has  but  recently  arrived  here  from  Devonshire,  Eng- 
land.    They  say  they  live  by  trading  in  horses,  but  I  presume  the 



hen-roosts,  gardens  and  potato  fields  suffer — as  they  are  looked 
upon  on  the  other  side  of  the  Atlantic  as  notorious  thieves,  and 
it  is  not  probable  that  this  propensity  has  been  left  behind  in  the 
Old  Country.  I  noticed  by  the  morning  paper  I  brought  away  with 
me  from  Halifax  that  an  encampment  of  five  or  six  had  reached 
Halifax.  Look  out  for  dear  little  Willie  that  he  is  not  stolen! 
Our  drive  back  was  along  the  beautiful  valley  of  the  St.  Charles 
River,  on  which  not  many  years  ago  the  vessel  that  Jacques 
Cartier  arrived  at  Quebec  in  was  discovered,  so  report  says,  buried 
fifteen  feet  below  the  surface  by  alluvial  deposit.  She  has  pro- 
bably remained  there  at  rest  since  1535.  Quebec  more  closely 
resembles  Edinburgh  than  any  other  place  I  have  seen,  and,  were 
it  not  for  the  near  proximity  of  the  river,  the  bold  and  high  rock 
on  which  the  castle  and  fortifications  stand  might  readily  be  taken 
for  that  of  Edina  the  fair.  It  is  a  walled  town  entered  by  numer- 
ous gates,  at  each  of  which  a  military  guard  is  stationed.  The 
suburbs  are  extensive,  but  on  the  whole,  the  city  has  a  dilapidated 
appearance,  and,  architecturally  speaking,  is  not  to  be  compared 
with  Halifax.  One  is  struck  by  the  vast  size  of  the  churches 
(Roman  Catholic).  These  are  not  only  large,  but  numerous  to 
an  extent  that  one  could  hardly  anticipate,  having  a  knowledge 
of  the  population.  On  Tuesday  afternoon  we  visited  the  Lunatic 
Asylum,  an  extensive  structure,  not  modern  in  its  appearance 
or  appliances,  but  sufficiently  large  to  hold  between  400  and  500 
patients.  We  were  kindly  received,  and  shown  through  all  the 
building.  We  then  visited  the  celebrated  fall  of  Montmorency, — 
small  in  breadth  when  compared  to  Niagara,  but  100  feet  greater 
in  height.  The  scenery  there  is  majestic  and  the  fall  would  be  a 
perfect  wonder  to  one  who  had  not  already  visited  the  leviathan 
Niagara.  Its  waters  are  made  use  of  to  drive  the  machinery  of 
saw  mills  and  manufactories.  Close  to  the  fall  is  the  residence  of 
the  late  Duke  of  Kent,  a  beautiful  building  owned  by  a  Mr.  Hall, 
who  also  possesses  the  Falls  and  much  land  on  either  side  of  the 
river  up  as  far  as  what  is  termed  the  "  Natural  Steps,"  a  most 
romantic  spot  and  a  perfect  curiosity  in  its  way.  The  Prince  of 
Wales  was  most  interested  in  this  spot,  the  more  so,  as  it  once  was 
the  abode  of  his  grandfather.  Over  these  Falls,  right  on  their  brink, 
was  erected  a  few  years  ago  a  suspension  bridge,  which  one  morning 
fell  with  two  or  three  people  and  a  horse  and  wagon  on  it. 
Of  course  eternity  was  speedily  present  to  the  unhappy  victims, 
and  nothing  was  ever  heard  of  them  after.  A  remarkable  story 
is  told  of  the  escape  of  a  gentleman  and  his  horse  and  wagon, 
through  the  instinct  of  the  animal.  Nothing  on  earth  could  force 
the  animal  over,  although  accustomed  to  the  crossing.  The  man 
had  his  feet  on  the  bridge,  and  was  tugging  and  thrashing  the 
poor  horse,  when  in  an  instant  the  anchors  of  the  opposite  side 

1861  TO  1871  211 

gave  way  and  he  was  miraculously  saved  by  the  backing  of  his 
horse.  The  race  to  the  mills  and  a  minor  fall  are  also  objects 
of  interest,  and  have  connected  with  them  some  harrowing  tales 
of  death  to  the  venturesome.  The  drive  out  and  back  to  Quebec 
was  about  seven  or  eight  miles  in  length  each  way  (1G  in  all) 
and  it  was  through  one  continuous  village  of  "  habitants "  or 
French  settlers.  Every  here  and  there  could  be  seen  one  of  the 
immense  chapels,  just  referred  to,  while  small  roadside  chapels 
and  crosses  more  conveniently  placed  for  the  passers-by  and  market 
people,  who  are  devotionally  inclined,  attract  the  sight.  Here  in 
early  morn  and  late  at  night  these  simple  farmers  bend  the  knee  to 
crosses  and  saints — and  call  it  worshipping  God,  while  their  beads 
are  counted  and  their  patron  saint  invoked,  rather  than  the  one 
true  God. 

This  morning  (Wednesday)  we  sallied  forth  to  visit  the  large 
Marine  Hospital,  and  were  much  gratified  by  the  visit  and  the 
attention  shown  us.  The  visit  was  profitable  in  a  professional 
point  of  view. 

Montreal,  Thursday,  September  18th. 

We  sailed  in  the  "  Columbia  "  at  4  p.m.,  and  had  a  delightful 
sail  through  magnificent  and  varied  scenery  for  eighty  miles, 
when  I  retired  for  the  night,  and  awoke  to  find  myself  here. 
I  slept  soundly  and  well.  The  boat  was  full  of  passengers,  and 
among  the  deck  people,  we  discovered  a  number  of  gypsies  bound 
higher  up  the  St.  Lawrence.  We  are  at  the  St.  Lawrence  Hall. 
Here  we  found  Edmund  Twining,  and  Tremain  Twining  follows 
us  up  by  to-night's  boat.  We  were  disappointed  at  not  receiving 
letters  before  leaving  Quebec,  but  I  forgot  to  tell  you  to  direct 
them  by  "  Express  mail  via  St.  John  and  Portland."  Had  they 
been  thus  addressed  we  would  have  received  them  before  leaving. 

After  breakfast  we  sallied  forth  and  the  first 

person  we  tumbled  over  was  Mr.  Ferrier,  who  very  kindly  offered 
us  every  attention  and  has  been  acting  as  our  guide  to  the 
Exchange,  the  Victoria  bridge  and  the  water  works — all  objects 
of  interest  and  profitable  to  an  observer  in  many  ways.  You 
will  recollect  the  Bridge.  When  last  here  with  you,  Wilmot  and 
the  gentlemen  of  our  party  were  all  down  in  the  bottom  of  the 
St.  Lawrence  in  the  coffer-dams,  seeing  the  foundation  laid.  JSTow, 
as  a  special  favor  granted  to  Mr.  Ferrier,  we  have  been  shown 
the  minutiae  of  the  superstructure.  It  is  a  magnificent  work — 
the  masterpiece  of  scientific  engineering.  I  bought  at  the  bridge 
a  lithograph  of  the  structure  as  it  appears,  both  in  winter  and 
summer,  so  that  we  may  be  reminded  in  after  years,  if  we  are 
spared  to  grow  old  and  gray,  that  I  was  at  the  bottom  of  the  great 
and  rapid  St.  Lawrence — even  below  its  natural  bed,  and  after- 


wards  walked  over  its  surface,  suspended  on  iron.  We  shall 
leave  here  in  two  or  three  days  for  Ottawa  city,  viewing,  as  we 
ascend  the  river  of  that  name,  the  fine  scenery  of  its  bank ;  thence 
we  will  go  by  boat  and  train  to  Kingston  to  see  Minnie,  and  from 
there  to  Niagara — after  which  we  will  go  to  Boston  direct,  and 
take  the  next  boat,  two  weeks  from  yesterday — at  least  these  are  our 
present  plans,  and  .unless  they  are  providentially  interrupted,  will 
be  carried  out.  As  we  shall  be  moving  about  so  constantly  I  would 
like  you  to  address  all  letters  and  papers  to  me  at  the  Eevere 
House,  Boston,  and  I  trust  I  shall  have  a  feast  on  my  arrival  in 
that  city.  I  need  tell  you  nothing  of  this  city.  It  has  not  altered 
materially  in  appearance  since  you  were  here — but  has  in  extent. 
About  500  stone  or  brick  buildings  have  been  erected  annually 
ever  since  the  date  of  our  visit,  and  this  year  its  population  is 
101,000  (one  hundred  and  one  thousand)  an  increase  of  over 
20,000  since  1854.  This  afternoon  I  go  with  Mr.  Muir,  a  son- 
in-law  of  Dr.  Cramp,  to  visit  a  new  and  elegant  Baptist  chapel 
that  is  to  be  opened  here  in  two  weeks  from  this  time,  also 
the  vast  and  beautiful  English  Cathedral,  which  I  am  told  is  the 
finest  building  of  the  kind  on  this  continent.  I  have  not  seen 
any  newspapers  (of  Halifax)  since  leaving,  and  this  afternoon 
must  go  to  the  Exchange  and  have  a  read  of  the  latest  dates  there. 
I  am  rather  down,  because  Lee  and  Jackson  are  not  inside  instead 
of  outside  Washington  and  Baltimore.  I  fear  my  Confederate 
friends  have  got  rather  the  worst  of  it,  notwithstanding  their 
success  at  Harper's  Ferry.  Better  luck  the  next  time,  I  hope. 
Would  that  the  war  would  come  to  an  end  and  peace  once  more 
reign  throughout  our  continent.  What  evils,  privations,  horrors 
and  everything  that  one's  mind  can  conjure  up  attend  the  battle- 
field and  the  country  through  which  contending  armies  pass  and 
meet  in  strife.  God  grant  that  our  happy  little  Province  may 
always  be  exempt  from  such  direful  evils  and  distress. 

I  long  to  learn  something  of  you  and  the  dear  children.  I  was 
dreaming  of  you  all  last  night,  and  often  do  so.  May  God  grant 
that  we  may  all  meet  again  at  home  in  health  and  strength.     .     . 

I  hope  your  father  is  himself  again  and  that  he  will  avoid 
all  the  exciting  causes  of  such  attacks ;  but  whether  careful  or 
careless,  I  daresay  he  will  occasionally  have  slight  "  twinges  "  of 
the  enemy  in  his  understanding.  Morrow  still  suffers  a  little  with 
his  head,  but  is  much  improved  since  leaving — in  strength,  appetite 
and  obtaining  rest  at  night.  Poor  fellow,  I  trust  that  he  will  be 
eventually  quite  restored  to  fill  the  useful  position  in  our  Province 
which  he  must  occupy  from  his  talents  and  tastes  if  life  and 
strength  are  continued  to  him.  What  of  poor  Foster?  I  long  to 
hear  from  him  or  of  him.  When  you  write,  please  give  my  love 
to  him  and  all  at  Walton.     Col.  Ben  i-j  to  be  stationed  at  Quebec 

1861  TO  1871  213 

I  hear.  Mr.  Duncan  is  on  the  small  island  opposite  Montreal 
and  in  the  centre  of  the  river.  It  must  be  a  delightful  spot  to 
reside  on  in  summer. 

And  now,  my  dearest  wife,  farewell.  You  will  probably  hear 
from  me  again  ere  my  return — probably  from  Niagara  or  Kings- 
ton. With  kindest  regards  to  all  at  the  cottage,  Kate's,  the  Mount, 
Belle  Vue,  the  Binneys,  etc.,  etc.    Ever  your  affectionate  husband. 

D.  McN.  Parker. 

P.S. — Address  "  Dr.  Parker,  to  arrive  at  The  Revere  House, 
Boston."  Tell  Tupper  if  you  see  him  to  write  me.  I  have  seen 
the  names  of  the  Hamiltons  on  the  Quebec  hotel  book,  but 
have  not  met  them.  The  L.'s  .  .  .  are  apparently  travelling 
with  them.  Tell  little  Willie  papa  will  soon  be  at  home  again. 
Say  to  Johnston  that  I  should  enjoy  a  nice  little  note  from  him 
very  much.  Kiss  dear  Mary  Ann  arid  Laura  McNeill  for  Papa. 
May  God  preserve  and  protect  you,  dear  wife.  I  must  hasten 
to  mail  this  hurriedly  written  scrawl. 

Recollect: — "By  Express  mail  via  St.  John  &  Portland." 
Put  this  on  the  top  of  the  envelope  and  pay  the  postage,  which  will 
be  something  extra.  D.  P. 

Kingston,  C.  W., 

September  23rd,  1862, 

Tuesday,  2  P.M. 
My  Dearest  Wife, — 

You  will  remember  our  stopping  at  the  wharf  of  this  city 
just  ere  we  commenced  running  through  the  Thousand  Islands, 
one  morning  at  break  of  day,  when  from  our  little  stateroom 
window  we  got  a  peep  at  the  nearest  building  and  I  stepped  out 
on  the  pier  merely  that  I  might  say  I  had  been  in  Kingston. 
Well,  at  that  time  I  hardly  ever  expeetcd  to  see  it  again,  but  after 
an  interval  of  eight  years  I  find  myself  addressing  a  letter  to  my 
dear  companion  of  that  voyage,  from  the  interior  of  the  same  city. 
I  forgot  to  mention  in  my  last  that  I  had  met  James  Mitchell, 
who  kindly  invited  me  to  accept  the  hospitalities  of  his  house, 
which  I  was  unable  to  do,  Robt.  Willis,  Duncan  McDonald  (form- 
erly railway  contractor  in  Nova  Scotia,  whose  family  I  attended 
in  Halifax  at  John  Butler's,  Bedford),  and  strange  to  say,  Francis 
R.  Parker  and  daughter,  of  Shubenacadie,  who  are  staying  out  of 
Montreal  with  Judge  Monk.  How  he  came  to  know  the  Judge 
I  cannot  imagine,  and  did  not  ask.  On  the  day  we  were  out  at 
the  Hostermans',  at  the  wedding,  you  will  recollect  that  we  went 
through  the  Iron  Rolling  Works — but  did  not  see  the  metal  pass- 
ing through  all  its  varied  changes  until  it  comes  out  in  sheets. 


Well,  in  Montreal,  I  have  seen  the  operation  on  a  grand  and  exten- 
sive scale.  Ferrier  took  us  to  a  work  of  this  kind  in  which  he 
had  been  interested,  where  we  saw  nails  of  all  kinds,  from  a 
carpet  tack  to  a  railroad  spike,  being  turned  out  by  the  ton, 
while  the  great  sheets  were  rolled  off  by  the  quantity,  large  enough 
to  satisfy  the  most  needy  and  ambitious  hardware  man.  These 
operations  were  being  performed  by  men  "  stripped  to  the  buff  " 
with  only  their  trousers  on,  while  streams  of  water  ran  off  them 
in  perspiration. 

I  called  upon  my  old  friend,  the  Principal  of  McGill  Univer- 
sity, Dr.  Dawson,  who  was  pleased  to  see  me  and  pressed  me  to 
stay  with  him  all  the  day  and  evening  in  order  that  we  might 
discuss  subjects  in  Natural  Science  in  which  we  both  take  an  inter- 
est. The  library  and  museum  of  the  College  were  inspected,  and 
both  are  very  valuable,  well  arranged  and  costly.  I  was  specially 
interested  in  a  large  collection  of  Indian  relics  which  he  has 
recently  discovered  at  the  site  of  the  Indian  village  of  Hochelaga, 
where  Jacques  Cartier,  in  1535,  first  met  the  Indians  of  this 
neighborhood.  The  history  of  that  remarkable  man  and  his  times 
tells  us  much  of  this  celebrated  spot,  but  for  a  century  or  more 
its  exact  position  has  been  unknown  to  man.  Dr.  Dawson  was 
the  first  to  point  out  (last  year)  the  spot  so  long  searched  for 
and  longed  after  by  North  American  antiquarians.  The  city  in 
extending  its  streets  and  laying  water  pipes  had  occasion  to  dig 
down  to  a  depth  of  fifteen  feet,  when  the  laborers  were  surprised  to 
find  a  quantity  of  bones  of  animals.  Dr.  Dawson  at  once  visited 
the  place,  commenced  explorations,  and  found  a  vast  quantity  of 
the  remains  of  a  large  village,  such  as  the  bones  of  all  the  animals 
of  the  country  used  as  food,  pipes,  pottery,  the  places  where  their 
cooking  had  been  done,  Indian  corn  prepared  for  cooking,  etc.,  etc. 
The  site  of  this  ancient  and  extinct  village  or  Indian  town  is 
just  under  half  a  mile  or  more  below  the  spot  where  we  sat  when 
we  ascended  the  summit  of  the  mountain — about  two-thirds  down 
the  slope  and  near  to  the  upper  residences.  Dawson  also  kindly 
gave  me  a  note  of  introduction  to  Sir  Wm.  E.  Logan,  the  great 
Provincial  geologist  of  Canada,  and  we  had  an  interesting  inspec- 
tion of  the  best  geological  museum  in  the  world.  The  museum 
of  the  Natural  History  Society,  of  Canada,  was  also  thrown  open 
to  us,  through  the  same  influence,  so  that  altogether  I  may  say 
that  we  had  a  feast  of  science  on  the  last  day  of  our  stay  in  Mon- 
treal,— which  we  wound  up  in  the  evening  by  asking  Capt. 
Ewing,  Mr.  Jacobson  and  the  first  officer  of  the  "  Mavrocordatos  " 
to  dine  with  us  at  our  hotel,  the  St.  Lawrence  Hall.  Tremain 
and  Edmund  Twining  who  were  staying  at  the  hotel  joined  our 
table  at  dessert,  so  altogether  we  had  a  pleasant  little  party,  which 

1861  TO  1871  215 

broke  up  early,  at  8V2  P-m-  I  drank  cold  water,  which  did  not 
agree  with  the  tobacco  smoke  of  my  six  smoking  friends,  as  all 
the  next  day  it  made  me  feel  sickish.  On  Saturday  morning 
at  6I/2  o'clock,  we  left  for  Lachine,  a  village  just  above 
the  rapids  of  that  name  on  the  other  side  of  the  Island  of 
Montreal,  when  we  embarked  on  a  steamer  for  Ottawa.  To  avoid 
the  rapids  on  a  portion  of  the  river  we  had  to  leave  the  boat  and 
cross  by  railroad  over  a  distance  of  12  miles  to  Grenville  where 
another  steamer  was  waiting  for  us.  We  reached  the  capital  of 
Canada  (that  is  to  be)  about  7  o'clock  in  the  evening.  The  river 
scenery  is  beautiful  in  many  places.  Every  here  and  there  the 
river  expands  into  small  lakes,  as  at  the  Lake  of  the  Two  Moun- 
tains, which  gives  expanse  and  variety  to  the  scene  as  we  rapidly 
glide  up  stream  against  the  current  at  a  rate  of  fifteen  miles  an 
hour.  At  the  first  village  we  crossed  the  old  boundary  between 
Upper  and  Lower  Canada,  and  at  Ottawa  City,  formerly  called 
Bytown,  the  river  formed  the  boundary.  We  passed  immense 
rafts  on  the  way,  under  tow  of  steam  tugs,  some  of  which  had 
several  small  houses  on  them  and  were  manned  by  between  30 
and  50  lumbermen.  All  these  rafts  had  run  the  rapids  of  the 
river  by  what  are  called  the  timber  slides.  The  Ottawa  river 
furnishes  now  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  timber  shipped  from 
Canada  at  Montreal  and  Quebec.  As  we  neared  the  city  the 
scenery  became  altered  from  low  to  elevated  and  deeply  indented 
river  banks,  most  beautiful  and  picturesque  at  the  place  where 
the  Capital  stands.  These  high  and  very  steep  banks  are  wooded 
from  summit  to  base  by  dense  groves  of  beautiful  cedar.  The 
first  part  of  our  trip  we  had  Robert  Duport  as  a  fellow-passenger, 
and  at  one  of  the  lumbering  villages  on  the  way,  were  joined 
by  Mr.  Menzies  of  the  Bank  of  B.  N".  America.  He  is  the  young 
man  who  is  to  marry  one  of  the  Miss  Cochrans.  He  was 
particular  in  his  enquiries  after  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Binney  and  your 
father.  On  the  following  day  we  walked  out  to  see  the  two 
celebrated  falls  and  rapids,  which  indeed  could  be  observed 
from  my  bedroom  windows,  but  as  they  were  near  we  inspected 
them  more  closely.  Both  are  grand  and  well  worth  a  visit.  They 
are  called  the  Rideau  and  Chaudiere  falls  and  rapids,  and  here  it 
was  that  the  Prince  of  Wales  ran  the  rapids  on  a  timber 
slide,  which  we  could  not  do,  the  day  being  the  Sabbath. 
Along  the  banks  and  far  back  from  the  Ottawa  on  tributary 
streams  are  the  finest  and  largest  sawmills  of  Canada,  driven 
of  course  by  water-power.  In  the  lower  Provinces  we  have  no 
idea  of  the  magnitude  of  the  lumber  business  of  this  great 
country —  and  the  deals  and  lumber  that  we  have  seen  piled  up 
awaiting  sale  would  astonish  you.     Just  opposite  our  hotel  was 

216  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

the  great  Parliamentary  Square  on  which  the  most  extensive 
and  magnificent  buildings  for  this  purpose  that  I  have  ever  seen 
out  of  Washington  and  London  are  in  course  of  construction. 
Their  extent  you  may  conceive  of  when  I  tell  you  that  by  a  cal- 
culation made  in  one  of  the  local  newspapers  by  its  editor,  the 
three  steam  engines  required  to  heat  the  buildings  by  steam 
will  consume  annually  seventeen  thousand  cords  of  wood.  The 
City  of  Ottawa  is  just  like  a  large  village  spreading  itself  over 
a  large  extent  of  country;  its  population  is  only  sixteen  thousand. 
Morrow  and  I  went  to  a  small  Baptist  church  (just  being  erected) 
in  the  morning.  The  Sunday  School  was  going  on  in  the  vestry 
when  we  entered,  and  the  sermon  was  preached  by  a  clever  young 
man,  in  the  same  place.  I  went  to  the  same  place  in  the  even- 
ing and  heard  the  same  man.  The  Hamiltons  and  L's. 
were  before  us  here  also.  Morrow  and  I  occupied  the  same  apart- 
ments as  Mary  Ann  and  Mrs.  John  used  when  there.  I  notice 
that  William  is  rather  proud  of  the  Black  blood  that  runs  in 
his  veins — as  everywhere  I  meet  with  his  name  on  the  hotel 
books,  it  is  "  W.  Black  Hamilton,"  the  William  being  sunk  in 
the  more  distingue  name  of  Black.  It  was  great  fun  for  Morrow 
and  me  to  listen  to  the  hotel-keeper's  account  of  the  affection  that 
exists  between  Mr.  and  Mrs.  L.  He  said  he  never  saw  a  couple 
more  affectionate,  although  they  were  far  from  being  coupled  as  to 
age, — and  the  word  was  perpetually  "  Geordie  dear  " ;  "  Yes, 
Freddie  dear !"  The  hotel  man  was  Yorkshire  all  over,  and  the 
best  part  of  the  joke  was  to  hear  it  from  his  Yorkshire  lips  with 
all  the  brogue.  On  Monday  morning  we  took  the  train  and 
arrived  at  Prescott,  where  our  party  left  the  cholera  steamer  and 
crossed  over  to  Ogdensburg  in  1854.  Here  we  had  to  remain 
from  9.30  a.m.  to  1.30  p.m.  before  the  arrival  of  the  Grand  Trunk 
train  for  this  place,  which  was  reached  at  4  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon. The  drive  was  through  a  sandy  and  consequently  dusty 
soil,  the  country  thinly  inhabited.  After  dining  I  drove  over  to 
Col.  Ingall's  to  make  enquiries  relative  to  Minnie's  abode.  They 
were  very  glad  to  see  me  and  pressed  me  to  dine  with  them  a 
second  time.  Ingall  sent  his  servant  out  to  ascertain  whether 
Agnes  was  at  the  Revd.  Mr.  Rodgers'  or  at  Waterloo,  a  country 
village  four  miles  out  of  Kingston  close  to  the  cemetery,  where 
Minnie  has  lately  taken  lodgings.  The  reply  was,  that  she  was  at 
Mrs.  Greenwood's,  where  they  formerly  lodged.  On  driving  there 
I  found  her  with  the  Rynds,  who  have  temporarily  gone  into 
these  lodgings.  Agnes,  having  heard  from  her  father  that  I  was 
on  my  way,  fully  expected  me.  We  then  went  on  to  their  lodgings 
out  of  town.  ...  It  was  quite  dark  when  I  reached  her 
lodgings,  and  Agnes  not  finding  her  (Minnie)  in  the  house,  well 

1861  TO  1871  217 

knew  where  she  was  to  be  found.  So  she  went  to  the  cemetery 
to  bring  her  home  and  to  announce  my  arrival.  After  breakfast 
I  visited  the  military  hospital,  by  the  request  of  Dr.  Alden,  who 
was  stationed  some  time  in  Halifax,  and  there  met  Ewing.  At 
10  o'clock  I  drove  out  to  Waterloo  again  and  found  Minnie  more 
composed  and  inclined  to  talk  about  her  health  and  future  pros- 
pects. I  think  she  has  pretty  well  made  up  her  mind  to  leave  this 
in  two  or  three  weeks,  first  for  Newport,  Rhode  Island,  and  then 
later  in  the  season  for  Prince  Edward  Island.  .  .  .  Col. 
and  Mrs.  Ingall  have  done  everything  they  could  for  her  and  are 
never  tired  of  extending  to  her  acts  of  sympathy  and  friendship. 
I  called  on  Dr.  Yates,  the  civil  practitioner  who  was  called  to  see 
Wilkieson  in  his  last  hours,  but  he  was  absent  and  I  failed  to  see 
him.  His  family  live  in  summer  about  four  miles  out  of  Kingston, 
and  he  had  probably  gone  there.  I  went  to  the  cemetery  to  see 
the  spot  where  Wilkieson's  remains  are  placed.  It  is  a  beautiful 
spot  and  the  headstone  is  in  the  form  of  a  cross  of  white  marble, 
with  appropriate  inscription  and  surrounded  by  an  iron  railing. 

I  leave  by  the  Ontario  boat  for  Toronto  at  six  this  evening  to 
visit  the  great  Industrial  Exhibition  of  Canada  being  held  there 
just  now.  On  Thursday,  if  God  wills,  we  shall  go  to  Niagara 
either  by  boat  or  train,  according  as  the  lake  is  tranquil  or  the 
contrary.  I  have  a  very  vivid  recollection  of  our  last  crossing 
Ontario  from  Niagara  and  the  sail  down  to  this  place — formerly 
the  Capital  of  Upper  Canada.  The  day  is  beautiful  and  the  lake 
calm,  and  we  hope  to  have  as  pleasant  a  run  up  to  Toronto  as  you 
and  I  had  from  thence  in  1854.  ...  I  long  to  hear  from  you 
and  all  at  Halifax.  We  were  obliged  to  leave  Montreal  before 
your  letters  had  arrived,  a  great  disappointment,  but  on  reaching 
Niagara  I  hope  to  get  them,  as  Tremain  Twining  said  he  would 
forward  them  there  from  the  St.  Lawrence  Hall  whence  they 
would  arrive  from  Quebec.  I  long  again  to  hear  the  prattle  of 
the  children  and  to  be  at  home  in  the  enjoyment  of  all  those  bless- 
ings which  God  has  so  abundantly  given  me  and  which  constitute 
what  one  may  truthfully  say  in  my  case,  a  happy  home.  I'm 
homesick  and  would  be  off  to-morrow  if  I  could  reach  Halifax  any 
earlier  for  the  early  departure.  Morrow's  health  still  improves. 
He  has  just  written  to  his  wife.  Kind  love  to  all  at  Belle  Vue, 
the  Cottage,  Mount,  Kate's,  the  Binneys,  Nuttings,  &c,  &c.  And 
now,  dearest  wife,  with  much  love  for  yourself  and  kisses  to  John- 
ston (if  he  will  accept  them  now  that  he  has  got  into  jacket  and 
trousers),  Mary  Ann,  Willie  and  Laura, 

I  remain  ever  your  afft.  husband, 

D.  McN.  Parker. 


Notes  on  the  Letters  of  1862. 

First  letter:  Mr.  Venables  (afterwards  the  doctor)  was  then 
bookkeeper  and  dispensing  clerk  at  the  office. 

The  story  of  "  the  coachman  and  the  'osses  "  concerns  one  of 
the  nouveaux  riches  then  climbing  in  Halifax  society. 

The  peculiar  word  used  by  the  Earl  of  Mulgrave  illustrates  a 
difficulty  in  pronouncing  his  "  n's  "  which  his  Lordship  had.  He 
had  just  preceded  my  father  from  Halifax,  on  a  visit  to  Viscount 
Monck,  who  was  then  Governor-General  of  Canada.  Lord  Mul- 
grave succeeded  Sir  Gaspard  LeMarchant  as  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  Nova  Scotia  in  1858. 

"  The  delegates "  were  the  representatives  of  the  Provinces 
who  were  discussing  Union  at  Quebec  and  who  in  the  next  month 
evolved  the  Quebec  Scheme  of  Confederation. 

Second  letter:  Edmund  and  Tremaine  Twining  were  well 
known  Halifax  business  men. 

Mr.  Ferrier  was  a  resident  of  Montreal. 

"  Minnie  "  was  Mr.  J.  W.  Johnston's  daughter,  the  widow 
of  Major  Wilkieson  (I  think  of  the  16th  Regiment)  who  had 
recently  died  at  Kingston,  which  was  then  a  garrison  town. 
She  and  her  sister  Agnes  are  referred  to  in  the  next  letter. 

Dr.  Cramp  was  the  President  of  Acadia  College. 

"  The  Hamiltons  "  were  cousins  of  my  mother. 

Third  letter:  Francis  R.  Parker  appears  in  the  Parker 
genealogy  at  an  early  page  of  this  narrative. 

Dr.  Dawson  became  afterwards  Sir  William  Dawson,  the  well 
known  author  in  the  field  of  science,  more  particularly  in  geology. 

Late  in  the  summer  of  1863,  there  was  an  excursion  in  Prince 
Edward  Island  and  New  Brunswick,  with  visits  by  the  way  at 
Amherst  and  Moncton,  where  he  was  called  in  consultation. 
Letters  from  Moncton  are  chiefly  of  a  domestic  character.  At 
Charlottetown  he  visited  William  A.  Johnston,  son  of  the  Attorney- 
General  of  Nova  Scotia,  who  was  then  practising  law  there.  In  a 
letter  to  my  mother,  written  there,  August  27th,  1863,  occurs  this 
domestic  item,  which  will,  no  doubt,  interest  certain  of  the 
grandchildren.  "  Tell  Willie,  dear  boy,  that  Papa  is  very  sorry 
Mama  had  to  spank  him  for  running  into  the  hall,  but  that  Papa 
is  very  glad  Mama  had  the  firmness  to  do  it.  Spare  the  rod  and 
spoil  the  child."  This  incident  has  faded  from  the  memory  of 
the  party  most  interested,  who  was  then  in  his  third  year.  The 
writer  adds:  "Tell  dear  Johnston  to  let  me  hear  from  him." 
In  the  same  letter  there  occurs  this  characteristic  touch,  in 
referring  to  the  case  of  a  former  patient  whose  case  had  now 
become  desperate.  "  Poor  S !     It  would  be  better  for  him  to  be 

1861  TO  1871  219 

consulting  '  the  Great  Physician  '  than  '  the  Pathy.'  When  God 
calls  may  he  be  ready  to  go.  Medicine  for  the  soul  is  what  is 
often  wanted  to  produce  mental  and  physical  comfort." 

The  concluding  letter  of  the  series  written  on  this  tour  is 
as  follows : 

"  9.30  P.M.,  Woodstock,  KB., 

"  Wednesday  night, 

"  September  3rd,  1863. 

"  Here  I  am  once  more  in  a  place  where  I  can  get  a  room  to 
write  in,   being  comfortably  stowed  away  for  the  night  at  the 
Blanchard   House.      After  closing  my  letter   at   Fredericton   on 
Monday   morning   I    took   the   box   seat    outside    the   Woodstock 
coach  and  after  a  lovely  drive  through  beautiful  scenery   (river 
and  highland)    reached  this  place  at   6.30  p.m.     I  enjoyed  the 
drive  more  than  I  would  have  done  the  sail  by  steamer  up  the 
river,  as  by  the  latter  mode  of  conveyance  one  could  get  very 
little  idea  of  the  country  beyond  the  banks  of  the  stream,  whereas 
from  the  coach  road  one  sees  all  the  river  scenery  as  well  as  that 
for  miles  beyond.     It  is  a  beautiful  country,  not  merely  to  look 
upon,    but    in    an    agricultural    sense,    and    is   becoming   thickly 
populated.     When  I  left  Fredericton  I  had  not  concluded  as  to 
where  my  steps  would  next  be  directed.     I  wanted  to  see  the 
Grand  Falls,  and  at  the  same  time  I  wanted  to  cross  the  Bay  of 
Fundy   on   Thursday    (to-morrow)    to  Digby,    as   I   was   feeling- 
homesick  and  desirous  once  more  of  seeing  all  the  inmates  of  the 
little  cottage  by  the  Dartmouth  Cove.     However,  as  I  was  within 
seventy-five  miles  of  the  Falls  and  might  never  have  the  oppor- 
tunity of  visiting  them  again,  I  concluded  at  last  to  go  on.     There 
being  no  day  coach  I  was  obliged  to  travel  all  Monday  night. 
We  started  at  8  p.m.  from  Blanchard's  hotel.     I  was  the  only 
passenger  for  forty  miles.      The  road  was  good  but  very  hilly 
and  extremely  narrow,  with  numerous  bridges,  the  approaches  to 
which  were  generally  at  the  bottom  of  very  steep  hills.     I  had 
not  been  long  in  the  wagon   (an  open  one)   before  I  made  the 
discovery  that  the  coachman  was  unfit  for  the  post,  as  he  could 
not  keep  awake  five  minutes  at  a  time,  so  I  had  to  spend  the  live 
long  night  (and  a  cold  one  it  was  for  the  season)  watching  him 
and  arousing  him  in  time  to  apply  the  brakes  to  avoid  being 
tossed  over  the  bridges.     I  wanted  him  to  let  me  drive,  but  he 
would  not.     Fortunately  the  horses  were  very  steady,   although 
in  high  condition  and  very  fast.     Indeed  the  horses  here  on  all 
the  coach  lines  are  far  superior  in  flesh,  condition  and  speed  to 
any  on  the  coach  lines  of  ISTova   Scotia.     I  was  very  thankful 
when  at  6  o'clock  a.m.  we  arrived  at  Newcom's  Inn  (kept  by  a 


Cornwallis  man),  Tobique.  I  got  myself  well  warmed  by  a 
comfortable  barroom  fire  and  took  my  breakfast  with  a  wild, 
rough  party  of  lumbermen.  There  was  one  very  tall,  gentle- 
manly, well-dressed  person  of  the  party  whose  features  looked 
familiar,  but  for  the  life  of  me  I  could  not  recollect  where  I  had 
met  him.  He  looked  at  me  as  if  he  had  some  knowledge  of  me. 
As  he  sat  next  me  at  the  table  I  got  into  conversation  with 
him  and  a  reference  to  Nova  Scotia  caused  him  to  state  that  he 
was  a  native  of  that  Province.  I  then  asked  his  name  and  he 
told  me  that  it  was  Alexander  Eaton  and  that  Cornwallis  was 
his  former  home.  "  What !"  said  I,  "  Is  it  Sandy  Eaton  ?"  "  Yes." 
"Well  I'm  Dan  Parker."  Such  a  shaking  of  hands  then  took 
place  "  as  you  never  did  see."  He  was  a  favorite  school  companion 
of  mine  at  Horton,  and  although  I  have  often  enquired  about  him 
I  had  never  been  able  to  hear  anything  of  his  whereabouts  since 
we  parted  in  1837.  Many's  the  lark  we  have  had  together.  He 
kindly  jumped  into  the  coach  and  drove  over  to  the  Grand  Falls 
with  me.  We  "fought  our  battles  o'er  again."  He  showed  me 
all  the  lions  of  the  Falls — introduced  me  to  Sheriff  Beckwith — a 
cousin  of  Mayhew  Beckwith's,  of  Cornwallis,  who  married  a 
Greenwood,  a  relation  of  the  Stayners  and  Greenwoods  of  Halifax. 
This  made  my  visit  to  the  great  waterfall  of  New  Brunswick 
doubly  pleasant.  After  spending  seven  or  eight  hours  together 
we  parted — very  likely  never  to  meet  again.  I  was  amply  paid 
for  the  trouble  and  fatigue  of  getting  to  the  Falls  by  the  grand,  bold 
scenery  around  this  district.  The  fall  itself  is  broad,  the  water 
descending  now  seventy  feet.  When  the  river  is  full  the  vertical 
measure  is  decreased  while  its  breadth  is  largely  increased,  and, 
of  course,  the  quantity  of  water  thus  escaping  is  much  greater. 
Just  below  the  Falls  I  witnessed  a  great  timber  jam  and  a  large 
number  of  men  engaged  in  the  very  dangerous  work  of  starting  it. 
Not  long  ago  a  man  thus  engaged  there  was  killed  and  others 
narrowly  escaped.  "  The  jam  "  was  so  great  that  the  logs  were 
forced  down  in  the  water  by  the  superincumbent  pressure  to  the 
distance  of  forty  or  fifty  feet.  The  men  had  been  working  at  it 
two  weeks  and  it  will  be  two  weeks  more  before  they  get  it  all 
released.  Just  below  the  falls  there  is  a  long  and  very  hand- 
some suspension  bridge.  About  six  years  ago  it  fell,  killing  some 
persons  that  were  on  it.  The  new  structure  is  more  secure. 
Leaving  this  locality  I  crossed  the  country  close  to  the  American 
boundary,  passing  over  the  Aroostook  River  and  district,  about 
which  there  was  nearly  a  war  between  England  and  the  United 
States  some  years  since.  The  question  was  long  called  "  the 
disputed  boundary  "  and  was  settled  by  Lord  Ashburton,  Eng- 
land's Commissioner,  giving  up  England's  or  rather  New  Bruns- 
wick's rights  to  the  Yankees,   and  with   the  settlement   a  large 

1861  TO  1871  221 

number  of  New  Brunswickers,  much  to  their  annoyance  and 
chagrin,  by  a  stroke  of  Ashburton's  pen  were  converted  in  a 
moment  into  citizens  of  the  United  States.  They  thus  left  New 
Brunswick  and  entered  the  State  of  Maine.  At  the  mouth  of 
the  Tobique  River  I  stopped  at  a  large  Indian  village,  and  after 
viewing  their  chapel,  farms,  burial  grounds,  and  visiting  the 
interior  of  some  of  their  houses,  I  engaged  one  to  take  me  up 
the  Tobique  River  for  a  few  miles  to  see  the  bold,  magnificent, 
scenery  of  that  noted  river.  The  stream  and  rapids  were  diffi- 
cult to  ascend  for  two  miles,  but  the  practised  eye  and  strong 
arm  of  my  Indian  worked  our  frail  bark  canoe  through  the  diffi- 
culties by  the  aid  of  paddle  and  pole.  I  returned  at  dark  and 
engaged  another  Indian  to  carry  me  to  the  inn,  and  to  be  there 
at  six  o'clock  to  carry  me  in  his  canoe  to  Woodstock,  a  distance 
of  over  fifty  miles.  These  Indians  are  all  of  the  Melicite  tribe 
and  speak  a  different  language  from  our  Micmacs.  They  are  for 
the  most  part  temperate  and  make  good  livings  by  farming, 
fishing  and  hunting.  Many  of  them  have  horses,  oxen  and  cows 
and  live  most  comfortably.  Punctual  to  the  appointed  hour  my 
new  Indian  came.  We  breakfasted  early  and  got  enough  bread 
and  meat  for  dinner  by  the  way  and  then  started  down  stream. 
Had  the  wind  not  been  ahead  and  strong,  the  voyage  would  have 
been  made  in  five  hours.  At  is  was  we  were  eleven  hours  in 
accomplishing  it.  It  was  a  delightful  day.  The  rapid  stream, 
the  beautiful  and  at  times  solitary  and  magnificent  scenery, 
coupled  with  the,  to  me,  novel  mode  of  conveyance,  a  frail  bark 
ship  that  one  could  not  stand  up  in  on  such  a  river,  and  my 
aboriginal  "  captain  and  all  hands  " — made  the  journey  of  fifty 
miles  one  of  the  most  pleasant  that  I  have  ever  taken.  It  was 
easy  work  for  me  but  hard  for  the  skipper,  as  he  had  at  times 
great  difficulty  in  keeping  the  ship's  head  to  the  wind.  In  cross- 
ing one  of  the  rapids  we  shipped  a  small  sea  which  wet  me  some 
and  I  had  to  strip  off  my  coat  and  dry  my  shirt  in  the  sun  and 
wind.  This  was  soon  accomplished  and  nothing  else  occurred  to 
render  the  voyage  unpleasant.  About  noon  we  stopped  by  a 
rapid  stream,  hauled  up  our  canoe,  and  dined,  washing  down  the 
dry  bread  and  meat  with  delicious  water — both  drinking  out  of 
the  same  tin  pint — "  all  one  brother."  I  was  able  to  read  a 
good  deal  in  the  canoe,  stretch  myself  out  in  my  railway  wrapper 
at  the  bottom  of  the  frail  bark,  and  I  slept  some  time.  This 
change  of  position  from  semi-erect  to  the  horizontal  is  a  great 
relief  and  makes  this  mode  of  travelling  much  more  pleasant 
than  coaching.  At  the  hotel  I  met  Mr.  Troop  and  his  sister 
from  Bridgetown.  We  took  tea  and  had  a  walk  together,  and 
thus  another  pleasant  hour  has  been  spent  by  meeting  Nova 
Scotians  abroad.     They  came  up  from  St.  Andrew's  by  the  rail- 


road.  A  7  o'clock  in  the  morning  I  start  in  a  coach  for  the  same 
railroad,  and  will  be  in  St.  Andrew's  or  St.  Stephen's  to-morrow 
night.  I  shall  either  catch  the  steamer  at  Eastport,  bound  from 
Boston  to  St.  John,  or  else  reach  the  latter  city  by  coach  on 
Saturday,  and  if  I  can  get  a  boat  or  schooner  going  over  to 
Weymouth  or  Digby  on  Saturday  I  shall  not  wait  for  the  steamer 
to  cross  to  Digby  on  Monday  morning.  After  visiting  Mr.  Payson 
I  shall,  I  hope,  reach  home  towards  the  end  of  next  week.  I  fear 
I  shall  hardly  hear  from  you  again,  but  although  I  may  not  have 
any  letters  to  answer,  it  is  a  great  pleasure  for  me  to  sit  down 
and  talk  to  my  dearest  wife  on  paper  about  what  I  have  seen  and 
done,  in  a  way  that  I  can  seldom  get  time  to  do  when  at  home. 
My  dear  children  I  long  to  see  as  much  as  my  wife.  May  God 
protect  and  care  for  you  all  during  my  absence.  Kiss  them  all 
for  papa.  Tell  Johnston  and  Mary  Ann  that  I  shall  expect  to 
hear  they  have  been  good  children  during  my  absence. 

"  Good  night,  dearest  Fanny,  and  farewell  until  we  meet  again, 
as  it  is  not  likely  that  I  shall  be  able  to  write  again  so  that  a 
letter  would  reach  you  much  before  I  return  to  my  own  dear 
home.     Love  to  all. 

"  Yours  ever, 

"  D.  McK  Parker." 

In  this  letter,  writing  of  his  return,  he  says :  "  If  I  can  get 
a  boat  or  schooner  going  over  to  Weymouth  or  Digby  on  Saturday 
I  shall  not  wait  for  the  steamer  to  cross  to  Digby  on  Monday 
morning."  I  remember  his  telling  me  that  on  one  occasion,  "  to 
economize  time"  (a  frequent  expression  of  his),  he  crossed  the 
Bay  of  Fundy  from  New  Brunswick  in  a  little  schooner  which 
he  chanced  on,  and  that,  in  a  fog,  she  went  ashore  some  distance 
from  the  entrance  to  Digby  Gut;  but  all  hands  got  to  land  with 
nothing  worse  than  a  wetting  and  he  made  his  way  as  best  he 
could  to  Digby.  I  cannot  connect  this  experience  with  the  excur- 
sion of  1863,  and  it  may  have  occurred  at  an  earlier  time. 

Mr.  Payson,  of  Weymouth,  mentioned  in  this  letter,  was  the 
husband  of  my  father's  half-aunt,  Augusta  Parker. 

His  attendance  upon  the  gatherings  of  the  Medical  Society 
of  Nova  Scotia  was  assiduous,  and  his  contributions  to  its  dis- 
cussions were  frequent,  though  in  the  busy  life  he  led  he  found 
little  time  for  the  preparation  of  many  formal  papers  or  essays. 

We  shall  see,  hereafter,  how  concerned  he  was  for  the  main- 
tenance of  Vital  Statistics.  He  first  moved  in  this  matter  at  a 
meeting  of  this  Society  held  on  February  2nd,  1864,  when  an 
essay  was  read  showing  the  necessity  for  a  proper  registration 
of  births,  deaths  and  marriages.  The  record  of  the  meeting 
states :      "  Some   remarks    were    made    upon    the   importance   of 

1861  TO  1871  223 

registration,  when  Dr.  Parker  moved  that  a  committee  be 
appointed  to  take  what  steps  they  might  deem  necessary  to  bring 
the  subject  under  the  notice  of  the  Legislature  and  to  further 
the  object  in  view.     Seconded  by  Dr.  Black,  and  passed." 

The  speech  at  the  opening  of  the  Legislature  in  that  year,  by 
Sir  Hastings  Doyle,  announced  a  Bill  on  the  subject  which  passed 
in  due  course,  Dr.  Charles  Tupper  being  then  Provincial  Secretary. 

At  Confederation  (July  1st,  1867),  the  Dominion  Govern- 
ment took  over  the  management  of  the  Nova  Scotia  Statistical 
Office,  so  established ;  but,  owing  to  conflicting  opinions  of  a 
constitutional  nature,  ceased  to  provide  for  its  maintenance  in 
1877,  and  it  was  then  abolished. 

In  the  Legislative  Council  my  father  agitated  for  the  re- 
establishment  of  a  Provincial  Bureau,  time  and  time  again, 
but  the  Government  was  hostile  to  its  restoration,  and  it  was 
not  until  after  his  death  that  this  Province  again  received  the 
benefit  of  such  an  institution. 

Amid  all  his  varied  activities,  we  find  that  he  did  not  exclude 
the  service  of  his  country,  in  a  military  sense.  At  what  time  he 
joined  the  Provincial  Militia,  I  do  not  know,  but  for  some  years  he 
was  surgeon  in  a  regiment — probably  the  2nd  Halifax,  of  which 
regiment  my  mother's  father  had  been  Colonel  in  his  earlier 
years.  The  buttons  of  the  scarlet  tunic  and  the  shako  which  he 
wore  bear  simply  the  words :  "  Nova  Scotia  Militia."  In  the 
sixties  I  have  seen  him  ride  to  muster  or  parade  on  the  big  horse 
"  Tom,"  and  right  soldierly  he  looked.  From  the  fact  that  he 
was  mounted  it  may  be  inferred  that  he  was  staff  surgeon  to  a 
brigade  at  that  time.  When  "  the  Fenian  scare "  occurred  in 
1866,  and  I  watched  a  long  train  of  carts,  laden  with  powder, 
shot  and  shell  for  the  forts  and  batteries,  pass  from  the  citadel 
round  the  corner  of  the  old  Argyle  Street  house,  I  saw  my  father, 
in  uniform,  mount  and  ride  away  to  duty  with  the  militia  who 
garrisoned  the  city  while  the  regulars  took  post  along  the  shore. 
For  that  militia  duty,  I  believe,  many  have  clamorously  obtained 
medals  of  some  sort  in  after  years,  at  the  taxpayer's  cost.  But  it 
was  all  in  "  the  day's  work  "  with  this  surgeon,  and  I  do  not 
think  he  ever  heard  of  the  medals. 

On  the  first  day  of  April,  1866,  a  partnership  with  Dr.  Andrew 
J.  Cowie  was  formed,  under  the  firm  name  of  "  Parker  and 
Cowie,"  the  business  being  conducted  at  the  Prince  Street  offices. 
The  reason  of  this,  so  far  as  the  senior  partner  was  concerned, 
is  recited  in  the  articles  of  partnership  to  be  that  he  was  "  feeling 
the  need  of  relaxation,  and  desirous,  in  consequence  of  impaired 
health  and  other  circumstances,  of  decreasing  his  professional 
labor."  In  accordance  with  this  there  was  a  stipulation:  "Dr. 
Parker  will  give  as  much  of  his  time  and  attention  to  the  busi- 


ness  as  is  consistent  with  the  circumstances  above  stated — this 
matter,  however,  being  left  to  his  own  discretion,  but  it  is  under- 
stood and  hereby  agreed  that  he  shall  be  relieved  of  midwifery 
and  night  practice  except  in  such  cases  as  he  may  select  and 
choose  to  attend."  The  following  clause  of  the  articles  is  indicative 
of  the  extent  of  practice  which  my  father  then  had,  and  which 
came  to  the  firm  afterwards.  "  A  competent  person  to  fill  the 
position  of  bookkeeper,  cashier  and  dispenser,  shall  always  be 
employed  by  the  firm,  to  take  charge  of  the  books,  cash,  accounts, 
dispensing,  and  collecting  monies,  whose  salary  shall  be  paid 
by  the  business."  As  already  stated,  my  father  had  previously 
employed  such  an  assistant,  after  his  removal  to  Argyle  Street. 

The  custom  of  taking  into  the  offices  and  instructing  students 
still  continued.  That  the  partnership  was  harmonious  and  lucra- 
tive is  attested  by  its  continuance  until  my  father  relinquished 
general  practice. 

This  business  arrangement  made  possible  a  plan  of  removing 
altogether  to  Dartmouth  to  reside  and  converting  the  summer 
cottage  there  into  a  permanent  home.  In  1867  the  building 
of  the  present  house  was  begun,  using  the  cottage  as  a  nucleus; 
the  stable  was  removed  to  its  present  site  and  enlarged,  the  field 
below  the  house  was  cleared,  the  grounds  laid  off  as  they  now 
appear,  and  the  property  with  the  frontage  on  the  shore  was 
acquired.  In  the  spring  of  1868  the  new  house  was  occupied, 
and  it  became  my  father's  home  for  the  nearly  forty  years  of 
life  that  he  was  yet  to  enjoy.  The  principal  features  of  the 
house  are  its  spacious,  high  and  airy  apartments,  designed  by 
himself  for  health's  sake.  Often  did  he  attribute  the  prolongation 
of  his  life  to  that  home  amid  the  sheltering  beeches,  beside  the 
waters  of  the  Cove,  and  congratulate  himself  for  his  good  fortune 
in  being  able  to  live  out  of  town,  in  finding  a  situation  so  health- 
ful for  his  young  family,  and  where  he  could  practise  for  him- 
self the  principles  of  his  gospel  of  fresh  air,  sunshine,  and  a  life 
that  was  closer  to  nature. 

Soon  after  the  removal  to  Dartmouth,  Dr*  Cowie  occupied 
the  Argyle  Street  house. 

It  may  be  said  here,  in  passing,  that  the  subject  of  this 
Memoir  was  not  of  the  stamp  of  practitioner  to  seek  membership  in 
foreign  societies  and  thereby  attach  more  of  the  alphabet  to  his 
name  than  the  symbols  of  his  Edinburgh  degree  and  license. 
But  I  am  reminded,  at  this  stage,  that  the  attention  of  the 
Gynecological  Society  of  Boston,  Mass.,  of  which  Dr.  Horatio  R. 
Storer  and  Dr.  Winslow  Lewis  were  leading  members,  having 
been  attracted  by  something  written  by  my  father  in  the  depart- 
ment to  which  the  Society  was  devoted,  he  was  elected  an  honor- 
ary member  of  that  body  in  October,  1870.     In  this  branch  of 

1861  TO  1871  225 

his  profession  he  was  specially  proficient,  owing,  possibly,  in 
some  degree  to  the  training  and  influence  under  which  he  came 
as  a  clinical  clerk  to  Sir  James  Y.  Simpson  who  specialized 
in  gynecology. 

Dr.  John  Stewart  kindly  furnishes  the  following  notes  from 
the  minutes  of  the  Medical  Society  of  Nova  Scotia  for  the  years 
1869,  1870  and  1871. 

"  1869,  July  20.  Meeting  in  Windsor.  Dr.  Parker  was 
appointed  on  the  Committee  of  Arrangements  with  Dr.  W.  J. 
Almon  and  Dr.  E.  Jennings.  One  of  the  principal  subjects  dis- 
cussed was  the  newly  founded  medical  school  in  Halifax. 

"  1870.  Meeting  in  Halifax.  Dr.  Parker  was  present  and 
took  an  active  part  in  this  meeting. 

"  1871.  A  special  meeting  was  called  in  August,  1871,  and 
among  other  things,  the  Society  expunged  from  its  roll  of  mem- 
bers the  name  of  Dr.  D y  who  had  not  only  refused  to 

return  to  Dr.  Parker  certain  money  lent  to  him  when  studying 
medicine,  but  had  published  in  the  Halifax  papers  offensive 
remarks  about  Dr.  Parker.  Also,  next  day,  August  30th,  it  was 
resolved  to  present  an  address  to  Dr.  Parker  at  a  medical  supper, 
he  being  about  to  leave  the  city  for  Edinburgh,  for  two  years." 

The  year  1871  brought  the  resolve  to  abandon  general  prac- 
tice, to  pursue  further  study  at  Edinburgh,  and  upon  his  return, 
to  practice  only  as  a  consultant.  Johnston,  who  had  been  pre- 
paring for  his  medical  course  at  Edinburgh  with  work  in  chemis- 
try and  botany  at  Dalhousie  College  and  reading  in  the  office, 
was  now  ready,  and  it  was  planned  that  the  entire  family  should 
go  over  for  two  years.  The  Argyle  Street  property,  with  the  good 
will  of  the  practice,  was  now  sold  to  Dr.  Cowie,  and  after  twenty- 
six  years  of  successful  labor,  my  father  found  himself  cut  adrift 
from  his  profession,  that  he  might  be  free  to  commence  the  study 
of  it  afresh  and  get  more  thoroughly  to  the  front  of  the  advance 
which  medicine  and  surgery  had  accomplished  by  this  time. 

The  family  crossed  from  Halifax  to  Liverpool  in  August, 
and  remained  in  Birkenhead,  in  lodgings  near  my  uncle  John 
A.  Black's  home,  until  my  father  could  follow.  He  was  that 
year  President  of  the  Canadian  Medical  Association,  and  had 
to  preside  at  its  annual  meeting,  held  at  Quebec  in  the  Laval 
University  on  September  13th  and  14th.  He  was  the  second 
president  in  the  history  of  that  Society.  Dr.  Charles  Tupper 
was  the  first. 

On  September  4th,  shortly  before  his  departure  for  Quebec, 

his    professional    confreres    (pursuant    to    the    resolution    of   the 

Medical    Society    of   Nova    Scotia    above   noted)    testified    their 

esteem  by  entertaining  him  at  a  supper  and  presenting  an  address. 

The    following    account    of    this    testimonial   was    furnished    the 

city  press  by  Dr.  Gordon: 


Dr.  Parker. 

On  Monday  evening  the  medical  men  of  the  city  entertained 
the  Hon.  Dr.  Parker  at  the  Waverley  Hotel.  Thirty-two  mem- 
bers sat  down  to  an  excellent  supper  at  9.30.  Dr.  Black  occupied 
the  Chair,  and  Dr.  Almon  the  Vice-Chair.  After  the  royal  toast, 
'  the  Queen,'  was  responded  to,  the  Chairman  introduced  the 
toast  of  the  evening  '  Our  Guest.'  He  said  that  he  had  been 
associated  with  Dr.  Parker  for  many  years,  and  their  intercourse 
had  always  been  pleasant.  Dr.  Parker  had  identified  himself 
with  the  Charitable  Institutions  of  this  city,  and  in  the  earlier 
days,  when  the  poor  were  not  provided  for  so  well  as  now,  he  was 
ready  to  attend  to  them  as  freely  as  to  the  rich,  irrespective  of 
fee  or  reward.  For  over  twenty-five  years  he  had  been  in  the 
habit,  in  dangerous  cases,  of  consulting  Dr.  Parker,  and  he  had 
always  found  him  actuated  by  a  nice  sense  of  etiquette  and  willing 
to  lend  himself  to  carry  the  case  to  a  successful  termination. 

He  saw  that  the  Dominion  Medical  Association  had  chosen 
him  for  President,  and  he  had  no  doubt  that  Dr.  Parker  would 
make  for  himself  a  European  reputation. 

After  the  toast  was  heartily  responded  to,  the  Chairman  called 
upon  the  Secretary  to  read  the  following  address: 

To  the  Hon.  Daniel  McNeill  Parker,  M.D., 
Member  of  Legislative   Council, 
Province  of  Nova  Scotia. 
Dear  Sir: — 

We,  the  members  of  the  Medical  Profession  of  Halifax  and 
of  the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia,  aware  that  you  are  about  to 
leave  our  city  and  Province  for  Edinburgh,  cannot  allow  you  to 
go  from  our  midst  without  unitedly  expressing  the  feelings  of 
regard  which,  as  a  body,  and  as  members  of  the  same  profession, 
we  entertain  towards  you. 

An  earnest  and  diligent  student  at  college,  for  the  twenty- 
six  years  you  have  resided  amongst  us,  you  have  not  failed  to 
keep  pace  with  the  medical  literature  of  the  time,  nor  deservedly 
to  secure  and  enjoy  a  large  share  of  public  confidence  and  esteem. 

In  our  professional  intercourse  your  conduct  has  been  marked 
with  a  spirit  of  courtesy  and  fairness,  whilst  your  extended 
culture,  matured  experience,  and  sound  judgment,  have  always 
entitled  your  opinions  to  weight  and  respect. 

For  many  years  an  active  member  in  the  Provincial  and 
County  Medical  Societies,  you  have  spared  neither  time  nor 
expense  in  furthering  the  public  interests  of  the  profession  in 
this  Province. 

We  feel  that  the  Dominion  Medical  Association  of  Canada, 
in  unanimously  electing  you  as  their  President,  chose  a  worthy 

1861  TO  1871  227 

representative,  and  not  only  paid  a  well-merited  tribute  to  an 
upright  man,  but  also  through  you  conferred  an  honor  upon 
the  Medical  Society  of  Nova  Scotia. 

In  leaving  Halifax  your  absence  will  be  deeply  felt  by  a 
large  number  of  our  citizens,  and  you  carry  with  you  the  warm- 
est interest  of  many  personal  friends. 

Trusting  you  may  join  your  estimable  lady  and  family  in 
safety,  after  a  speedy  and  prosperous  voyage,  and  that  you  may 
derive  all  the  pleasure  and  profit  you  anticipate  from  your  visit 
to  the  modern  Athens ;  looking  forward  with  pleasure  to  your 

We  subscribe  ourselves, 

Yours  faithfully, 

Sgd.     R.    S.    Campbell,,    M.D.  William  J.  Almon. 

W.  B.  Slayter,  M.D.  James  R.  DeWolf. 

W.  1ST.  Wickwire.  Chas.    J.   Gossip,   M.D. 

J.  Somers.  Aethue  Moren,  M.D. 

A.  H.  Woodill.  A.  Hattie. 

Edwin  Clay.  A.  P.  Held. 

W.  J.  Lewis.  Chas.   D.   Rigby. 

Edwd.  Farbell.  Rort.   W.   McKeagney. 

Robert  McFatridge.  J.  F.  Black. 

Stephen  Dodge.  Jas.  Pitts,  M.B. 

Thomas  Walsh.  James  Venables. 

Val.  M.  McMaster.  D.  A.  Fraser. 

(78th  Highlanders).  Andrew  J.  Cowie. 

Dr.  Burgess.  E.  D.  Roach. 

R.  S.  Black. 

H.  A.  Gordon. 
Halifax,  4th  Sept.,  1871.  Secretary. 

"  Dr.  Parker  said : 
"  '  I  can  only  reply  in  feeble  language  to  the  address  presented 
to  me.  For  the  past  few  days  there  has  been  thrust  upon  me  the 
additional  duty  of  executor  to  a  departed  friend.  What  shall  I 
say  to  my  friends  who  have  sprung  a  mine  upon  me  ?  The  address 
calls  forth  feelings  I  cannot  express ;  many  friends  have  signed  it 
who  have  exhibited  their  kindly  feelings  on  my  behalf.  The 
address  has  been  written  with  too  flattering  a  pen.  Even  my 
vanity  will  hardly  permit  me  to  think  I  am  entitled  to  it. 

"  '  I  go  from  Halifax  to  seek  relaxation  and  to  seek  improve- 
ment in  my  Alma  Mater  of  former  days,  and  hope  when  I  return 
I  may  be  of  more  use  to  my  professional  brethren  and  my  patients, 
should  I  have  any. 

"  '  My  emotions  to-night  are  like  those  of  a  parent  who  receives 


his  first-born.     This  address  is  my  first-born.     I  never  received  one 

" '  In  parting  from  you,  gentlemen,  I  will  remember  with 
gratitude  this  evening.  I  could  not  on  paper  express  my  feelings. 
I  can  only  say  I  feel  grateful  in  my  heart  for  the  kindness  you 
have  exhibited. ' 

"  '  The  Army  and  Navy  '  was  given  by  Dr.  Almon  and  replied 
to  by  Drs.  McMaster  and  Lewis. 

"  Dr.  Clay  gave  '  Our  Guests.'  Replied  to  by  Dr.  Roach  and 
Dr.  McMaster. 

"  Dr.  Parker,  after  giving  '  The  Officers  of  1ST.  S.  Medical 
Society,'  with  the  name  of  Dr.  Black  as  President,  said :  '  Under 
Dr.  Black,  the  past  meeting  was  the  most  profitable  I  remember. 
I  enjoyed  the  papers  then  read,  and  hope  that  at  the  next  meeting 
they  may  be  still  more  profitable.  In  the  Halifax  County  Society, 
I  would  advise  the  younger  members  to  go  on  with  the  meetings 
and  reading  of  papers,  for  by  so  doing  you  will  improve  yourselves 
and  do  good  to  the  public.  I  fell  into  a  grave  error  in  the  early 
part  of  my  life,  led  into  it  by  a  large  practice.  It  is  a  misfortune 
for  a  young  man  to  have  a  large  practice  at  first,  for  it  prevents 
the  scientific  pursuit  of  our  profession.  As  an  M.L.C.  I  may  say, 
had  I  my  life  to  live  over  I  would  never  take  such  an  active 
part  in  politics  as  I  have  done.  I  believe  it  is  the  duty  of  every 
professional  man  to  take  part  in  the  public  matters  of  the  day; 
but  there  is  great  danger  of  being  too  much  engrossed  by  them.' 

"  He  then  concluded  by  proposing  the  health  of  Drs.  Black  and 

"  Several  other  toasts  were  proposed  and  responded  to,  amongst 
which  was  one  to  Dr.  Gossip,  as  the  only  survivor  of  those  who 
rendered  their  aid  to  the  cholera  patients  of  the  '  England.' 

"  Dr.  DeWolf  spoke  feelingly  of  Rev.  Dr.  Mclsaac,  who  won 
the  esteem  of  the  whole  community  at  that  time,  and  concluded  his 
remarks  by  requesting  the  company  to  drink  in  silence  '  Absent 
Friends,  and  the  Memory  of  Departed  Professional  Brethren.' 

"  After  drinking  a  bumper  to  the  Committee  and  singing  '  God 
Save  the  Queen,'  the  company  broke  up  shortly  before  twelve 
o'clock,  having  enjoyed  a  very  pleasant  evening. 

"  H.  A.  Goedon, 

"  Secretary." 

Of  the  thirty  doctors  who  gathered  at  the  board  that  evening 
in  the  old  "  Waverley,"  now  part  of  the  Halifax  Infirmary,  there 
are,  I  think,  but  six  survivors. 

I  am  indebted  to  Dr.  Charles  Elliott,  of  Toronto,  the  General 
Secretary  of  the  Canadian  Medical  Association  (one  of  my  father's 
old  students),  for  the  following  notes  from  the  minutes  of  the 

1861  TO  1871  229 

Association  showing  my  father's  participation  in  its  work  up  to 
the  time  when  he  became  its  President,  and  also  for  a  copy  of  his 
presidential  address  delivered  at  Quebec  on  September  13th,  1871, 
upon  the  occasion  of  the  fourth  annual  meeting.  Dr.  Elliott  says : 
"  Dr.  Parker  was  present  at  the  organization  meeting  in  Quebec 
City,  the  9th  of  October,  1867;  was  appointed  on  the  Registration 
and  Credential  Committee  of  that  meeting,  the  first  Committee 
appointed;  also  on  the  10th  of  October  appointed  a  member  on 
Special  Committee  on  Preliminary  Education;  elected  to  Com- 
mittee on  General  Education,  which  was  also  to  look  into  the  sys- 
tem of  granting  licenses  (the  first  movement  towards  Dominion 
Registration).  The  first  annual  meeting  of  the  Canadian  Medical 
Association  was  held  at  Montreal  on  the  2nd,  3rd  and  4th  of  Sep- 
tember, 1868.  Dr.  Parker  does  not  appear  to  have  been  present 
at  that  meeting,  but  was  elected  Vice-president  for  Nova  Scotia. 
The  second  annual  meeting  was  held  in  Toronto,  on  the  8th  and 
9th  of  September,  1869.  He  was  present  at  that  meeting  and  was 
appointed  a  member  of  the  Nominating  Committee,  and  again 
appointed  on  the  Registration  Committee.  The  third  annual 
meeting  was  held  in  Ottawa  on  September  14th  and  15th,  1870. 
Dr.  Parker  was  present  at  that  meeting,  was  a  member  of  the 
Nominating  Committee,  and  was  also  appointed  a  member  of  the 
Committee  on  Ethics,  of  jvhich  he  was  chairman.  He  was  elected 
to  the  Presidency  at  the  Ottawa  meeting,  and  served  for  1870-1 
in  that  capacity." 


Messes.  Vice-Presidents,  and  Gentlemen: 

You  did  me  the  honor  at  the  close  of  our  last  session  at  Ottawa 
to  elect  me  to  fill,  for  the  ensuing  year,  the  high  position  of  Presi- 
dent of  the  Canadian  Medical  Association.  My  present  desire  is, 
not  to  remind  you  of  the  reasons  I  then  used  why  a  different  course 
should  have  been  adopted  and  a  different  selection  made;  but 
finding  myself  the  occupant  of  the  situation,  to  discharge,  to  the 
best  of  my  humble  ability,  the  responsible  duties  connected  there- 

For  three  consecutive  years  our  friend  Doctor  Tupper  most 
ably  and  satisfactorily  filled  "  the  Chair,"  and,  calling  to  his  aid 
the  experience  of  a  long  Parliamentary  training,  by  firmness  and 
impartiality  has  well  conducted  our  Association  through  all  the 
dangers  and  difficulties  of  early  existence. 

With  the  knowledge  and  promptness  of  a  skilful  pilot  he  has 
guided  us  safely  through,  and  beyond,  the  reefs  and  breakers 
which  here  and  there  met  us  on  the  way,  and  to-day  we  find  our- 


selves  anchored,  I  hope,  in  smooth  water  and  in  good  holding 
ground.  Unaided,  this  progress  could  not  have  been  made;  but 
thanks  to  the  spirit  which  has  pervaded  our  annual  gatherings — 
a  spirit  of  courtesy  and  kindness,  blended  with  an  independence 
of  speech  and  action,  and  the  fixed  determination  on  the  part  of 
those  who  constitute  the  Association  to  heartily  co-operate  with 
their  President  in  overcoming  all  obstacles — this  infant,  born  in 
the  fair  city  of  Quebec  in  1867,  has  returned  to  it,  well  developed, 
and  likely  soon  to  reach  the  full  stature  of  manhood;  eventually, 
I  trust,  to  accomplish,  in  no  limited  degree,  one  of  the  principal 
objects  for  which  man  should  live  on  earth — good  to  his  fellow- 

I  shall  endeavor  not  to  occupy  too  much  of  your  time  with 
my  address,  for  we  have  important  work  to  do,  and  but  a  very 
limited  time  to  overtake  it  in.  A  brief  reference  to  the  past  and 
a  few  thoughts  and  suggestions  as  to  our  future  must  suffice ;  and 
these  latter  will  be,  strictly  speaking,  less  of  a  professional  than 
of  a  general  character,  such  as  would  seem  naturally  to  suggest 
themselves  at  this  stage  of  our  development. 

To  the  invitation  of  the  Quebec  Medical  Society,  in  1867,  to 
come  hither  and  organize  a  Medical  Association,  a  prompt  and 
very  general  response  was  given  by  all  the  Provinces  of  the  then 
new-born  Dominion ;  and,  whatever  good  has  resulted,  or  may  in 
the  future  follow  our  labors,  we  must  ever  remember  that  the 
medical  men  of  Quebec  were  foremost,  and  took  the  initiative  in 
this  matter,  which  was  intended  to  give,  and  has  given,  organized 
life  and  an  enlarged  sphere  of  action  to  the  profession  in  British 
North  America. 

The  names  of  the  Colonial  statesmen  who  have  labored,  and 
successfully  labored,  to  unite  the  different  British  Provinces  in 
America,  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  will  be  recorded  in 
the  language  of  commendation  by  the  future  historian  of  our 
country,  and,  when,  in  years  to  come,  the  medical  history  of  our 
land  is  written,  when  the  places  that  now  know  us  shall  know 
us  no  more,  the  names  of  several  prominent  professional  men  of 
this  hospitable,  fine  old  city  will  be  handed  down  to  posterity 
as  the  originators  of  an  organization  which  will  ere  then,  I  trust, 
have  become  a  great  and  vigorous  Medical  Confederation  and  have 
accomplished  important  results  for  our  profession  and  the  public 
of  our  country. 

We  have  lived  three  years  as  an  Association,  and  have  now 
entered  upon  our  fourth ;  and  the  question  very  naturally  suggests 
itself,  What  have  we  accomplished  in  the  course  of  those  years  ? 
I  reply  that  our  past,  if  not  noted  for  any  striking  or  remarkable 
events,  has  not  been  devoid  of  effort,  of  labor  and  results.  It  has 
been  a  past  largely  occupied  in  preparation  for  future  usefulness. 

1861  TO  1871  231 

The  too  brief  time  allotted  for  our  annual  conventions  was,  in 
1867  and  1868,  almost  entirely  consumed  in  the  preliminary 
arrangements  connected  with  organization,  framing  and  adopting 
a  constitution. 

During  the  two  succeeding  sessions,  Medical  Ethics,  Prelim- 
inary and  Professional  Education,  and  the  consideration  of  a  com- 
1  rehensive  Medical  Act  for  the  whole  Dominion  of  Canada,  which 
will  be  submitted  to  you  again  to-day,  for  final  action,  have  largely 
occupied  our  attention  and  time. 

The  scientific  department  of  the  Association  has  not  been  neg- 
lected. In  addition  to  the  more  general  matters,  above  referred 
to,  we  have  been  gratified,  and  instructed,  by  listening  to  several 
very  valuable  papers  on  medical  and  surgical  subjects,  and  I  sin- 
cerely hope  that  this,  one  of  the  most  important  objects  of  our 
organization,  will  be  a  prominent  feature  of  the  work  of  this 
present  and  succeeding  sessions.  Last  year,  at  Ottawa,  various 
Committees  were  appointed,  and  some  of  these  had  entrusted  to 
their  charge  important  professional  and  scientific  subjects,  on 
which  I  trust  they  will  be  prepared  to  report  at  the  proper  time. 

The  experience  of  the  past  has  taught  us  the  lesson,  that  it 
requires  time  and  patient  effort  even  to  properly  organize  such  an 
institution  as  this.  We  have  also  learned  that  to  mature  such  a 
measure  as  the  Medical  Bill  which  was  before  us  last  year 
requires  not  only  time  and  careful  thought,  but,  having  the 
general  interests  of  our  organization  in  view,  also  the  occa- 
sional yielding  of  individual  opinion,  when  that  opinion  is  opposed 
to  the  views  of  a  majority  of  the  members  of  the  Association. 
When  we  remember,  then,  that  the  time  actually  occupied  in  per- 
forming all  the  work  above  referred  to  has  been  only  eight  days, 
that  is  to  say,  two  days  for  each  annual  session,  the  wonder  is  that 
so  much  has  been  accomplished.     So  much  for  the  past. 

The  important  work  of  our  immediate  future  is  the  discussion 
of  the  Act  first  referred  to.  which  was  submitted  to  us  at  Ottawa 
by  Dr.  Howard,  chairman  of  the  Committee  to  whom  was  referred 
the  responsible  and  arduous  duty  of  framing  the  measure. 

Those  of  you  who  were  then  present  will  recollect  that  a  pro- 
longed discussion  of  its  main  features  took  place,  and  that  certain 
of  its  clauses  were  modified  by  amendments,  which  the  Association 
directed  a  new  committee,  under  the  same  chairman,  to  embody  in 
the  Act,  prior  to  its  general  distribution  among  the  members  of  the 
profession.  This  duty  has  been  performed ;  and  the  Secretary  has 
scattered  broadcast  over  the  land  the  Bill  of  1870,  with  these 
Ottawa  amendments  appended,  and  to-day,  I  take  it  for  granted, 
every  member  of  the  profession  in  the  United  Provinces,  as  well 
the  absent  as  the  present,  is  familiar  with  its  principles  and  details. 
I  look  upon  this  measure  in  the  main  as  well  adapted  to  the 


condition  and  circumstances  of  the  country,  valuable  alike  to  the 
profession  and  the  public,  and  immediately  desirable. 

It  is  not  to  be  expected  that,  in  dealing  with  a  matter  of  such 
moment,  perfect  unanimity  will  prevail.  Men's  minds  are  differ- 
ently constituted,  and  in  the  discussion  of  a  measure  of  magnitude 
and  importance  like  this  all  cannot  see  eye  to  eye.  Indeed,  such 
a  condition  of  things  here  would,  to  my  mind,  be  undesirable,  as 
it  would  suggest  the  probability  of  but  little  attention  or  matured 
thought  having  been  given  to  the  subjects  embraced  within  the 
provisions  of  the  bill.  By  free  discussion,  and  a  public  statement 
of  our  individual  views,  truth  and  sound  principles  will  be  evolved, 
and  both  the  professional  and  the  public  interests  will  thereby  be 

I  trust,  gentlemen,  that  in  finally  dealing  with  this  bill,  during 
the  present  session,  sectional  and  personal  interests  will  here  find 
no  resting-place,  and  that,  whatever  may  be  our  differences  of 
opinion  in  relation  to  some  of  the  clauses,  we  will  all  be  actuated 
by  an  ardent  desire  to  obtain  for  British  America  an  advanced  and 
comprehensive  measure  adapted  to  the  present  and  future  wants 
of  the  country — a  measure  that  we,  and  those  who  are  to  follow  us, 
in  after  years  can  look  upon  and  speak  of  with  pride  and  satis- 

The  time  cannot  be  afforded,  and  if  it  could  it  would  be  out 
of  place,  for  me  to  discuss  at  length,  from  the  Chair,  the  various 
subjects  embraced  in  the  contemplated  Act,  but  I  trust  you  will 
bear  with  me  while  I  briefly  refer  to  a  few  of  its  leading  features. 
And  first  let  me  say,  not  for  the  information  of  members  of  the 
Association,  for  you  are  already  familiar  with  the  fact,  but,  for 
the  benefit  of  those  who  are  beyond  and  without  our  circle,  if  any 
such  are  present,  that  we  are  taking  the  initiative  and  striving 
to  obtain  this,  our  "  Reform  Bill,"  not  from  selfish  motives — not 
with  the  idea  of  advancing  our  own  personal  and  pecuniary  inter- 
ests, but  from  an  ardent  desire  to  elevate  the  profession  and  to 
expand  its  sphere  of  usefulness — to  better  qualify  and  education- 
ally equip  its  members  for  dealing  with  human  health  and  human 

In  this  connection,  I  may  add,  as  a  noteworthy  fact,  that  all 
medical  reforms,  properly  so  called,  have  emanted  from  the  pro- 
fession, and  have  not  been  forced  upon  us  from  without.  In  this 
particular  we  are  always  in  advance  of  public  sentiment. 

Considering  the  motives  and  reasons  which  have  prompted  us 
to  take  action  in  the  matter  now  under  discussion,  we  can  go  to 
the  different  Legislatures  of  our  country,  not  as  humble  suppliants, 
asking  for  that  which  is  to  be  of  advantage  only  to  ourselves,  but 
we   can   approach   them   from   higher   ground   and   demand    this 

1861  TO  1871  233 

measure  of  reform, — and  I  might  also  acid,  of  necessity, — as  a 
right,  in  the  interests  of  the  public  and  of  humanity. 

The  bill  we  are  about  to  seek  from  our  Legislatures  will,  if  it 
becomes  operative,  not  only  give  to  the  country  a  more  highly 
qualified  Profession,  but,  by  referring  to  its  forty-seventh  clause, 
you  will  perceive  that  it  will  furnish  the  Governments — and  that 
without  cost  to  their  revenues — with  a  responsible  body  of  advisers, 
in  short,  with  an  advisory  council,  to  whom,  with  confidence,  they 
can  appeal  for  guidance  on  sanitary  subjects,  and  "  all  matters 
pertaining  to  the  public  health,"  and  thus  provide,  at  the  expense 
of  the  medical  profession,  a  substitute  for  a  Bureau  of  Public 
Health.  While  the  Central  Council  will  occupy  this  position  in 
relation  to  the  General  Government,  it  would  seem  desirable  that 
Branch  Councils — or,  if  the  Association  should  see  fit  to  call  them 
by  another  name,  and  designate  them  Executive  Committees — 
should  perform  the  same  responsible  functions  in  the  several  Pro- 
vinces of  the  Dominion. 

It  strikes  me  that  the  retention  of  this  feature  of  the  Bill,  as 
a  part  of  its  working  machinery,  will  tend  to  popularize  the 
measure,  and  facilitate  its  passage  through  the  several  Local  Legis- 

On  all  matters  connected  with  quarantine,  public  hygiene,  the 
construction  of  general  and  special  hospitals,  and  subjects  of  a 
cognate  character,  these  advisory  bodies  would  be  of  essential  ser- 
vice to  the  Local  as  well  as  to  the  General  Governments. 

Always  readily  accessible,  and  surrounded,  as  they  would  be, 
by  official  responsibility,  their  public  utterances  would  be  well 
matured  and  authoritative. 

In  finally  dealing  with  this  measure,  and  fitting  it  for  legis- 
lative criticism  and  action,  I  trust  the  principles  embodied  therein, 
as  regards  the  composition  of  the  Council  and  the  examining  body, 
will  be  adhered  to.  It  is  a  wise  provision  to  entrust  the  respon- 
sibility of  working  this  Act  in  equitable  proportions  to  men  from 
the  schools,  who  are  already  charged  with  the  important  duty  of 
moulding  into  shape  and  giving  educational  form  to  those  who,  in 
after  years,  shall  fill  our  places, — a  duty  which  with  propriety  and 
justice  I  can  say  they  faithfully  and  ably  perform, — and,  to  mem- 
bers of  the  general  profession,  who  will  bring  to  the  work  before 
them  practical  knowledge,  energy  and  business  capacity. 

Referring  to  the  clause  which  defines  the  composition  of  the 
Board  of  Examiners,  I  may  say  that  we  have  given  a  proportion 
to  the  educational  institutions  none  too  large. 

Selecting  two-thirds  from  the  schools  and  one-third  from  the 
outside  profession,  we  will  be  able  without  difficulty  to  obtain  a 
Board,  composed  of  men  "  of  approved  skill  in  the  several  subjects 
on  which  they  are  to  examine."     Give  us  a  uniform  standard  of 


preliminary  and  medical  education,  registration,  a  sound  licensing 
system,  a  General  Council  such  as  our  bill  provides,  and  an 
Examining  Board,  selected  as  above  indicated,  and  the  corner 
stones  and  main  pillars  of  a  great  work  will  have  been  securely 
laid,  on  which  a  superstructure  may  be  built,  adapted  to  the  present 
as  well  as  to  the  future  necessities  of  a  rapidly  growing  country 
and  an  ever-increasing  medical  profession. 

Provision — and,  under  all  the  circumstances,  a  wise  provi- 
sion— has  been  made  in  our  Act  for  the  registration  of  every 
member  of  the  medical  profession — without  reference  to  doctrine 
or  modes  of  practice — who,  at  the  time  of  its  becoming  law,  may 
be  possessed  of  a  license  to  practise  in  any  of  the  Provinces 
of  the  Dominion.  I  say  it  is  a  wise  provision,  for,  whatever  our 
individual  feelings  and  opinions  may  be,  it  is  expedient,  looking 
to  the  passing  of  the  measure  by  the  General  Parliament,  and  its 
subsequent  adoption  by  the  Legislatures  of  the  several  Provinces, 
that  this  feature  should  not  be  modified. 

I  speak  with  confidence  when  I  say  that  any  attempt  at  retros- 
pective legislation  in  this  matter  would  do  more  than  jeopardize 
our  Bill, — it  would  destroy  it. 

It  is  to  be  borne  in  mind  that  very  many  of  those  whom  we 
are  wont  to  designate  irregular  practitioners  are  to-day  qualified 
by  law  to  practice  medicine ;  but  their  legal  recognition  does  not 
by  any  means  involve  the  idea  of  professional  recognition,  in  the 
ordinary  acceptation  of  the  term. 

This  subject  was  discussed  at  some  length  at  our  last  meet- 
ing, and  the  question  was  then  settled.  I  refer  to  it  to-day 
because  there  are  here  present  a  large  number  of  members  who 
were  not  at  Ottawa,  and  it  is,  of  course,  competent  for  any  of  these 
gentlemen  to  again  open  up  the  subject ;  but,  having  it  thus  placed 
before  them,  I  should  hope  that  they,  considering  the  very  import- 
ant interests  involved  in  the  passage  of  the  Act  through  the  several 
Legislatures  of  the  Dominion,  would,  at  the  close  of  such  discus- 
sion, leave  it  "  in  statu  quo." 

New  Schools. 

There  is  a  growing  tendency  in  almost  all  young  countries  to 
multiply  medical  schools — often  to  the  serious  prejudice  of  the 
educational  and  general  status  of  the  profession — and  I  regret 
to  say  that  British  America  is  not  an  exception  to  this  rule. 

I  am  fully  convinced  that  this  is  an  evil,  and  that,  instead 
of  diffusing  our  strength  by  unduly  increasing  their  number,  it 
would  be  in  the  interests  of  the  profession  and  the  public  rather 
to  concentrate  our  forces,  and  to  enlarge  and  expand  those  now 
in  active  and  healthy  operation,  and  thus  make  them  still  more 

1861  TO  1871  235 

The  twenty-ninth  clause  of  our  Bill,  and  the  proposed  amend- 
ments thereto,  are  both  in  accord  with  the  opinion  to  which  I 
have  just  given  utterance,  as  indeed  was  the  general  sentiment 
of  the  Association,  as  expressed  at  its  last  meeting  at  Ottawa. 

I  will  not  touch  upon  the  more  minute  details  of  the  contem- 
plated Act,  but  having  thus  briefly  referred  to  a  few  of  its  funda- 
mental principles,  and  assuming  its  adoption  here  during  this  ses- 
sion, I  will,  before  leaving  the  subject,  just  say,  that  it  behooves 
every  member  of  this  Association  to  exert  all  his  Parliamentary 
influence,  so  that  a  successful  issue  may  be  there  obtained.  It  will 
be  necessary  for  us  to  watch  the  measure  with  jealous  care,  as  it  is 
being  dealt  with  by  the  several  Legislatures  of  the  country,  lest 
it  should  be  so  marred  as  to  render  it  inoperative. 

Time,  thought,  co-operative  effort,  and  money  have  all  been 
expended  in  maturing  and  advancing  it  thus  far,  and  it  would 
be  a  great  misfortune  to  the  profession,  and  the  country,  if  it 
should  miscarry  in  the  Houses  of  those  who  should  be  its  friends. 

Let  us  assume  that  the  Bill  has  become  the  law  of  the  land, 
then  the  question  arises,  will  the  profession  be  prepared  to  give 
the  necessary  time,  and  to  make  the  necessary  sacrifices  to  ensure 
its  success?  It  is  well  that  at  this  early  period  we  should 
think  of  this  matter.  Obtaining  the  Act  in  the  desired  shape,  or 
as  it  shall  pass  from  our  hands,  will  accomplish  but  little,  either 
for  the  profession  or  the  people,  unless  the  members  of  this 
Association,  having  put  their  hand  to  the  plough,  determine  not 
to  look  back,  but,  on  the  contrary,  by  continued  and  persevering 
effort,  to  conquer  success.  It  is  possible  that  ere  we  meet  again 
the  Act  may  have  passed  the  General  and  some  of  the  Local  Legis- 
latures, hence  the  necessity  of  being  early  prepared  to  efficiently 
work  the  entire  machinery  of  the  law.  I  believe  its  future 
success  will  altogether  depend  on  the  men  who  shall  be  selected 
for  the  first  and  few  succeeding  years  of  its  existence,  to  organize 
the  institution,  and  conduct  its  business. 

Medical  men  as  a  body  are  self-sacrificing — to  an  extent  that 
the  general  public  little  know  and  little  appreciate.  The  object 
in  question  will  call  forth,,  and  draw  largely  upon,  this  character- 
istic element  of  our  professional  nature ;  for  men  the  most  experi- 
enced, the  most  successful,  the  most  largely  and  lucratively  engaged 
in  professional  practice,  will  be  those  who  should  put  their 
shoulders  to  the  wheel,  and  force  the  machine  successfully  ahead. 
Sacrifice  of  time,  comfort  and  money  will  have  to  be  made  in 
the  interests  of  the  profession  we  love,  and  for  the  public  good. 

In  making  the  early  selections  (especially)  to  fill  the  offices 
contemplated  by  this  Act,  our  motto  should  be,  "  the  right  men  in 
the  right  place."  Sectional  and  personal  desires,  feelings,  and 
friendships  should  all  be  held  in  abeyance,  and  the  success  of  our 


undertaking  should  be  the  prominent  idea  in  every  man's  mind. 
Matured  men  of  sound  judgment  must  be  at  the  helm,  and  com- 
pose the  Executive ;  otherwise,  "  The  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada,"  from  which  much  will 
be  expected,  will  fail  to  perform  its  mission;  will  lamentably 
disappoint  its  friends,  and,  while  bringing  discredit  on  us  as  a 
body,  will  give  "  aid  and  comfort  "  to  our  enemies.  Patriotism, 
applicable  alike  to  the  profession  and  to  the  country  of  our  choice 
and  our  affections,  plainly  indicates  the  course  we  should  pursue 
in  relation  to  this  important  matter. 

An  additional  incentive  to  harmonious  and  energetic  .action 
in  order  to  obtain,  and  successfully  work,  an  advanced  educational 
and  general  measure  such  as  that  now  under  consideration,  exists 
in  the  knowledge  of  the  fact  that  at  this  moment  the  eyes  of  the 
profession  of  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States  are  directed 
towards  Canada,  watching  with  anxiety  and  interest  our  every 

In  the  mother  country  they  have  already  dealt  with  the  subject, 
and,  in  reference  to  time,  are  in  advance  of  us;  but  in  the  adjoin- 
ing republic  they  are  only  now  taking  the  preliminary  steps  to 
accomplish  the  object. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association,  held  in 
1870,  a  motion  was  introduced  providing  for  "  a  uniform  stand- 
ard of  the  medical  education  throughout  the  union."  Unanimity 
was  not  obtained.  The  more  advanced  East,  if  I  am  correctly 
informed,  favored  the  measure  — the  more  recent  Western  country 
adopting  it  unwillingly.  Earl  Grey's  political  utterance,  given 
many  years  since  to  our  Provincial  public,  that  "  a  young  country 
must  be  content  to  have  its  work  cheaply  and  somewhat  roughly 
done,"  exhibited  sectional  hostility  to  the  progressive  resolution 
in  question.  However,  it  cannot,  in  the  nature  of  things,  be  very 
long  ere  the  strong  and  vigorous  common  sense  of  the  Great 
Republic  will  display  itself  by  successfully  grappling  with  this 
important  professional  and  public  question,  and,  unless  I  am 
greatly  mistaken,  the  action  about  to  be  taken  by  this  Association, 
if  successful,  will  largely  influence  our  neighbors  in  the  matter. 
Success  in  Canada  is  to  me  very  suggestive  of  early  success  in 
the  United  States. 

Future  Work  and  Future  Duty  of  the  Canadian  Medical 


Without  wishing  in  any  way  to  dictate  what  should  or  what 
should  not  constitute  our  future  duties,  I  trust  you  will  permit 
me  to  offer  a  few  thoughts  on  this  subject. 

The  routine  work  of  the  Association  is  already  defined  by  our 
Constitution  and  By-laws,  provision  has  also  been  made  for  a 

1861  TO  1871  237 

large  amount  of  practical  and  scientific  work  connected  with 
professional  subjects. 

To  Standing  and  other  Committees  we  have  entrusted  all 
matters  pertaining  to  medical  education,  medical  literature, 
climatology,  epidemic  diseases,  and  Canadian  medical  necrology; 
but,  if  this  Association  confines  its  labors  and  its  efforts  to  the 
subjects  already  indicated,  it  will  fall  for  short  of  accomplishing 
all  that  should  and  will  be  expected  of  it.  There  are  matters  of 
general  or  national,  as  well  as  professional,  importance  in  which 
it  should  be  deeply  interested,  and  among  these  I  would  name 
that  of  Vital  Statistics,  intimately  connected  as  this  subject  is 
with  the  Science  of  Medicine.  Its  relations  to  the  State  are  equally 
important ;  and,  to  a  young  country  anxious  for  and  seeking  after 
population  from  abroad,  its  bearing  upon  the  national  question 
of  emigration  can  readily  be  appreciated  by  an  audience  such 
as  I  have  to-day  the  honor  of  addressing.  We  may  talk  and  write 
from  day  to  day  and  year  to  year  about  the  vast  extent  of  our 
Dominion ;  we  may  tell  the  densely  populated  countries  of  Europe 
of  our  fertile  soil;  that  we  possess  millions  of  acres  which  "only 
require  to  be  tickled  with  the  plough  and  the  harrow  to  make 
them  laugh  for  thirty  or  forty  consecutive  years  in  harvests  "  the 
most  abundant;  we  may  talk  and  write  of  our  vast  natural 
resources,  of  our  forests,  our  fisheries,  our  coal  fields,  our  gold, 
iron,  copper  and  other  mineral  resources,  until  our  tongue  grow 
weary,  and  our  pens  fail  us,  but  it  will  do  but  little  in  accom- 
plishing the  desired  end,  unless  we  can  at  the  same  time  prove, 
by  well  digested  and  reliable  statistics,  that  our  country  is  healthy, 
that  epidemic  diseases  but  seldom  prevail  to  any  extent,  and 
that  our  climate  is  favorable  to  longevity.  When  we  can,  with 
facts  and  figures  under  our  hand,  say  to  the  inhabitant  of  the 
British  Isles,  the  Frenchman,  the  German  and  the  Swede,  that 
his  chances  of  living  in  health  and  comfort  for  three  score  years 
and  ten,  or  even  a  century,  are  as  great,  or  greater,  in  the 
Dominion  of  Canada  than  in  other  competing  lands,  we  will  have 
touched  a  chord  that  will  vibrate  and  produce  the  desired  results. 
Such  information  will  influence  all  classes,  but  especially  the 
better  class  of  agriculturists,  mechanics  and  laborers ;  in  short,  the 
very  people  we  desire  to  draw  to  our  country,  whose  pockets, 
on  landing,  are  not  found  empty. 

It  is  in  the  power  of  the  Medical  Profession  of  Canada,  both 
in  their  associated  capacity  and  as  individuals,  to  assist  the  Gov- 
ernment in  perfecting  a  system  of  returns  relating  to  the  vital 
statistics  of  the  Dominion,  which  if  coupled  with  satisfactory 
reports  on  its  climatology  and  diseases,  and  widely  disseminated  by 
active  and  efficient  agents  among  the  nations  of  Europe,  whose  sur- 
plus populations  are  seeking  homes  in  other  and  newer  countries, 


must  have  an  important  bearing  on  the  matter  of  emigration ;  and 
in  this  way  we  will  be  performing  a  valuable  work,  both  for  our- 
selves and  our  country. 

Inebriate  Institutions. 

I  have  already  suggested  that  "  hospitalism,"  or,  in  other 
words,  the  construction,  arrangements,  and  management  of  general 
and  special  hospitals — erected  at  the  public  expense — would  very 
properly  be  a  matter  on  which  the  Executive  of  this  Association 
could  give  advice,  as  occasion  might  arise,  to  the  several  Govern- 
ments of  the  country. 

I  will  now,  in  a  few  words,  call  your  attention  to  a  subject 
of  great  and  increasing  importance,  somewhat  allied  to  this,  in 
the  hope  that  you  will  all  become  interested  in  it,  and  not  only 
give  it  your  sympathy  but  your  active  support. 

I  refer  to  the  provision  of  inebriate  institutions  for  the  treat- 
ment and  reformation  of  habitual  drunkards.  You  need  not  be 
uneasy,  gentlemen;  I  am  not  going  to  take  advantage  of  my 
position  here  to-day  to  inflict  on  you  a  temperance  lecture,  but 
I  feel  it  incumbent  on  me  to  avail  myself  of  the  occasion  to  direct 
your  attention  to  this  want,  so  generally  felt  throughout  the  land. 

Quebec  is  the  only  city  of  the  Dominion  in  which  such  an 
institution  exists.  It  is,  I  believe,  a  recent  and  private  institu- 
tion, and  I  have  no  doubt  has  already  accomplished  much  good. 

The  Province  of  Quebec — and  to  her  honor  be  it  spoken — is  the 
only  portion  of  Canada  that  has  legislated  on  the  subject  under 
consideration.  In  1870  its  Legislature  passed  a  measure  entitled, 
"  An  Act  to  provide  for  the  interdiction  and  cure  of  habitual 
drunkards,"  which,  to  my  mind,  almost  perfectly  meets  the  varied 
circumstances  and  necessities  of  the  case,  providing,  as  it  does, 
for  the  necessary  coercive  restraint  and  curative  treatment  of  the 
inebriate,  and  at  the  same  time,  relief  alike  to  society  and  to  the 
friends  who  are  afflicted  with  their  presence.  The  Act  in  question 
embodies,  in  the  main,  the  views  I  have  long  entertained  on  this 
subject,  and  which  twenty  years  ago  were  given  to  the  public 
of  Nova  Scotia. 

In  the  Central  Parliament  of  our  common  country,  the  bishops 
of  several  dioceses  have,  within  the  past  two  or  three  years, 
petitioned  and  earnestly  urged  that  prompt  legislative  action 
should  be  taken  on  the  subject.  In  Nova  Scotia,  nearly  all  the 
denominations  have,  in  like  manner,  approached  the  local  Legis- 
lature, with  the  same  object  in  view. 

Heretofore,  the  medical  profession  as  a  body  have  not  given 
this  matter  the  attention  it  deserves,  and,  except  in  a  few  isolated 
cases,  there  has  been  no  co-operation,  on  our  part,  with  those  who 

1861  TO  1871  239 

fill  the  ministerial  office,  who,  to  their  credit  be  it  said,  have 
striven,  almost  single-handed,  to  obtain  from  our  Governments 
the  legislation  and  pecuniary  aid  necessary  to  accomplish  the 

Shall  we,  in  the  future,  let  our  hands  hang  listlessly  by  our 
sides,  while  others  are  striving  to  accomplish  that  which  will  save 
from  utter  ruin  and  misery  vast  numbers  of  our  fellow-men? 
I  shall  hope  not ! 

Ample  State  provision  has  been  made  throughout  our  country 
for  the  restraint  and  treatment  of  those  who  are  mentally  diseased. 
Hospitals  for  the  insane,  vast  institutions,  almost  perfect  in  their 
arrangements  and  systems  of  management,  are  to  be  found  in  all 
the  principal  provinces  of  British  America.  These  have  proved 
blessings  to  our  land,  and  have  opened  wide  their  doors  for  the 
reception  of  all  who  have  been  thus  afflicted  by  Providence.  The 
public  revenues  of  the  country  erect  the  structures,  and  bountifully 
support  them.  But  when  Governments  and  politicians  are 
appealed  to,  and  urged  to  take  action  in  the  matter  of  providing 
for  the  restraint  of  those  who  are  suffering  from  this  State  disease 
(habitual  drunkenness),  they  not  infrequently  shirk  responsibility, 
and  quiet  their  consciences  by  suggesting  to  the  applicants  that  it 
is  not  a  work  for  Governments,  but  one  that  should  be  dealt  with 
by  philanthropists  and  moral  reformers. 

To  this  false  position  I  take  entire  exception,  and  to-day  would 
say  to  those  who  sit  in  high  places  in  our  Legislatures  and  Gov- 
ernments, who  control  and  disburse  the  revenues  derived  from 
that  which  creates  this  disease  (amounting  in  the  Dominion  of 
Canada  to  about  four  millions  of  dollars  annually),  you  should 
no  longer  neglect  or  trifle  with  issues  so  important. 

If  the  traffic  in  alcohol  is  legalized,  as  we  know  it  to  be,  and 
millions  of  revenue  flow  year  by  year  into  our  treasury  there- 
from, surely  the  public  sentiment  of  the  country  will  sustain 
its  parliamentary  representatives  in  making  the  necessary,  and 
even  the  most  advanced,  provision  for  the  curative  treatment 
of  the  unhappy  victims  of  the  traffic  in  question. 

The  safety  of  society,  the  comfort  and  happiness  of  innumer- 
able families,  the  prevention  of  disease — a  matter  specially  per- 
taining to  our  profession ;  the  relief  of  our  overburdened  hospi- 
tals, poor-houses,  and  insane  asylums,  all  call  loudly  for  speedy 
and  effective  effort  to  be  put  forth,  in  order  that  this  heretofore 
neglected  question  shall  be  neglected  no  longer.  Gentlemen,  the 
medical  profession  is  familiar  with  this  social  evil  as  no  other 
class  of  men  can  possibly  be.  We  meet  it  every  hour,  in  every 
city,  town,  and  village  of  our  country.  We  daily  see  its  effects 
on  the  individual ;  we  know  its  baneful  and  deteriorating  results 
on  their  posterity.     To  us  the  people  look  in  matters  of  this  kind 


for  information  and  guidance,  so  that  they  may  be  stimulated  into 
properly  directed  action.  Hence,  I  feel  that  it  is  incumbent  on 
us,  as  individuals,  and  as  a  Medical  Association,  to  aid  those  who 
are  already  at  work;  to  bring  all  the  pressure  in  our  power  to 
bear  on  our  several  Governments  and  Legislatures,  in  order 
that  they  may  take  early  and  decided  action  in  the  matter. 

Ere  passing  from  this  subject,  I  may  add  that  no  legislation 
will  adequately  meet  the  difficulties  of  the  case,  which  fails  to 
make  provision  for  the  compulsory  restraint  and  treatment  of 
the  habitual  drunkard,  in  these  institutions;  which  fails  to  pro- 
vide a  competent  tribunal  to  decide  who  are  and  who  are  not  fit 
subjects  for  admission  thereto,  and  also,  to  take  charge  of  their 
remaining  and  unsquandered  property. 

Gentlemen,  we  have  a  duty  to  perform  in  this  matter.  Shall 
we,  bearing  in  mind  the  responsibilities  which  attach  to  us,  as 
medical  men  and  citizens,  give  it  a  helping  hand  ? 

If  such  is  your  mind,  let  me  say,  the  passing  hour  is  the  one 
in  which  action  should  be  taken. 

The  Sects  and  the  Sexes. 

On  these  subjects  it  may  be  expected  that  I  should  say  a  few 
words.  When  I  first  attended  the  meetings  of  this  Association 
I  learned  that  here,  in  old  Canada,  the  term  "  Sects  "  was  applied 
to  irregular  practitioners,  who  hold  and  practise  exclusive  doc- 
trines. Dr.  Storer,  the  talented  delegate  from  the  American 
Medical  Association — whose  able  and  eloquent  address  before 
this  Association  last  year  will  be  fresh  in  the  memories  of  those 
present  who  had  the  pleasure  of  hearing  it — designated  these 
men  "  guerillas,"  from  the  fact,  I  suppose,  that  he  considered 
them  unreliable  and  dangerous  members  of  society.  Well,  gentle- 
men, I  don't  fancy  guerillas,  and  shall  in  the  future,  as  in  the 
past,  keep  them  at  a  respectable  distance — leave  them  alone.  Our 
Bill  deals  with  them  in  this  spirit.  Their  legal  rights  are 
not  infringed.  Those  of  them  who  are  now  recognized  by  law 
as  medical  practitioners  will  continue  to  enjoy  their  privileges 
as  heretofore,  but,  in  the  future — should  our  contemplated  Act 
become  law — the  public  will,  to  some  extent,  be  protected,  inas- 
much as  these  irregular  practitioners  must,  ere  they  can  practise 
medicine  under  any  form,  be  educated  men — "  guerillas,"  if  you 

Now,  leaving  the  "  Sects,"  let  me  for  a  moment  refer  to  "  the 
Sexes,"  or  more  properly,  the  female  sex,  in  their  new  relations  to 
the  profession  of  Medicine. 

In  days  gone  by,  a  disciple  of  Lindley  Murray,  if  called  upon 
to  give  the  gender  of  a  Doctor  of  Medicine,  would  very  properly 

1861  TO  1871  241 

have  replied — masculine ;  but,  in  modern  times — in  this  pro- 
gressive and  fast  age — he  would  have  either  to  coin  a  term,  or 
reply,  like  the  Irishman,  "  it  depends  on  whether  it  is  a  he  or  a 
she,"  but  one  thing  he  might  with  great  propriety  add,  "  the 
occupation  is  certainly  masculine." 

In  France,  Russia,  Switzerland,  Sweden,  the  neighboring 
Union,  and  even  in  conservative  Scotland,  the  Medical  Schools 
have  opened  their  doors  to  the  female  sex,  and,  in  some  instances, 
they,  in  competitive  examinations,  have  proved  themselves  to  be 
strong-minded  women. 

The  subject  is  not  yet  practically  before  us,  but  come  I  pre- 
sume it  will,  and  that  at  no  distant  day;  and,  gentlemen,  when  the 
appeal  is  made  to  you,  to  the  Medical  Profession  of  Canada,  to 
receive  within  your  fold  the  enterprising  pioneers,  from  those 
whom  we  have  been  wont  to  term  the  weaker  sex,  will  your 
response  be  yea  or  nay? 

I  cannot  say  that  I  admire  the  taste  which  would  prompt 
young  females  to  take  the  scalpel  in  hand  in  the  anatomical  depart- 
ment, and  there,  as  in  the  lecture  room,  to  work  side  by  side 
with  medical  students  of  the  sterner  sex,  scrutinizing  subjects  to 
them  heretofore  hidden,  and  hearing  discussed  matters  the  most 
delicate,  that  in  all  social  intercourse  between  the  sexes  would, 
in  days  gone  by,  have  been  sacredly  avoided  and  forbidden.  But, 
gentlemen,  belonging  as  I  do  to  the  Old  School,  my  views  in 
relation  to  such  things  may,  in  these  progressive  days,  be  con- 
sidered erroneous,  antiquated,  or  fossiiiferous. 

This  is  "  a  future-looking  age,"  and  that  which  some  of  us 
may  look  upon  as  an  undesirable  innovation,  may  possibly  be  a 
step  in  the  right  direction, — tending,  eventually,  to  draw  man 
back  to  the  primitive  conditions  of  Eden,  when  perfect  innocence 
prevailed ;  but,  accustomed  as  we  are  to  the  condition  of  things 
subsequent  to  the  Fall,  I  am  constrained  to  say  that  the  habili- 
ments of  that  fall — the  fig-leaf  and  the  fur — still  have  their 
charms  for  me.  But,  gentlemen,  notwithstanding  the  natural 
feelings  which  are  suggested  by  these  modern  innovations  on  the 
usage  of  centuries,  I  can  hardly  advise  opposition  to  the  move- 
ment, when  the  occasion  for  discussing  it  arises. 

These  future  Doctresses,  unlike  the  Sects — with  whom  I 
have  grouped  them — will  seek  admission  to  our  fold  by  the  regular 
door,  and  through  legitimate  channels;  hence  the  propriety  of 
courteously  entertaining  and  calmly  viewing  the  position  when 
their  proposals  are  submitted. 

I  may  not  be  here  to  take  part  in  the  discussion  when  this 
subject  is  before  the  Association,  but  my  views  may  be  given,  in 
advance,  in  the  words  of  one  of  Dickens'  celebrated  characters, 
who    was    wont    to    express    himself    affirmatively    on    important 


occasions  by  saying,  "  Barkis  is  willin'."  My  counsel  to  you  then, 
gentlemen,  when  this  question  demands  your  attention,  ^  when 
this  matrimonial  alliance  is  actually  sought,  is  to  say,  in  the 
language  of  Barkis,  "We  are  willin',"  and  to  surrender  at 

Professional  Politicians. 

There  is  another  matter  intimately  connected  with  the  inter- 
ests of  our  profession,  to  which,  in  as  few  words  as  possible,  I 
should  like  to  call  your  attention.     I  refer  to  the  growing  ten- 
dency among  medical  men  of  this  young  country,  who  are  already 
general  practitioners,   that  is  to  say,   physicians,   surgeons,   and 
accoucheurs,  to  become  also  practitioners  in  politics.     I  am  the 
more  inclined  to  refer  to  this  subject  in  consequence  of  an  observa- 
tion made  last  year,  in  discussion,  by  a  member  of  this  Associa- 
tion, to  the  effect  that,  in  one  of  the  Provinces  of  the  Dominion, 
one-third  of  its  Parliamentary  representatives  were  members  of 
the  medical  profession ;  and,  he  added,  if  in  view  of  the  interests 
of  our  craft   it  were   necessary,   that   number   could   readily  be 
increased  to  one-half.     I  am  one  of  those  who  believe  that  every 
citizen,  especially  educated  and  thinking  men,  should  never  fail 
to  exercise  the  full  rights  of  citizenship ;  that  they  should  not  hold 
themselves  aloof  and  stand  idly  by  while  great  and  important 
political  events  are  transpiring — and,  in  our  day,  these  come  thick 
and  fast  upon  us;  on  the  contrary,  I  think  it  is  the  duty  of  the 
profession  calmly  and  firmly  to  assist  in  moulding  and  elevating 
public   opinion,    and  in   rightly  directing   it   on   all   the   greater 
questions   of   the    day,    relating   to    our    country's    advancement. 
I  believe  that  the  medical  man  who,  for  personal  and  pecuniary 
reasons,  fails  to  independently  exercise  his  franchise,  is  neglecting 
an  important  duty  as  a  citizen,  and  doing  an  injustice  to  his  man- 
hood and  his  profession;  and  this  remark  is  the  more  applicable 
in  the  case  of  a  young  country,  where  in  the  nature  of  things,  tone 
and  direction  to  public  sentiment  must  be  largely  given  by  mem- 
bers of  the  learned  professions.     But,  on  the  other  hand,  I  feel 
that   a   widespread    desire — especially   among   our   younger   men 
who   are  not  yet  in   a  position   of  pecuniary   independence — to 
seek  constituencies,   and  parliamentary  places,  will,   in   general, 
prove  personally  injurious,  and  at  the  same  time,  militate  against 
the  interests  of  the  profession.    Although  I  have  never  represented 
a  constituency,  yet  I  have  had  some  practical  knowledge  of  political 
life,  and  from  one  of  its  public  positions  have  viewed  the  whole 
arena,  and  on  this  subject  feel  that  I  can  speak  with  some  degree 
of  authority;  and  the  conclusion  at  which  I  have  arrived  is  that 
we  cannot  at  the  same  time  efficiently  serve  two  masters — the 
Medical  Profession  and  Politics.     To  be  faithful  to  both,  of  neees- 

1861  TO  1871  243 

sity  involves  such  a  tax  on  time,  and  such  a  wear  and  tear  of 
mental  energies,  that  few  men  can  satisfactorily  fill  the  two  posi- 
tions, without  suffering  "  in  mind,  body,  and  estate." 

Do  not  misunderstand  me,  gentlemen ;  I  do  not  for  a  moment 
entertain  the  idea  that  medical  men  should  not  be  legislators,  or 
that  they  are  not  sometimes  well  qualified  for  the  position, — the 
teachings  of  experience,  and  of  colonial  history,  would  oppose  such 
a  view.  There  are  important  public  questions  coining  constantly 
before  legislative  bodies,  on  which,  from  their  training  and  prac- 
tical knowledge,  medical  men  are  better  qualified  to  express 
opinions  than  the  majority  of  those  who  usually  compose  these 
deliberative  assemblies.  But  this  I  do  say,  that  to  flood  our 
legislative  halls  with  plrysicians  and  surgeons,  and  to  make  their 
complexion  and  atmosphere  largely  medical,  would  be  doing  no 
good  to  the  country,  while  it  would  be  inflicting  a  grievous  injury 
on  a  scientific  profession. 

Perhaps  I  will  be  excused  for  adding  that  this  growing  ten- 
dency towards  public  or  political  life  has  as  yet  resulted  in  making 
but  very  few  medical  statesmen,  while  I  feel  assured  it  has  spoiled 
a  good  many  doctors. 

Speaking  from  experience,  I  can  say  that  it  is  an  easy  matter 
to  enter  and  become  entagled  in  the  political  net,  but  it  is  much 
more  difficult  to  withdraw  therefrom,  and  to  extricate  yourself 
from  the  position,  however  desirous  you  may  be  to  do  so. 

Gentlemen,  I  trust  I  may  be  excused  for  referring  to  this 
subject,  but,  having  been  elected  to  fill  the  important  post  of 
father  to  the  Association  for  the  present  year,  I  have  exercised  a 
parent's  privilege,  by  giving  you  the  result  of  personal  observa- 
tion, and  the  advice  suggested  thereby,  on  a  matter  very  intim- 
ately connected,  I  think,  with  the  interests  of  the  medical  profes- 
sion of  the  Dominion  of  Canada. 

Compulsory  Vaccination. 

The  subject  of  compulsory  vaccination  should  early  occupy 
the  attention  of  this  Association.  It  is  unnecessary,  even  had 
I  the  time,  addressing,  as  I  am,  a  professional  audience,  that  I 
should  dwell  at  length  on  this  matter,  and  support  the  suggestion 
by  argument,  by  facts,  and  by  figures,  which  are  already  familiar 
to  you,  but  more  especially  to  those  of  your  number  who  have 
studied  the  vital  statistics  of  Great  Britain  and  other  European 
countries.  When  I  say  that  this  subject  should  early  occupy 
the  attention  of  the  Association,  I  mean  that  it  should  be  our 
duty,  without  unnecessary  delay,  to  urge  it  on  the  Government 
and  Legislature  of  the  country  as  a  matter  of  national  moment, 
and  one  that  should  be  promptly  dealt  with;  more  especially  as, 


in  these  days,  the  importation  of  smallpox  to  this  continent  by 
steamships  engaged  in  transporting  emigrants  from  the  larger 
cities  of  Europe  is  a  thing  of  weekly  occurrence. 

Leaving  politico-medical,  or  medico-political  subjects,  let  me 
for  a  brief  moment  refer  to  one  or  two  matters  more  purely 
medical,  intimately  connected  with  the  growth  and  interests  of 
this  Association. 

Medical  Societies. 

It  should  be  the  duty  of  this  institution  to  recommend  and 
urge  upon  its  members  the  desirableness  of  forming  Medical 
Societies  whenever  and  wherever  the  material  can  be  found  to 
effect  this  object.  We  cannot  over-estimate  their  value  to  the  pro- 
fession and  to  the  communities.  They  are,  when  organized  on 
correct  principles,  and  properly  conducted,  educational  institutions 
of  great   practical   value. 

They  stimulate  men  to  work,  to  observe,  and  think,  and  to 
impart  to  the  common  storehouse  of  knowledge  important  facts, 
that  would  otherwise  be  lost  to  the  profession,  or  would  be  long 
delayed  in  reaching  that  storehouse.  They  are  capital  schools 
for  eliciting  practical  knowledge,  developing  latent  talent,  and 
bringing  to  the  front  men  of  ability,  who,  without  such  aids,  would 
often  remain  in  obscurity,  unknown  and  unhonored. 

In  sparsely  populated  districts,  where  medical  men  but  seldom 
congregate  in  numbers,  and  the  advantages  of  social  and  profes- 
sional intercourse  cannot  be  had,  as  in  cities,  they  will  supply  a 
want  not  otherwise  to  be  obtained.  To  this  institution  they  will 
be  valuable  co-workers,  and  the  delegates  who  shall  here  represent 
them  will,  in  general,  both  in  speaking  and  voting,  be  giving 
expression  to  the  views  not  of  the  individual  only,  but  of  the 
organization  whence  they  come. 

As  an  Association,  we  can  only  deal  with  this  matter  in  a 
recommendatory  spirit.  It  is  a  subject  for  sectional  and  indi- 
vidual effort,  but  I  trust  its  importance  will  not  be  lost  sight  of, 
and  that,  ere  we  meet  again,  the  medical  societies,  which  are  now 
comparatively  few  in  number,  may  be  increased  in  the  Dominion 
of  Canada  ten-fold ;  and,  through  our  increasingly  valuable  medical 
periodicals,  be  giving,  systematically,  to  the  whole  profession,  the 
result  of  their  labors. 

Finance  and  Publication  of  Professional  and  Scientific 


I  wish  to  call  attention  to  the  report  of  the  Publishing  Com- 
mittee, presented  to  the  Association  last  year,  on  the  subject  of 
our  finances.  The  Chairman  of  the  Committee,  Dr.  F.  W. 
Campbell,  informed  us  that  the  valuable  papers  prepared  with 

1861  TO  1871  245 

much  thought,  and  at  no  small  expenditure  of  time,  which  had 
been  read  on  previous  sessions  before  the  Association,  remained 
unpublished  for  want  of  funds.  Let  me  say,  gentlemen,  that  I 
believe  the  usefulness,  and  the  continued  life,  of  our  organization, 
is  largely  dependent  on  the  cultivation  of  this  its  scientific  and 
professional  feature;  and  we  cannot  expect  members  to  give  their 
time  and  labor  to  this  department  if  their  papers,  after  being 
read,  are  to  be  thrown  into  waste  paper  baskets,  or  fyled  away 
in  the  Secretary's  office,  unpublished.  Dr.  Campbell's  suggestion 
in  this  connection  was  that  membership  should  be  looked  upon 
as  permanent,  and  that,  whether  present  at  our  annual  meetings 
or  absent,  the  dues  or  subscriptions  should  be  collected  from  all. 

Dr.  CannifFs  notice  of  motion  to  alter  the  By-laws  in  relation 
to  this  matter,  in  accordance  with  this  suggestion,  comes  regularly 
before  us  now.  and  will,  I  trust,  be  promptly  passed,  so  that  the 
financial  difficulty  to  which  I  refer  may  no  longer  impede  our 
scientific  progress.  I  should  have  liked,  had  time  permitted,  to 
refer  to  the  desirableness  of  sending  some  of  our  representative 
men,  as  delegates,  to  foreign  Associations;  and  especially  to  that 
of  the  neighboring  Union,  which,  on  more  than  one  occasion,  has 
paid  us  the  compliment  of  sending  to  our  annual  gatherings  some 
of  its  ablest  members. 

We  should  reciprocate,  and  be  well  represented  at  their  next 
meeting.  I  should  also  have  liked  to  dwell  for  a  few  moments 
on  the  propriety  of  the  whole  profession  of  British  America  pat- 
riotically supporting,  by  their  subscriptions  and  literary  contri- 
butions, the  medical  press  of  the  country,  but  time  fails  me. 

Heretofore,  our  sessions  have  continued  only  two  days.  The 
time  is  altogether  too  limited  to  satisfactorily  overtake  the  busi- 
ness, and  I  trust  that  on  this  occasion,  and  in  the  future,  three 
entire  days,  at  least,  may  be  appropriated  for  the  work  of  each 

In  closing  these  already  too  lengthy  observations,  I  feel  it  my 
duty  to  say  to  the  Association,  and  more  especially  to  its  Nominat- 
ing Committee,  who  will  to-morrow  probably  submit  for  approval 
the  names  of  our  officers  for  the  ensuing  year,  that  I  believe  it 
to  be  for  the  true  interests  of  the  institution,  that  the  President 
and  Vice-President  should  in  the  future  not  be  re-appointed, 
but  changed  annually,  and  I  would  now  advise  the  Association 
to  seek  new  men  from  the  leading  minds  in  the  profession,  from 
those  who  occupy  prominent  positions  as  practitioners  or  teachers, 
who,  in  consequence  of  what  they  have  achieved  by  their  talents 
and  energy  in  the  Science  of  Medicine,  are  by  the  common  con- 
sent of  the  profession,  and  the  public,  acknowledged  as  men  worthy 
to  fill  the  highest  professional  offices  in  the  gift  of  the  profession 
itself  or  of  the  public. 


While  other  collateral  subjects  come  legitimately  within  our 
sphere  of  action,  and  should  have,  as  I  have  already  stated,  our 
earnest  attention,  let  me  say,  gentlemen,  that  our  primary  object 
should  be  to  make  this  structure,  from  top  to  bottom,  from  centre 
to  circumference,  in  all  its  parts,  a  professional  institution;  and 
with  this  end  in  view,  and  ever  in  our  minds,  we  should  bend 
ourselves  manfully  to  the  work,  striving  with  unity  of  purpose 
and  a  fixed  determination  to  make  the  Medical  Association  of 
the  Dominion  of  Canada  one  of  the  prominent  and  most  useful 
institutions  of  the  land;  and,  in  accomplishing  this,  we  will  be 
largely  assisted  by  annually  placing  at  the  head  of  the  Associa- 
tion our  ablest  men,  who  are  not  engaged  in  other  pursuits  than 
medicine.  In  this  connection,  too,  I  would  say  to  the  junior  men 
who  have  but  for  a  brief  period  been  engaged  in  the  struggle, 
and  are  conquering  success,  and  to  those  who  are  just  commenc- 
ing their  professional  career,  on  you  will  largely  rest  the  labor 
and  the  responsibility  of  guiding  its  affairs,  and  making  it  in 
the  future,  I  trust,  a  blessing  to  our  profession  and  our  country. 
We,  who  for  long  years  have  been  upon  the  stage,  and  have  taken 
an  active  part  in  organizing  and  bringing  it  thus  far  on  its  journey, 
must,  in  the  nature  of  things,  soon  step  aside,  and  give  place,  we 
earnestly  hope,  to  abler  and  better  men.  We  say  to  you  to-day, 
young  men,  equip  and  prepare  yourselves  for  these  future  responsi- 
bilities so  that  in  after  years  the  historian  of  your  profession  and 
our  country  may  truthfully  say  of  you,  "  They  well  performed 
their  work." 

Before  he  left  Halifax  for  Quebec,  my  father  had  yielded 
to  the  solicitations  of  his  old  friend  Mr.  Stephen  Selden,  editor 
and  proprietor  of  The  Christian  Messenger,  to  furnish  that 
paper  with  some  correspondence  from  Edinburgh.  The  journey 
to  Quebec  (as  it  was  usually  done  before  the  Intercolonial  Rail- 
way was  built),  the  Atlantic  voyage,  and  some  account  of  things 
seen  in  Liverpool,  are  related  in  the  first  of  a  series  of  seven 
letters  published  in  the  Messenger,  as  follows.  The  letter  omits 
mention  of  four  of  his  fellow-passengers  on  the  "  Moravian," — 
Taylor,  Bagnall,  Sadler  and  Winship,  composing  the  Tyne,  or 
Taylor-Winship  crew,  who  were  returning  home  after  a  series 
of  victories  in  America.  Sadler  was  the  champion  single-sculler 
of  that  day,  who  defeated  Nova  Scotia's  greatest  oarsman,  George 
Brown,  at  Halifax.  Being  physically  "  used  up,"  they  consulted 
my  father  on  the  voyage,  when  he  found  them  in  much  the  same 
condition  from  overwork  as  was  poor  Renforth,  the  English  oars- 
man, when  he  attempted  his  last  race,  on  the  Kennebacasis  near 
St.  John,  and  fell  dead  in  his  boat.  Advised  by  my  father,  the 
crew  cancelled  pending  English  races  and  went  out  of  commission 
for  a  time. 

1861  TO  1871  247 

13  Salisbury  Place,  Xewington, 

Edinburgh,  October  24th,  1871. 
Dear  Editor. — 

In  compliance  with  your  request  I  propose  to  inflict  on  you 
and  your  readers  some  "  jottings  by  the  way,"  which,  if  not 
interesting,  will  at  all  events  demonstrate  to  you  the  fact  that 
although  now  surrounded  in  this  old  world  by  much  that  is  attrac- 
tive and  absorbing,  both  to  the  eye  and  the  mind,  I  have  neither 
forgotten  my  promise  nor  those  I  have  left  behind  me  at  home. 

St.  John  to  Portland — More  Boats  Required. 

As  you  are  aware,  I  came  to  Britain  by  rather  a  circuitous 
route.  My  journey  from  Halifax  to  Quebec  by  a  way  very 
familiar  to  the  travelling  public  of  Xova  Scotia  need  not  be  dwelt 
on  at  any  length,  as  nothing  of  any  moment  occurred  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  oft-repeated  excursions  made  in  former  years 
over  the  same  ground.  On  board  the  International  steamer  which 
thrice  a  week  bridges  the  intervening  space  between  St.  John 
and  Portland  there  was  a  heterogeneous  crowd  of  some  four  or 
five  hundred  travellers,  not  knowing  what  to  do  with  themselves 
by  day,  and  a  large  number  of  them  finding  it  very  difficult  to 
know  where  to  stow  their  bodies  at  night — the  sleeping  accommoda- 
tion being  insufficient  for  the  number  on  board.  In  this  connection 
let  me  advise  those  of  your  citizens  who  may  be  travelling  between 
St.  John  and  Portland,  by  these  International  steamers,  during 
the  crowded  season,  to  procure  a  stateroom  ticket  from  the  Hali- 
fax agent,  ere  they  leave,  else  a  plank,  with  or  without  a  pillow, 
will  very  likely  be  their  lot  during  the  night  they  are  compelled 
to  be  at  sea.  Having  taken  this  precaution,  I  was  enabled  to  accom- 
modate two  unberthed  gentlemen,  in  the  upper  story  of  my  state- 
room, and  as  I  looked  out  upon  the  motley  mass  of  recumbent 
figures,  stowed  away  on  the  saloon  floors  for  the  night — almost  as 
compactly  as  spoons  in  a  sideboard — I  could  not  but  feel,  that  for 
that  night,  at  all  events,  "  the  lines  had  fallen  unto  us  in  pleasant 

Xot  unfrequently,  by  day,  as  I  elbowed  my  way  through  the 
over-crowded  saloons,  and  more  frequently  by  night,  the  thought, 
would  suggest  itself,  "  What  would  become  of  the  hundreds  of 
passengers  on  board  should  fire,  collision,  or  other  disaster  befall 
the  ship  in  which  we  were  journeying,  rendering  it  imperative  on 
all  hastily  to  desert  her  ?  " 

To  those  who  have  thought  of  this  matter,  and  examined  the 
very  inadequate  means  of  transport — in  the  shape  of  boats — with 
which  these  vessels  are  provided,  to  meet  a  sudden  emergency 
of  the  kind  referred  to,  a  feeling  of  gratitude  to  God  is  at  once 
suggested,    that    these,    otherwise   well    equipped    and    admirably 


managed  steamships,  have,  year  after  year,  been  preserved  by 
Him,  and  that  the  thousands  upon  thousands  of  men,  women 
and  children  who  have  taken  passage  by  them  have  been  safely 
landed  at  their  places  of  destination. 

With  all  the  care  and  all  the  skill  that  human  ingenuity  and 
thought  can  devise,  accidents  of  the  most  fearful  nature  are  con- 
stantly occurring  on  the  sea,  and  along  our  coasts,  and  thousands 
of  men  now  actively  engaged  in  the  pursuits  of  life  have  been 
indebted  for  preservation,  to  the  adequate  and  well  ordered  boat 
arrangements  of  the  ships,  which,  in  conveying  them  from  port 
to  port,  were  wrecked  or  lost  at  sea.  I  had  thought  that  no  passenger 
ship  was  permitted  to  leave  a  British  port  without  sufficient  boat 
accommodation  being  provided  for  every  seaman  and  passenger 
on  board — in  case  of  accident — but  I  have  been  in  error.  At  all 
events,  the  rule,  as  I  understand  it,  of  the  English  Board  of  Trade, 
does  not  appear  to  be  applicable  to  the  British  North  American 
Provinces — but  I  hope  the  day  is  not  far  distant  when  such  a 
regulation  will  be  there  made  imperative,  and  applicable  alike 
to  ships  sailing  under  foreign  and  British  flags. 

The   Nova   Scotia  Lion. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  to  mention  that  if  the  list  of  voyagers  on 
this  occasion  contained  no  names  known  to  fame,  there  was,  at 
all  events,  one  distinguished  saloon  passenger  on  board,  and  he 
a  Nova  Scotian — although  not  a  member  of  the  human  family. 
I  refer  to  a  young  lion,  born  a  few  days  or  weeks  before  in  Halifax 
— the  whelp  of  a  circus  lioness.  He  was  cared  for  and  nursed  in  the 
lap  of  a  circus  lady,  and  appeared  comfortable  and  "  happy  under 
the  circumstances." 

I  neither  saw  nor  heard  anything  of  the  natural  mother,  and 
came  to  the  conclusion  that  this  good  lady  was  either  returning 
the  compliment  for  Romulus  and  Remus  of  old,  or,  that  adopting 
the  suggestion  of  Dickens  in  "  Dombey  and  Son,"  she  was  "  doing 
something  temporary  with  a  teapot." 

The  railway,  after  some  unavoidable  delay,  deposited  us  at 
Point  Levis  early  on  Sunday  morning,  and  as  we  steamed  across 
the  St.  Lawrence  to 


a  familiar  object  from  the  harbor  of  Halifax,  the  "  Royal  Alfred  " 
bearing  the  flag  of  Admiral  Fanshaw,  met  our  view. 

Accompanied  by  a  fellow  traveller,  the  Rev.  D.  O.  Parker,  of 
Liverpool,  N.S.,  the  only  Baptist  Chapel  in  Quebec  was  sought 
and  found,  and  we  spent  a  pleasant,  and  I  trust  a  profitable  day 
with  the  little  band  who  worship  there.  In  the  evening  Mr. 
Parker  occupied  the  pulpit. 

1861  TO  1871  249 

Quebec  was  crowded  to  excess,  and  every  available  bed  occupied 
by  visitors.  The  hotel  accommodation  at  best  is  but  limited, 
but  on  this  occasion,  in  addition  to  a  large  number  of  tourists, 
the  great  Provincial  Exhibition  and  Medical  Association  were 
being  held  in  the  city,  and  attracted  strangers  from  a  distance, 
who  found  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  food  in  abundance,  but 
where  to  get  comfortable  bed-rooms  was  another  matter.  Close 
stowage,  with  some  discomfort,  had  to  be  endured  for  a  time  by 
many  who  were  unaccustomed  to  it. 

Across  the  Atlantic. 

At  9.30  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  16th  September  the 
passengers  for  England  by  the  screw  steamship  "  Moravian,"  of 
whom  I  was  one,  were  ferried  by  a  steam  tug  alongside,  and  with 
their  trunks  and  bandboxes  were  hustled  on  board.  At  10  o'clock 
the  gun  fired  and  we  were  off,  with  our  prow  directed  seaward. 
The  scenery  for  a  long  distance  below  Quebec,  on  both  sides  of 
the  St.  Lawrence,  is  beautiful.  Cultivated  and  picturesque  islands 
are  numerous,  and  add  variety  to  it.  For  very  many  miles  below 
the  city  the  shores  of  the  river  are  thickly  populated.  The 
churches  are  large,  and  have  their  roofs  and  steeples  covered  with 
tin,  which  reflecting  on  a  fine  day  the  sun's  rays  gives  them  a 
most  brilliant  appearance.  In  Halifax,  as  indeed  in  all  places 
situated  in  close  proximity  to  the  sea,  tin  is  speedily  acted  upon 
chemically;  and  consequently  cannot  be  used  for  roofing  pur- 
poses, as  on  the  Upper  St.  Lawrence  and  throughout  Canada ; 
where  there  is  an  immense  consumption  of  the  English  manu- 
factured article,  which  takes  the  place  of  slate  and  shingles. 
Far  down  the  St.  Lawrence  lies  the  "  Island  of  Bic,"  where 
pilots  congregate  in  summer.  Here  they  leave  outward  bound 
ships,  and  take  charge  of  those  on  their  way  to  Quebec  and 
Montreal,  amid  fog  and  rain.  At  midnight  we  reached  it  and 
discharged  our  pilot  and  the  quarantine  medical  officer,  who 
took  on  shore  our  telegrams  and  letters,  and  mailed  them  at  the 
island  post  office.  The  official  just  named  awaits  the  arrival 
of  the  next  inward  bound  Allan  mail  steamship,  and  accompanies 
her  up  the  river  for  the  purpose  of  carefully  inspecting  the 
immigrants  and  other  passengers.  If  contagious  disease  is  among 
them,  he  detains  the  vessel  and  all  on  board  her  at  the  large  and 
well  equipped  Quarantine  Island,  thirty  miles  below  Quebec. 
Such  is  the  provision  made  by  the  Dominion  Government  for  the 
protection  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  old  Canadian  Provinces  against 
the  importation  of  contagious  diseases  from  other  countries  by 
way  of  the  sea ;  and,  before  my  return,  I  hope  to  learn  that  a 
well  ordered  and  sufficiently  capacious  Quarantine  establishment 


has  been  completed  on  Lawlor's  Island,  in  your  harbor,  and  that 
the  Health  Officer  of  the  port  will  be  sustained  when  the  necessity 
for  it  arises  in  making  the  quarantine  of  the  port  thoroughly 

The  mail  steamers  from  Quebec  take  the  northern  route — 
passing  through  the  somewhat  narrow  Strait  of  Belle  Isle,  which 
divides  the  eastern  coast  of  Labrador  from  the  northwestern 
part  of  Newfoundland,  making  the  voyage  to  Liverpool  only 
about  180  miles  longer  than  that  from  Halifax. 

In  and  beyond  this  Strait  almost  throughout  the  year  ice  is 
met,  and  the  temperature  of  the  water  being  below  that  of  the 
atmosphere,  a  kind  of  fog  or  mist  often  hangs  about  the  locality, 
sometimes  so  dense  as  to  obscure  all  objects,  and  making  the 
navigation  dangerous — especially  during  the  darkness  of  night. 
We  saw  several  icebergs  in  this  neighborhood,  grand  and  beauti 
ful  objects  when  observed  from  a  distance,  with  the  sun's  rays 
playing  upon  their  irregular  crystalline  surfaces,  but  greatly  to  be 
dreaded  in  a  position  like  that  of  Belle  Isle.  Our  courteous, 
experienced  and  ever-vigilant  captain  (Graham)  was  hardly  off 
"  the  bridge  "  from  the  time  we  left  Quebec  until  we  were  beyond 
the  iceberg  region. 

If  we  (the  passengers)  went  on  deck  at  any  hour  of  the  night 
he  could  be  seen  in  the  path  of  duty — here  a  very  narrow  one, 
and  only  the  breadth  of  the  ship — pacing  the  familiar  planks 
of  the  bridge,  looking  out  for  the  floe-ice  and  icebergs — almost 
the  only  enemy  to  be  here  encountered,  if  the  correct  course  can 
be  kept;  as  other  ships  than  those  conveying  the  Canadian  mails, 
are  seldom  met  with  on  this  part  of  the  northern  route — hence 
one  of  the  dangers  of  the  more  frequented  southern  track — collision 
with  other  ships — is  avoided. 

Through  a  dense  fog  we  were  pursuing  our  course  on  the 
Tuesday  night  after  our  departure  from  Quebec  at  a  greatly 
reduced  speed,  probably  not  more  than  four  knots  an  hour,  when 
suddenly  the  ship  stopped.  Some  of  the  anxious  passengers  who 
were  spending  a  sleepless  night  were  speedily  on  deck,  and  there 
saw  a  huge  iceberg  not  more  than  forty  feet  from  the  port  side  of 
the  ship,  while  on  the  opposite  bow  was  another  large  mass  of  ice. 
Under  God,  the  great  care  and  persevering  vigilance  of  our  captain, 
officers  and  outlook  men  saved  us  from  a  terrible  calamity.  "  What 
a  lucky  escape!"  was  the  general  expression  as  the  matter  was 
discussed  among  the  passengers;  but  there  were  some  on  board 
who  could,  with  thankful  hearts,  say  there  was  no  luck  in  the 
matter,  but  that  a  kind  and  overruling  Providence  warded  off  the 
blow  which  would  have  speedily  sent  a  magnificent  ship  to  the 
bottom,  and  probably  many  lives  into  an  unexpected  eternity. 

18G1  TO  1871  251 

About  the  same  locality,  a  very  few  years  since,  a  fine  steam- 
ship, the  "  Canadian,"  owned  by  the  same  company,  and  com- 
manded by  our  captain,  in  just  such  a  fog  as  then  surrounded  the 
"  Moravian,"  about  the  dawn  of  day  struck  a  mass  of  floating  ice, 
and  in  twenty  minutes  was  away  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  while 
all  of  her  three  hundred  passengers,  save  thirty,  several  of  whom 
never  reached  the  deck  but  were  drowned  below  ere  the  ship  went 
down,  were  saved  in  the  boats  by  the  admirable  discipline  and 
coolness  of  the  officers  and  ship's  company.  A  practical  illustra- 
tion of  the  benefits  arising  from  having  all  sea-going  passenger 
ships  provided  with  the  necessary  boat  accommodation  to  take  off 
every  human  being  on  board,  in  case  of  a  serious  accident.  Out 
of  the  ice  region,  with  the  open  and  broad  Atlantic  before  us,  and 
with  comparatively  little  danger  from  other  ships  too  closely 
crossing  our  path,  our  captain  was  to  be  found  daily  occupying 
his  seat  at  table  and  adding  by  his  cheery,  gentlemanly  manner  to 
the  pleasure  and  interest  of  the  voyage. 

With  the  exception  of  an  adverse  wind,  which  continued  during 
the  entire  passage,  and  some  rather  troublesome  cases  of  the  disease 
which  Mark  Twain  facetiously  describes  by  placing  the  hand  on 
the  stomach  and  saying  "  Oh,  my !  "  all  went  well  both  with 
ship  and  passengers  until  the  night  of  Friday,  the  2 2nd  Sep- 
tember, when  I  met  for  the  first  time  in  my  life  with  death  upon 
the  ocean. 

The  case  was  peculiar  and  distressing.  A  young  Scotchman, 
thirty-two  years  of  age,  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits  in  the  city 
of  Montreal,  genial  and  intelligent,  strong,  active,  and  the  very 
picture  of  robust  health,  left  my  side  at  the  tea  table  about  eight 
o'clock  to  accompany  one  of  the  lady  passengers  on  deck.  For  a 
time  they  watched  the  phosphorescent  appearance  of  the  disturbed 
waters  in  the  wake  of  the  ship,  and  sang  together  some  familiar 
songs,  when  suddenly  he  faltered  in  speech,  and  sank  powerless 
to  the  deck.  He  was  at  once  carried  to  his  stateroom,  and  I  was 
summoned  by  the  surgeon  of  the  ship  to  see  him.  Apoplexy 
had  attacked  him,  and  the  hand  of  death  was  upon  him.  For 
a  few  minutes  consciousness  continued,  and  he  made  most  painful 
efforts  to  say  something  to  us — probably  to  send  some  parting 
message  to  those  who  were  dear  to  him,  but  it  was  useless.  Soon 
deep  stupor  supervened,  and  at  five  o'clock  next  morning,  having 
been  most  faithfully  watched  and  cared  for  by  Dr.  Wolff,  the  kind- 
hearted  surgeon  of  the  ship,  and  two  or  three  Scotch  and  Canadian 
friends  through  the  weary  hours  of  the  night,  his  spirit  fled. 
Strange  to  say,  at  the  very  time  he  was  seized,  a  large  number  of  the 
passengers  assembled  in  the  smoking  and  card-room  on  deck  were 
engaged  in  discussing  this  question — "  Who  is  the  finest-looking 


man  on  board  the  ship  ?"  and  just  as  I  opened  the  door  to  ask  one  of 
his  intimate  friends,  who  was  ignorant  of  what  had  occurred,  some- 
thing concerning  his  former  health  and  history,  the  unanimous 
decision  of  the  party  had  been  given  in  favor  of  Mr.  Wilson,  the 
man  whose  countenance  was  now  distorted  and  tongue  speechless, 
and  whose  admirably  developed  frame  was  paralyzed  and  helpless, 
and  even  then  grappling  with  death.  The  shock  produced  by 
such  an  event  on  land  would  have  been  marked  and  distressing, 
but  here,  out  upon  the  ocean,  it  can  be  more  easily  imagined  than 
described.  The  effect  was  electrical  and  depressed  every  member 
and  all  classes  of  our  little  community.  The  card-table  was  at 
once  deserted,  and  seriousness  was  upon  every  man's  brow,  and 
when  the  cabin  passengers  assembled  the  next  morning  at  the 
breakfast  table,  and  the  seat  of  one  of  the  most  intelligent  and 
cheerful  men  on  board  the  ship  was  vacant,  tears  were  seen  cours- 
ing down  the  cheeks  of  some  of  the  ladies,  as  they  thought  of  what 
was  in  store  for  the  bereaved  mother  and  the  betrothed  of  the 
deceased.  And  there  was  moisture  in  the  eye  of  more  than  one 
strong  man  as  they  thus  practically  realized  the  truth  of  the  senti- 
ment, "  In  the  midst  of  life  we  are  in  death,"  and  that,  "  In  an 
hour  when  ye  think  not  the  Son  of  man  cometh." 

Sailors  have  almost  invariably  a  disinclination  to  be  shut  up 
in  a  ship  with  the  dead,  and  their  desire  is  to  commit  as  soon  after 
death  as  possible  the  remains  to  the  deep,  but  in  this  instance  the 
body  was  retained,  for  interment  in  the  village  near  Glasgow  where 
his  parents  and  more  intimate  friends  dwelt. 

A  rough  coffin  was  prepared,  and  in  the  presence  of  the  officers, 
many  of  the  passengers  and  crew,  all  of  whom  were  deeply  im- 
pressed with  the  scene,  the  poor  fellow's  remains  were  laid  in  one 
of  the  covered  lifeboats,  suspended  from  the  davits  on  the  ship's 
quarter,  and  there  kept  until  the  Irish  coast  was  reached,  when 
they  were  landed  at  Moville  for  transportation  to  Glasgow  from 

The  Episcopal  clergyman  who  conducted  the  service  and 
preached,  the  first  Sunday  morning  after  our  departure  from 
Quebec,  was  not  able,  in  consequence  of  sea-sickness,  to  do  so  on 
the  following  Sunday  morning,  consequently  the  captain  read  the 
Church  of  England  service — and  performed  the  duty  very  well. 
In  the  evening,  the  sea  being  somewhat  quieted,  the  church  bell 
sounded  fore  and  aft  the  ship  for  ten  or  fifteen  minutes,  reminding 
us  of  the  Sabbath  on  land  and  our  own  homes,  and  the  clergyman 
took  his  place  and  preached  a  sermon  appropriate  to  the  occasion,  in 
which  feeling  allusion  was  made  to  the  sad  event  which  occupied 
all  our  minds,  the  death  of  our  deceased  travelling  companion. 

1861  TO  1871  253 

Ireland  in  Sight. 

On  Tuesday  morning,  the  26th  ult.,  quite  early,  Tory  Island 
light,  on  the  north-eastern  coast  of  Ireland,  was  sighted,  and  run- 
ning close  in  shore  along  the  coast  and  highlands  of  Donegal  we 
reached  Moville,  on  Lough  Foyle,  at  midday,  transferred  a  portion 
of  our  mails  and  several  passengers  to  a  steam  tug,  which  conveyed 
them  twelve  or  fifteen  miles  up  the  Lough  to  Londonderry — and 
then  headed  our  ship  for  the  Irish  Channel. 

Before  leaving  this  beautiful  bay  several  telegrams  were 
despatched,  announcing  to  our  families  and  others  interested  in 
the  ship  our  safe  arrival  in  British  waters.  One  was  forwarded 
to  the  friends  of  the  deceased  passenger,  telling  them  that  he  was 
no  more,  and  that  they  must  be  prepared  to  inter  his  remains, 
unseen,  on  their  arrival  in  Glasgow,  the  following  morning.  Once 
before,  in  1857,  I  passed  the  Giant's  Causeway  in  a  Cunard  ship, 
but  at  too  great  a  distance  to  satisfactorily  observe  it.  On  this 
occasion,  the  day  being  fine  and  clear,  we  "  hugged  the  shore," 
as  sailors  express  it,  and  could  with  great  distinctness  recognize 
the  columnar  appearance  of  this  peculiar  geological  formation. 
The  entrance  to  its  dark  caves  was  apparent,  with  the  boats  of 
excursionists  passing  in  and  out  of  some  of  them,  while,  seated  in 
calm  majesty  upon  his  throne  of  basaltic  rock,  the  natural  figure  of 
the  great  Giant — the  centre  of  attraction  to  all  who  visit  this 
locality — was  plainly  visible.  At  night  we  met  in  the  Channel, 
"  right  in  our  teeth,"  that  which  during  the  whole  voyage  we  had 
been  dreading,  the  equinoctial  gale;  but  with  a  well-lighted  coast, 
and  a  staunch  and  powerful  steamer  beneath  our  feet,  the  Mersey 
was  reached  without  difficulty  or  danger  at  9.30  o'clock,  and  on  the 
landing-stage,  as  we  were  warped  towards  it,  I  recognized  two 
members  of  my  family,  who  announced  to  me  the  gratifying  intel- 
ligence that  all  was  well  with  them.  Not  being  a  smoker,  and 
having  neither  cigars  nor  tobacco  stowed  away,  my  luggage  was 
speedily  passed  by  the  customs  officials,  a  hurried  farewell  was 
said  to  my  agreeable  fellow-voyagers  and  the  officers  of  one  of  the 
finest  and  best  equipped  ships  (in  every  particular)  which  crosses 
the  ocean,  and  I  found  myself,  after  an  absence  of  fourteen  years, 
on  British  soil  again,  in  the  great  commercial  city  of 


Amid  noise,  bustle  and  apparent  confusion,  along  streets 
densely  populated  with  a  moving,  hurrying  mass  of  human  beings, 
I  wended  my  way  to  the  other  side  of  the  Mersey,  to  my  temporary 
home  in  Birkenhead.  The  growth  of  Liverpool  and  Birkenhead 
during  these  fourteen  years  has  been  amazing,  not  only  in  the 
extent  of  surface  covered  by  manufactories,  houses,  warehouses, 


public  and  humane  institutions,  but  in  the  extension  of  their 
massive  and  magnificent  docks  and  floating  landing-stages  for  the 
accommodation  of  their  ever-increasing  commerce.  A  rise  and 
fall  of  tide  in  the  Mersey  of  twenty  feetj  or  more,  enables  the 
Dock  Commissioners  of  these  two  great  cities — under  whose  special 
charge  these  great  institutions  are  constructed  and  worked — to 
utilize  its  margin  and  shores  in  the  building  of  these  vast  wet,  dry 
and  graving  docks,  into  which  quiet  and  deep  basins  surrounded 
by  vast  walls  of  masonry  all  the  ships  of  these  ports  go  to  discharge 
and  take  in  cargo,  as  also  for  repairs  and  graving  purposes.  At 
and  near  high  water  the  broad,  strong  gates  (some  worked  by 
hydraulic  power,  others  by  complicated  machinery  so  perfect  that 
a  single  man  can  with  the  strength  of  his  two  arms  swing  them  to 
and  fro  at  pleasure,  or  as  occasion  may  demand)  open  for  the 
reception  of  fresh  arrivals  and  to  give  exit  to  those  whose  capa- 
cious holds  have  been  filled  with  freight  from  the  more  capacious 
warehouses  which  on  all  sides  surround  these  docks. 

Some  hundreds  of  acres  along  the  shores  of  the  river  have 
been  thus  converted  into  receptacles  for  ships  of  every  size,  from 
the  leviathan  steamer  to  the  trim  and  beautifully  modelled  pilot 
boat,  the  appearance  of  which  on  the  distant  waters  so  delights 
the  inward  bound  seaman  and  ocean  traveller.  The  great  number 
of  these  still-watered  basins,  large  and  small,  the  perfect  systems 
of  management,  the  beehive-like  activity  and  order  which  pervade 
them,  have  all  been  to  me  a  wonder  and  a  study.  The  tide  rises, 
the  huge  gateways  of  what  is  termed  a  dry  or  graving  dock  are 
opened ;  a  ship  enters ;  the  tide  recedes  ;  the  gates  are  again  opened, 
and  the  water  flows  out  from  the  basin,  leaving  the  vessel,  high 
and  dry,  resting  on  an  even  keel.  The  gates  are  a  second  time 
closed,  so  firmly  and  accurately  that  the  pressure  of  water,  even  of 
the  highest  tide,  does  not  affect  them,  and  the  work  of  repair  or 
of  graving  goes  on  as  if  the  ship  were  on  the  stocks  or  the  dry 

When  all  is  completed,  the  waters  of  this  great  river,  being- 
made  thus  subservient  to  science  and  the  will  of  man,  are  per- 
mitted again  to  enter  and  float  the  ship  away  from  this  workshop 
— the  dry  dock —  to  the  wet  dock,  from  whence  she  is  speedily  sent, 
laden  with  Britain's  productions  to  other  scenes  and  other  lands. 

The  distance  between  the  landing-stages  of  Liverpool  and 
Birkenhead  is  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile.  The  ferry  accom- 
modation consists  of  three  steamboats,  each  measuring  something 
less  than  one  hundred  tons.  One  of  the  more  recently  constructed 
is  steered  by  hydraulic  power.  Their  engines  are  powerful,  neces- 
sarily so,  as  the  current  in  the  river  runs  at  the  rate  of  four  to  six 
miles  an  hour.  From  each  landing-stage  one  of  these  boats  leaves 
every  ten  minutes.     No  horses  or  carriages  are  carried,  but  as  a 

1861  TO  1871  255 

general  thing  they  are  literally  crowded  with  passengers,  all  pay- 
ing one  penny  a  trip  who  are  not  the  possessors  of  commutation 
tickets.  The  captain  of  one  of  these  boats  informed  me  that  it  was 
no  uncommon  thing  for  the  three  to  convey  from  fifty  to  seventy-five 
thousand  passengers  on  a  single  day,  while  the  number  annually 
ferried  across  the  Mersey  by  this  single  route  amounts  to  several 
millions.  Thus  you  will  see  that  on  these  crowded  or  gala  days 
more  than  double  the  population  of  Halifax  and  Dartmouth  com- 
bined is  conveyed  from  shore  to  shore  by  these  three  small  steamers 
in  the  short  space  of  twenty-four  hours — for  they  run  all  night, 
charging,  however,  sixpence  sterling  for  each  passenger  after 
twelve  o'clock.  I  state  these  facts,  on  the  above  authority,  for  the 
purpose  of  conveying  to  you  some  idea  of  the  growth  and  import- 
ance of  Birkenhead  and  the  small  towns  and  villages  in  its  imme- 
diate neighborhood,  where  a  very  large  number  of  the  commercial 
men  of  Liverpool  reside.  In  short,  these  are  to  Liverpool  what 
Brooklyn  is  to  New  York. 

The  ferry  boats  in  question  are  not  expensively  fitted  up.  Two 
of  them  have  ladies'  cabins  in  which  the  seats  are  cushioned,  but 
the  third  is  so  arranged  that  ladies  and  laborers  have  to  occupy 
the  same  apartment,  downstairs  below  the  water  line,  as  in  the 
Dartmouth  boats  in  days  of  yore.  In  everything  but  speed  the 
ancient  "  Micmac,"  which  has  so  long  and  so  safely  ferried  us 
across  Halifax  harbor,  will  favorably  compare  with  her,  and  I 
may  add  that  her  accommodation,  although  not  quite  so  extensive, 
is  more  than  equal,  as  regards  comfort,  to  that  furnished  by  the 
antiquated  piece  of  naval  architecture  to  which  I  refer.  The 
captains,  engineers  and  deck  hands  perform  their  work  exposed 
to  the  weather,  with  nothing  to  protect  them  from  rain,  snow  and 
heat ;  hence  I  concluded  that  whatever  other  sins  the  managers  of 
the  Dartmouth  steamboat  company  may  have  to  answer  for,  as 
humanitarians  they  are  in  advance  of  the  Corporation  of  Birken- 
head, who  own  and  work  the  ferry  in  question. 

In  Halifax  and  Dartmouth  a  demand  has  been  made  and  often 
repeated  for  larger  boats  and  more  elegant  accommodation  on  the 
ferry  which  connects  these  two  towns.  This  demand  will  doubt- 
less ere  long  be  responded  to,  but,  looking  at  the  matter  in  its  rela- 
tion to  the  population  and  the  traffic  to  be  accommodated,  and 
from  a  Birkenhead  and  Liverpool  standpoint,  urgent  as  I  have 
been  on  the  matter  for  public  as  well  as  from  personal  reasons,  I 
feel  that  I  can  hardly  urge  my  fellow-proprietors  to  construct  a 
floating  palace  for  the  work  in  question,  before  that  "  Longwharf  " 
— which  is  to  connect  and  make  Halifax  and  Liverpool  almost  one 
city — is  built,  or  to  furnish  palatial  accommodation  for  one  or 
two  hundred  thousand  people  before  they  are  born  and  can  enjoy  it. 

Since  my  last  visit  to  the  Old  World  the  new  Exchange  of 


Liverpool  has  been  built,  great  both  as  regards  its  capacity  and  its 
architectural  beauty.  Here  from  eleven  to  twelve  o'clock  every 
day  the  mercantile  community  congregates,  and  here  take  place 
those  great  commercial  and  trade  transactions  between  the  busi- 
ness men  of  the  city,  amounting  daily  to  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
pounds  (speaking  within  bounds)  and  often  to  millions.  Here 
you  see  the  cotton  men — for  this  is  the  great  cotton  mart  of  the 
world,  importing  annually  to  its  warehouses  between  two  and 
three  millions  of  bales — moving  earnestly  and  quickly  about,  eyes 
and  tongue  alike  talking  cotton — with  samples  of  the  raw  material 
in  their  hands  and  adhering  to  their  coats,  so  that  there  is  no  mis- 
taking them.  Wholesale  business,  in  all  its  departments,  is  here 
transacted,  not  for  Liverpool  alone,  but  for  a  large  portion  of 

Just  opposite  is  the  Stockbrokers'  Exchange,  a  fine  building 
externally,  and  splendidly  fitted  up  and  arranged,  so  I  am 
informed.  It  is  always  closed  to  the  uninitiated,  and  none  but 
members  have  the  entree. 

The  civic  and  public  buildings  and  offices  of  every  description 
are  constructed  on  a  grand  scale,  externally  and  internally, 
Nothing,  however,  gratified  me  more  than  my  visit  to  Brown's 
Library  and  Museum. 

In  years  gone  by,  a  Liverpool  merchant  bearing  that  name 
bequeathed  a  large  sum  of  money  to  erect  and  furnish  a  public 
library,  free  to  all  classes.  The  building  is  very  large,  and  as  an 
architectural  structure  is  attractive,  but  to  me  its  chief  interest 
centres  in  that  which  was  the  donor's  intention,  viz.,  furnishing 
good  healthy  mental  food  to  those  who  were  without  it  and  could 
not  afford  to  obtain  it — the  masses.  There  during  my  visit  I  saw 
mingled  with  those  who  were  very  well  dressed,  very  poor  men, 
the  laborer,  men  out  at  the  elbows,  some  with  "  shocking  bad  hats," 
others  with  worn-out  coats  and  shoes,  quietly  seated  in  a  large  and 
comfortable  reading-room,  intently  engaged  in  perusing  books  and 
periodicals  and  evidently  enjoying  the  occupation  and  the  place. 
Hither  the  clerk  and  the  skilled  artizan,  who  have  but  an  hour  to 
reach  their  lodgings  and  partake  of  their  midday  meal,  hasten,  to 
select  some  work  in  which  they  are  interested — out  of  the  52,000 
volumes  which  are  there  collected  and  properly  arranged — and 
spend  a  few  minutes  in  devouring  its  contents.  And  when  their 
time  is  up  the  book  is  handed  back  to  the  boy  librarian  at  the 
counter,  as  they  hie  away  to  their  stores  or  their  workshops. 

The  library  is  well  selected;  the  scholar,  the  man  of  literary 
tastes,  the  naturalist,  the  artist  and  the  artizan  can  all  here  drink 
— in  accordance  with  their  varied  tastes — at  the  fountain  of 
knowledge,  and  that,  too,  without  cost. 

1861  TO  1871  257 

While  I  was  there  observing  and  watching  the  practical  work- 
ings of  the  Institution,  I  suppose  there  were  not  less  than  200  or 
250  men  and  lads  occupied  in  the  large  reading-room  and  in  the 
smaller  apartments  where  were  stored  the  works  in  the  higher 
departments  of  learning.     Here,  some  were  studying,  while  others 
were  engaged  in  drawing  and  painting  from  works  taken  from  the 
shelves  of  this  great  and  liberal  institution,  works  that  they  could 
not  otherwise  have  obtained.     In  another  portion  of  this  same 
building  is  a  large  and  well-filled  museum,  containing  specimens 
and  articles  of  the  greatest  interest,  from  all  parts  of  the  world, 
illustrating  mechanical  and  natural  science.     The  fine  arts  and 
antiquarian  science  are  also  well  represented.     In  short,  it  is  a 
museum  such  as  I  long  to  see  in  the  capital  of  my  native  Province. 
I  was  asked  to  step  into  the  Aquarium  that  I  might  be  intro- 
duced to  a  countryman — the  friend  who  gave  me  the  information 
being  reticent  as  to  the  name  of  the  party  to  whom  he  wished  to 
introduce  me.     Suddenly  I  came  in  front  of  a  large  glass  case 
containing  a  huge  bull-frog,  which  was  thus  labeled,  "  Bull-Frogs 
from  Xova  Scotia — presented  by  Andrew  Downs."     I  presume  the 
plural  number  was  applicable  when  the  presentation  was  made, 
but  the  singular  should  now  be  used,  as  but  one  remains.     This 
leviathan  did  not  apparently  recognize  me  as  a  ISTova  Scotian,  for 
he  remained  motionless  as  a  statue  during  the  interview,  did  not 
even  croak,  and  as  I  intently  watched  him  for  some  minutes  he 
only  winked  once  as  if  to  let  me  know  I  was  under  observation. 
I  was  proud  of  my  countryman,  for  he  was  the  finest  specimen  of 
his  species  I  had  ever  seen  and  was  a  centre  of  attraction  to  all 
who  visited  his  department  of  the  museum. 

I  was  desirous  of  hearing  the  Rev.  Stowel  Brown  preach  again 
— having  heard  him  once  in  1857 — but  was  disappointed,  in  con- 
sequence of  his  absence  from  Liverpool  on  the  only  Sunday  I  was 
there.  So  I  very  contentedly  and  profitably  listened  to  a  less 
distinguished  Baptist  minister  in  Birkenhead. 

On  the  same  day  I  attended  a  very  interesting  service  at  the 
Blue  Coat  School  in  Liverpool,  an  Episcopal  institution,  endowed 
only  to  a  very  limited  extent,  and  maintained  mainly  by  the  dona- 
tions and  annual  contributions  of  the  charitable  and  the  wealthy. 
Here  are  collected,  fed,  clothed  and  educated  from  200  to  250 
boys  and  100  girls  from  five  to  fourteen  years  of  age,  all  either 
orphans  or  fatherless,  neatly  dressed  in  blue  clothes,  and,  I  may 
add,  looking,  with  their  robust  forms  and  rosy  cheeks,  both  healthy 
and  happy.  When  they  have  fully  reached  the  period  of  fourteen 
years  they  leave  the  school,  the  boys  being  placed  at  trades  and  in 
stores,  and  the  girls  at  service.  Several  prominently  wealthy  and 
distinguished  men  were  here  cared  for  and  partially  educated  in 
early  life.  And  I  am  glad  to  be  able  to  add  that  in  after  life  they 


did  not  forget  the  fact,  as  the  annals  of  the  institution  and  their 
generous  contributions  amply  testify.  The  hoys  of  the  Blue  Coat 
School  in  London  are  never  permitted  to  wear  a  hat  or  cap,  and 
meet  them  where  you  will,  while  they  are  inmates  of  that  institu- 
tion, in  hot,  cold  or  wet  weather,  their  heads  are  bare — because  the 
founder  of  the  school  so  willed  it.  Eels,  they  say,  get  used  to 
skinning,  and  so  I  presume  these  boys  get  used  to  the  barbarous 
regulation  which  compels  them  to  run  through  the  streets  of 
London,  in  foul  weather  and  fair,  under  "  bare  polls."  Thi3 
generous  old  monomaniac  with  the  "  bee  in  his  bonnet,"  who  had 
a  whim  to  gratify,  might  have  been  hydropathically  relieved  of  his 
mental  disease  or  eccentricity  if  he  had  only  been  subjected  for  a 
brief  period  to  this  bonnetless  practice.  Cured  by  his  own  medi- 
cine! Happily  no  such  regulation  exists  in  connection  with  the 
Blue  Coat  School  of  Liverpool. 

On  the  Sunday  in  question  the  doors  of  the  institution  were 
opened  at  a  quarter  to  four  o'clock  p.m.,  and  the  crowd  of  visitors 
was  first  shown  through  the  antiquated  building,  in  the  centre  of 
the  city,  where  these  children  dwelt.  Everything  was  in  admirable 
order,  and  the  servant  who  accompanied  myself  and  family  stated 
as  we  passed  through  the  kitchen,  that  here  the  general  order  of 
things  is  somewhat  reversed,  for  the  boys  do  the  cooking,  while  the 
girls  attend  to  other  domestic  matters   about  the  establishment. 

The  object  the  managers  have  in  view,  in  exhibiting  the  build- 
ing on  Sundays  to  visitors,  is  to  interest  them  in  this  work  of 
charity  and  love,  so  that  they  may  contribute  to  its  funds.  An 
opportunity  is  given  to  each  visitor  to  do  so  as  they  enter  the  door 
of  the  chapel,  where  several  gentlemen  stand  with  plates  in  their 
hands  to  gather  in  the  silver  and  pence.  The  small  chapel  was 
uncomfortably  packed  with  men,  women  and  children.  When  all 
were  provided  with  sitting  or  standing  room  the  organist  played 
a  solemn  march,  and  presently  we  heard  a  sound  as  of  a  regiment 
of  soldiers  advancing  with  slow  and  measured  step,  and  then  they 
came,  two  and  two  into  the  chapel  and  through  the  aisle,  and  with 
military  precision  filed  into  their  respective  places,  their  feet 
keeping  time  to  the  music,  until  all  were  in  position,  the  boys  in 
advance,  the  girls  bringing  up  the  rear  of  the  procession. 

The  singing  of  these  children  was  magnificent,  but  the  unique 
part  of  the  proceedings,  and  that  which  struck  me  most  was  that, 
instead  of  a  clergyman,  as  I  had  fully  expected,  taking  the  service, 
a  little  boy  of  twelve  or  fourteen  years  stood  up  in  the  reading  desk, 
gave  out  the  hymn9  and  anthems,  read  the  collect,  the  chapters 
from  the  Old  and  New  Testament  for  the  day,  and  the  few  very 
appropriate  prayers  of  this  special  service,  with  as  much  solemnity 
and  effect  as  if  he  had  been  an  octogenarian.  A  part  of  the  service 
consisted  of  about  thirty  of  the  children  stepping  to  the  front  with 

1861  TO  1871  259 

the  same  military  precision,  and  very  distinctly  replying  without 
an  error  of  a  word  to  all  the  questions  of  the  Church  of  England 
Catechism.  After  this,  a  concluding  anthem  was  sung  and  the 
little  chaplain  of  the  day  (the  elder  boys  take  the  service,  I  believe, 
in  turn)  pronounced  the  benediction,  and  then,  to  an  appropriate 
march  from  the  organ,  in  the  same  military  order  they  entered 
the  chapel,  they  left  it  and  took  their  places  at  the  supper  table, 
where  the  large  congregation,  as  they  passed  through  the  room, 
saw  them  enjoying  their  bread,  cheese  and  milk. 

A  more  impressive  service  I  never  witnessed,  and  at  its  close 
I  could  not  but  feel  thankful  that  in  Christian  England  institu- 
tions of  this  character  are  many  and  not  "  far  between." 

England  Still  Youthful  and  Vigokous. 

In  republican  America  (and,  I  regret  to  say,  in  British 
America  occasionally,  too, — from  the  lips  and  pens  of  a  few  who 
really  know  better)  the  idea  is  promulgated  in  private  and  through 
the  press,  by  seme  wilfully  and  in  enmity,  and  by  others,  I  dare- 
say, ignorantly,  that  old  England  is  becoming  exhausted,  an  effete 
country,  and  rapidly  declining  in  the  scale  of  nations.  To  the 
men  who,  being  misinformed,  really  entertain  such  opinions,  I 
would  say,  cross  the  Atlantic  and  personally  see  the  British  Isles. 
Visit  the  great  metropolis  of  England  with  its  more  than  three 
millions  of  inhabitants;  see  for  yourselves  the  manufacturing 
and  commercial  centres ;  look  at  its  agricultural  and  mineral 
wealth,  its  fisheries,  its  maritime  strength  and  power,  its  ever- 
expanding  railway,  postal  and  telegraphic  communications,  its 
educational  institutions  (becoming  annually  more  open  and  free), 
the  constitutional  and  religious  liberty  and  freedom  of  her  people, 
and.  having  done  this,  I  ask  you  to  spend  one  short  week  in  Liver- 
pool, with  your  eyes  wide  open  and  your  locomotive  apparatus  in 
active  operation,  that  you  may  form  correct  impressions  of  this 
single  seaport  of  the  old  Fatherland,  and  after  having  mentally 
measured  her  commerce  and  her  commercial  relations,  and  seen  her 
manufactories,  her  steamships,  her  wooden  and  her  iron  walls,  her 
railways  and  railway  communications,  her  public  and  private 
buildings,  and  last,  but  not  least,  her  noble  charities,  if  you  do 
not  return  to  your  homes  convinced  that  you  have  been  fostering 
error,  your  moral  natures  must  be  obtuse  indeed,  and  your  natural 
prejudice  so  great  that  even  the  strongest  and  most  positive  testi- 
mony, on  England's  side,  can  find  no  resting-place  in  minds  so 

In  discussing  the  subject  of  England's  true  position  among  the 
nations,  one  should  not  and  cannot  keep  in  the  background  the 
great  fact  that  above  and  beyond  what  she  is  per  se — that  is  to 

260  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

say,  within  the  circumscribed  limits  of  her  own  shores — far  over 
the  ocean,  in  all  climes,  great  possessions  are  hers,  and  many  of 
them  populated  largely  by  her  own  offspring  whose  commercial 
relations  with  the  parent  country  are  intimate,  extensive  and 
annually  increasing,  but  the  tie  that  binds  them  more  firmly 
together  than  all  others  is  that  of  affection,  giving  to  this  mother 
of  many  nations  not  only  a  material,  but  a  moral  strength,  that 
no  words  can  measure  or  convey.  Again,  an  element  of  strength, 
of  real  strength,  is  possessed  by  Britain,  which  is  not  often  placed 
in  the  balance  when  this  subject  is  being  considered,  especially  in 
its  natural  relations.  With  much  that  is  wrong,  and  much  that 
is  sinful,  clinging  to  her,  she  is  still  among  the  nations  eminently 
a  Christian  nation  desiring  to  be  at  peace  with  the  world,  from  the 
best  and  highest  of  all  motives.  If  this  desire,  practically  carried 
out,  has  occasionally  placed  her  in  the  eyes  of  others  in  an  anom- 
alous and  apparently  in  a  false  position,  and  is  by  them  viewed  as 
an  indication  of  impaired  power,  we  may  rest  assured  that  the 
great  Source  of  all  strength  and  all  power  does  not  so  look  upon 
the  matter — and  in  Him  is  her  strength ! 

A  rapid  run  by  train  of  eight  or  nine  hours,  through  and  past 
many  manufacturing  towns  and  villages  that  have  grown  up 
within  the  past  few  years,  through  a  country  with  varied  scenery, 
at  first  level,  cultivated  and  beautiful,  then,  as  we  advance  north 
towards  the  borders  of  Scotland,  still  beautiful,  but  more  rugged 
and  mountainous,  landed  us  three  weeks  ago  in  the  capital  of 
Scotland — my  temporary  home  of  former  years,  probably  the  most 
beautiful  city  in  the  world,  and  one  that  has  great  attractions  for 
me.    Here  I  am  at  school  again. 

With  kind  remembrances  to  those  of  your  readers  to  whom  I 
may  be  known, 

I  am,  dear  Editor, 

Yours  very  truly, 

D.  McN.  Paekek. 


EDINBURGH,  1871-3. 

"  Every  day  that  we  spend  without  learning  something  is  a  day  lost." 

— Beethoven. 

Within  a  few  days  after  arrival,  a  house,  13  Salisbury  Place, 
at  the  corner  of  Minto  Street,  was  rented  and  domestic  arrange- 
ments were  completed.  The  children  were  placed  at  schools, 
Johnston  matriculated  in  Medicine  at  the  University,  and  my 
father  plunged  at  once,  with  the  enthusiastic  ardor  of  the  true 
student  and  investigator,  into  the  current  of  his  work.  He 
attended  special  lectures  at  the  University  and  the  Royal  College 
of  Surgeons,  clinics  at  the  Royal  Infirmary  and  the  hospitals,  and 
investigated,  practically,  all  that  was  new  in  surgery.  He  was 
known  to  many  of  the  men  of  mark  in  Edinburgh,  both  of  the 
Faculties  and  of  those  engaged  only  in  private  practice,  and  he 
was  soon  in  touch  with  any  others  of  his  profession  whom  he 
wished  to  know.  Old  friendships  with  Professor  A.  R.  Simpson 
(a  nephew  of  Sir  James),  Professor  Syme,  Sir  Robert  Christison, 
Bart.,  Dr.  Balfour,  and  others,  were  renewed.  New  ones  with 
Dr.  Thomas  Grainger  Stewart,  Professor  of  Pathology,  afterwards 
the  Queen's  Physician  for  Scotland  and  knighted,  Professor  Lay- 
cock,  Dr.  Gordon,  and  other  front-rank  men  were  formed.  They 
afforded  him  every  facility,  took  him  about  to  see  their  most  inter- 
esting or  unusual  cases,  and  the  courtesy  and  consideration  which 
had  been  extended  to  him  by  Sir  James  Y.  Simpson  in  1857  were 
multiplied  by  such  of  the  medical  and  surgical  fraternity 
as  could  in  any  way  serve  his  purposes.  He  was  asked  by  Dr. 
Stewart  (who  was  not  a  surgeon)  to  operate  once  or  twice  on  his 
patients,  and  did  so — but  would  accept  no  fees.  In  vacation  time 
the  Professor  of  Pathology  even  loaned  him  the  original  manu- 
script of  his  University  lectures,  that  he  might  get  Pathology  anew, 
up  to  date.  A  two-volume  copy  of  these  lectures,  made  by  my 
mother,  remains  in  the  library.  He  seemed  at  once  to  win  the 
esteem  and  even  the  love  of  these  men.  Dr.  Thomas  Keith,  the 
famous  operator  of  the  day,  was  quick  to  appreciate  his  worth  as 
surgeon  and  sought  his  assistance,  while  he  informed  him  in  the 
latest  things  in  surgery,  at  his  operating  table.  Dr.  Keith  was 
then  distinguishing  himself  in  the  surgical  world  by  performing 



a  new,  daring  and  difficult  operation  in  gynecology.  My  father 
was  present  at  several  of  these.  In  an  article  on  his  various  opera- 
tions of  this  class,  which  was  published  by  Dr.  Keith  in  the  Edin- 
burgh Medical  Journal  for  February,  1875,  I  find  two  references 
to  my  father,  one  of  which  I  quote:  "  On  the  15th  December, 
1872,  I  saw  a  young  Canadian  lady,  in  her  twentieth  year,  with 
an  ovarian  tumor  of  rapid  growth.  She  was  sent  by  Dr.  Camp- 
bell and  Dr.  Drake,  of  Montreal.  .  .  .  The  fatigues  of  the 
voyage  and  the  journey  to  town  were  well  borne,  but  the  drive 
from  the  railway  to  her  lodgings  brought  on  severe  pain.  Being 
then  from  home,  I  did  not  see  her  for  a  fortnight.  During  all 
this  time  the  pain  continued,  and  she  was  confined  to  bed.  Dr. 
Parker,  of  Halifax,  an  old  friend  of  the  family,  was  fortunately 
in  town.  He  took  charge  of  her  till  my  return,  and  continued  to 
give  me  his  kind  assistance  and  counsel  in  the  after  management 
of  an  unusually  anxious  case."  I  omit  other  details.  This  and 
the  other  operations  were  highly  successful,  and  saved  lives  which 
a  few  years  before  must  have  been  lost.  Dr.  Keith's  absence  from 
home  was  due  to  a  journey  to  Italy  to  operate,  for  which,  as  he 
told  my  father,  he  received  a  thousand  guineas. 

This  operation,  a  great  advance  in  surgery,  was  then  acquired 
by  my  father,  who  subsequently  performed  it  himself,  and  it  is 
typical  of  his  professional  acquisitions  during  this  period  of 
research,  when,  as  he  used  to  say,  he  had  come  to  Edinburgh  to 
learn  his  profession  over  again.  It  is  typical  of  his  professional 
attitude  and  spirit,  too,  that  when  he  came  to  relinquish  work 
entirely,  in  1895,  he  said  that  if  he  were  to  pursue  it  longer  (grant- 
ing that  the  span  of  life  were  long  enough)  he  must  needs  learn 
his  profession  over  again  a  third  time,  and  take  a  very  much 
longer  period  for  it,  so  vast  had  become  the  acquirements  of 
medicine  and  surgical  science  during  the  closing  twenty  years  of 
his  practice. 

One  of  the  subjects  investigated  in  this  period  of  special 
research  was  the  new  method  of  antiseptic  surgery.  Lister  (after- 
wards Lord  Lister)  for  several  years  had  been  carrying  on  experi- 
ments in  this  method,  first  at  Glasgow  and  afterwards  at  Edin- 
burgh, and  the  Listerian  system,  in  its  earlier  developments,  had 
come  into  full  practice  at  Edinburgh  in  1870.  This  new  learning 
my  father  acquired  at  first  hand,  and  introduced  in  his  practice 
when  he  returned.  He  knew  Lord  Lister,  and  met  him  later 
several  times  in  London  when  he  was  at  the  height  of  his  fame. 

The  happy  life  in  Edinburgh,  for  all,  was  clouded  by  the 
sudden  illness  which  befell  Johnston  in  December,  1871.  The 
blow  fell  with  stunning  force  upon  the  father,  for  he  recognized 
that  the  malady  could  not  but  be  fatal,  sooner  or  later,  and,  more- 
over, it  dashed  his  hope  of  having  a  son  enter  the  profession  while 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  263 

he  himself  was  yet  in  practice  and  who  should  become  his  suc- 

It  had  been  arranged  that  my  mother's  brother  and  sister, 
Martin  and  Celia,  with  their  neice  Mary  A.  Black,  should  come 
over  in  January  for  a  short  European  tour,  on  which  my  father 
and  mother  were  to  join  them.  When  they  arrived,  Johnston 
had  rallied  and  was  much  improved,  so  that  my  father  felt  able 
to  leave  him  in  the  care  of  Drs.  Stewart  and  Gordon  and  go  to 
Europe,  more  particularly  as  he  would  have  opportunity  to  select 
some  southerly  place  to  which  he  could  afterwards  take  Johnston, 
when  his  condition  and  the  season  would  permit.  My  mother 
was  to  join  the  party,  with  Johnston,  later,  for  this  purpose,  if 
he  should  be  well  enough  to  travel. 

I  find  my  father's  passport,  from  the  Lord  Provost  of  Edin- 
burgh, dated  the  20th  of  January  1872,  and  vised  by  the  Vice- 
Consul  of  France  at  Leith  the  same  day.  The  party  set  out 
about  the  first  of  February,  and  after  visiting  Torquay  and 
Dartmouth,  in  the  south  of  England,  with  a  view  to  Johnston's 
future  location,  crossed  to  Calais.  In  the  event,  the  tour  was 
shortened  in  consequence  of  unfavorable  news  of  Johnston, 
who  did  not  improve  sufficiently  to  undergo  travel,  even  to 
Torquay  or  Dartmouth.  They  returned  about  the  middle  of 
March.  The  itinerary  was:  Paris,  Lyons,  Marseilles,  Cannes, 
ISTice,  Genoa,  Pisa,  Civita  Vechia,  Xaples,  Pompeii,  Herculaneum 
and  Mount  Vesuvius,  Borne,  Poligno,  Florence,  Bolonga,  Venice, 
Verona,  Milan,  Turin,  Macon  on  the  Rhone,  Dijon,  Paris, 
Boulogne, — and  thence  across  Channel  to  Dover.  From  Turin 
they  crossed  the  Alps  by  the  Mont  Cenis  Tunnel  which  had  been 
opened  for  travel  only  on  the  17th  of  September,  1871,  and  was 
then  considered  one  of  the  engineering  wonders  of  the  world. 

Voluminous  and  painstaking  notes  of  travel  were  taken  by  my 
father  on  this  occasion.  The  things  to  see  in  Europe  have  been 
so  long  the  same  and  have  now  become  so  familiar  to  us,  that 
little  account  of  this  tour,  from  his  note-book,  will  be  attempted. 
Let  it  suffice  to  say  that  what  he  wrote  is  marked  by  a  thoroughness 
of  observation,  a  keen,  appreciative  and  discriminating  insight, 
and  by  a  thoughtful,  philosophical  treatment  in  his  comments 
upon  his  investigations.  Yet,  embarrassed  and  oppressed,  as  he 
was,  by  anxious  solicitude  for  Johnston,  as  the  letters  to  him 
disclose,  this  tour  could  not  afford  anything  like  the  usual 
enjoyment  which  he  was  wont  to  find  in  this  mode  of  recreation. 

The  unusual  matters  of  interest  in  European  travel  at  that  time 
were  the  desolated  condition  of  Paris,  through  the  work  of  the 
Commune  following  the  Franco-German  war,  the  re-construction 
of  the  French  nation  under  Thiers,  and  the  new  birth  of  the 
Italian  people,  nationally,  together  with  the  beginning  of  evangeli- 


cal  work  in  Rome,  which  followed  upon  the  overthrow  of  the  Papal 
States  in  September,  1870,  and  .the  entrance  of  King  Victor 
Emmanuel  II.,  the  first  king  of  United  Italy,  into  Rome,  in  1871. 

Paris  had  surrendered  to  the  Germans  less  than  a  year  before 
my  father  visited  it.  The  bloody  civil  war  of  the  Commune  which 
ensued  in  Paris  had  ceased  only  in  the  summer  of  1871.  The 
Empire  had  been  washed  out  in  blood.  During  the  civil  war  it 
was  impracticable  for  the  Legislative  Assembly,  whose  authority 
legally  ceased  with  the  ratification  of  the  peace  with  Germany,  to 
dissolve  and  appeal  to  the  confused  voice  of  the  country.  The 
pressing  need  was  to  restore  tranquility  by  suppressing  the 
Commune;  and  the  Assembly,  transcending  its  powers,  by  neces- 
sity, elected  Thiers,  a  former  minister  of  Louis  Phillipe,  the 
first  President  of  a  new  Republic.  His  administration  suppressed 
the  Commune  with  much  difficulty,  and  the  Assembly  (Corps 
Legislatif)  at  the  time  of  my  father's  visit  was  engaged  in  secret 
deliberations  looking  to  the  payment  of  the  German  war  indemnity 
of  a  thousand  million  dollars,  and  thus  freeing  French  soil  from 
the  invaders,  who  were  still  occupying  it  to  enforce  payment. 

At  Paris  the  prostrate  Vendome  Column,  the  sacked  public 
buildings,  the  bullet-marked  wall  before  which  the  Archbishop  of 
Paris  and  other  noted  men  had  been  placed  for  execution  by 
volleys  of  musketry,  and  all  such  other  customary  destructive 
work  of  Parisians  in  revolution  were  seen,  together  with  ruined 
fortifications  and  many  others  of  the  scars  upon  the  city,  left 
by  the  ravages  of  war.  From  notes  made  at  Paris  and  on  the  home- 
ward way  I  extract  the  following  passages,  because  they  touch  upon 
things  outside  the  category  of  what  visitors  to  Paris  at  ordinary 
times  may  see  and  tell;  and  further,  because  they  reflect  this 
especial  visitor's  personality  in  their  comment  upon  things,  and 
in  the  attention  devoted  to  the  "  Culte  Evangelique  "  there,  as  had 
been  the  case  at  Rome.  It  goes  without  saying  that  in  these  notes, 
just  as  at  other  places  visited,  all  the  great  sights  of  Paris  and 
its  environs,  and  many  other  minor  ones,  are  enumerated  and 
described,  even  to  details  of  the  treasures  of  Art.  But  it  is  my 
aim  to  extract  rather  my  father  himself  from  these  notes  than  any 
account  of  places  of  usual  resort  in  Paris,  or  elsewhere. 

"  Pakis,  Tuesday,  March  5,  1872. 
•  .  Walked  out  in  the  morning  to  view  the  ruins 
of  the  Hotel  de  Ville,  the  Palais  Royal,  the  Palace  of  Justice 
and  other  places.  Magnificent  structures  all  of  them.  The 
Tuileries  was  also  destroyed.  .  .  .  The  statuary  at  the 
entrance  of  the  Tuileries  gardens  was  injured  by  shot  and  shell. 
One  winged  horse  had  his  stone  tail  shot  off,  and  he  was  (  winged ' 
— lost  one  of  his  wings — while  the  column  on  which  he  stood 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  265 

was  also  struck  and  broken.  All  these  were  magnificent  ruins. 
The  Tuileries  is  being  repaired,  the  Palace  of  Justice  also,  and 
La  Gloire,  on  the  site  of  the  old  Bastile,  a  small  but  high  statue, 
gilt, — a  man  with  one  foot  on  a  gilded  ball  on  the  summit, 
wings  on  his  back,  one  foot  drawn  up  and  the  hands  extended  as 
if  in  the  attitude  of  running  (Mercury?)  The  mane  of  the  lion 
at  the  base  had  been  pentrated  by  a  ball,  and  there  were  many 
bullet  marks  on  the  lower  part  of  the  statue.  Everywhere  we 
noticed  the  signs  of  destruction — new  and  fine  structures  being 
raised  and  built  where  others  had  been  destroyed  by  the  Commune. 
Many  localities  are  as  they  were  left  by  the  Commune. 

"Notre  Dame.  .  .  .  Treasures  shewn  us.  The  apparel 
of  state  worn  by  the  Emperor  Xapoleon  I  when  he  was  crowned 
in  180-1  by  the  Pope — also  all  the  paraphernalia  worn  by  the 
Pope  himself  on  that  occasion, — gold,  gold,  gold;  velvet,  velvet, 
etc.,  etc.,  "  Magnifique.  Grand.'  A  part  of  the  habiliments  of 
office  of  the  three  archbishops  who  have  been  murdered  during 
insurrections — all  dust  and  blood-covered  and  perforated  by 
bullets.  We  saw  also  the  two  vertebrae  of  the  archbishop  who 
was  shot  on  the  barricades  in  June,  1848,  with  an  arrow  marking 
the  track  of  the  bullet,  and  the  bullet,  on  its  end,  which  killed 
him ;  a  piece  of  the  '  true  cross  ' — and  a  number  of  other  relics 
too  numerous  to  mention     . 

"  Thursday,  March  7,  1872.  Louvre.  .  .  .  Room  of 
Charles  Lebrun,  greatly  injured  by  shells,  the  frescoed  roof 
very  much  injured.  Two  of  the  paintings  pierced  by  balls  or 
pieces  of  shells. 

"  Invalides.  Tomb  of  Napoleon.  .  .  .  Jerome  Bona- 
parte window  here  broken  and  the  letter  X.  with  a  crown  on  it 
was  shot  through.     . 

"  Saw  the  site  and  the  base  of  the  magnificent  triumphant 
Column  Vendome,  torn  down  by  the  Commune,  in  Place  Yen- 
dome.  Bronze  basrelief  on  the  base  still  observed.  Drove  to  the 
Bourse, — heard  the  noise  of  the  babel  before  entering  it,  a  long 
way  off.  Steps  and  porch  crowded  with  excited  people.  Went 
upstairs  and  looked  down.  The  crowd  was  immense  and  the 
sight  beyond  description.  Umbrellas  and  walking  sticks  had 
to  be  left  outside,  lest  in  their  fury  they  should  attack  each 
other.  .  .  .  When  I  see  now  in  the  papers  '  the  Bourse 
excited,'  I  will  be  able  to  picture  the  scene — when  '  flat,'  I  will 
know  the  row  is  only  a  moderate  one.  The  Bank  of  France  was 
next  visited.  .  .  .  saw  apartment  after  apartment  filled  with 
officers  and  clerks.  Soldiers  everywhere  about  it.  It  was  being 
repaired  after  the  attack  of  the  Commune,  and  looked,  outside, 
in  a  most  dilapidated  condition. 

"  The    New    Church    of    the    Madeleine.     .     .     .     Outside 


its  main  door  the  everlasting  l  Egalite,  Fraternite,  Unite  '  painted 
or  carved  into  the  stone.  Churches,  national  buildings  of  every 
kind,  the  prisons,  and  even  the  '  Pere  la  Chaise '  have  these  con- 
tinually recurring  words  at  the  entrance  gates.  The  cemetery, 
however,  is  the  only  place  where  they  in  reality  convey  the  truth, 
and  that  will  require  a  word  of  modification,  or  explanation; 
because  the  wicked  will  be  punished,  not  alike — some  will  be 
beaten  with  many  stripes,  and  some  will  not.  While  the  saints 
will  be  all  the  children  of  God,  and  if  children  then  heirs  and 
joint  heirs  with  Christ;  yet  some  will  be  in  Abraham's  bosom, 
and  some  will  be  told  to  go  up  higher.  No,  even  in  Pere  la 
Chaise,  to  the  outward  eye,  the  words  egalite,  fraternite  are  not 
applicable,  for  the  outward  display  in  the  work  on  the  tombs  of 
the  rich  and  great  is  in  sad  contrast  with  that  in  the  case  of 
the  poor  and  the  narrow  tombs  merely  marked  by  dark  painted 
wood — often  without  a  name.  .  .  .  The  very  men  who  write 
these  words  and  parade  them  abroad,  have  sometimes  not  the 
fraternal  feelings  of  humanity — as  for  instance  those  who  took 
Archbishop  Darboy  out  and  shot  him  like  a  dog,  as  they  had 
done  before  (with  a  previous  archbishop)  on  the  24th  June,  1848, 
and  even  once  before  that.  As  I  viewed  the  blood-stained  gar- 
ments, the  vertebrae  and  the  bullet,  I  felt  that  if  the  Arch- 
bishopric of  this  Diocese  were  offered  me,  I  should  gracefully 
decline  it,  as  I  have  no  desire  either  to  be  shot  or  to  be  canonized. 
At  the  church  door  these  words  are  a  lie,  for  even  there  egalite, 
fraternite,  unite,  have  no  existence — as  for  instance  in  the 
Ecumenical  Council,  on  the  infallibility  question,  there  was  not 
unity,  but  division,  which  has  resulted  in  the  secession  of  Dollinger 
and  others,  and  has  also  led  to  the  discussion  at  Rome  relative 
to  Peter's  never  having  been  in  that  city,  in  which  the  ex-priests 
of  the  R.  C.  faith  opposed  three  still  existing  priests.  Equality 
certainly  does  not  exist  in  the  church,  as  the  Pope  lives  in  the 
Vatican  with  its  11,000  rooms  and  the  Cardinals  and  Bishops 
live  in  palaces,  while  the  Capuchins  go  begging  from  door  to 
door  daily,  almost  bare-footed,  and  one  we  saw  living  in  a  dark 
hermit's  cell  in  the  tunnel  between  Naples  and  Puzzioli ;  and 
these  men  go  on  their  knees  to  the  Pope  and  kiss  his  foot. 
And  as  regards  fraternity,  I  fear  there  are  as  many  divisions 
in  the  R.   C.   church  as  there   are   among  other  denominations. 

"  Versailles.  .  .  .  became  the  headquarters  of  the  King 
of  Prussia,  5th  February,  1871,  who  was  here  proclaimed  German 
Emperor,  18th  February,  1871.  National  Assembly  and  the 
President,  Thiers,  sit  and  live  here.  Commenced  their  sessions 
there  during  the  reign  of  the  Commune  at  Paris  in  1871.     .     .     . 

"  Friday,  March  8,  1872.     By  train  for  Versailles.     Went  on 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  267 

to  Vincennes.  .  .  .  Came  back  as  far  as  Bel  Air  Central. 
.  .  .  Arriving  at  Versailles  2.30 — the  train  being  an  omnibus 
instead  of  an  express.  .  .  .  The  drive  around  the  suburbs 
of  Paris,  however,  quite  repaid  us  and  we  saw  the  earthworks 
thrown  up  during  the  war  and  passed  the  scene  of  many  a  hard 
fought  contest  between  the  French  and  Germans,  and  after- 
wards the  Commune.  .  .  .  Nothing  but  soldiers,  where  the 
Corps  Legislatif  is  in  session.  Wooden  huts  were  built  on  the 
broad  streets  near  the  Palace  to  accommodate  the  soldiers.  We 
visited  the  magnificent  church  connected  with  the  Palace  now 
used  as  the  chapel  for  the  Corps  Legislatif.  We  were  not  per- 
mitted to  see  the  apartment  in  which  the  Assembly  was  con- 
vened, or  to  hear  their  discussions.  .  .  .  However,  we  saw 
President  Thiers  and  had  a  good  look  at  him  on  two  or  three 
occasions  as  we  passed  and  re-passed  him.  He  is  an  old,  little 
man ;  in  size  and  walk,  as  in  general  appearance,  very  like  the 
late  M.  B.  Almon.     .     .     . 

"  Saturday,  March  9th,  1872.  Bois  du  Boulogne.  .  .  . 
In  coming  and  going  we  passed  the  magnificent  Arch  of 
Triumph  of  Napoleon,  with  its  basreliefs  and  carvings  of  vic- 
tories— some  of  them  broken  and  destroyed  by  the  recent 
war.  .  .  .  It  is  a  place  of  great  resort.  Mary  Ann  and  Judge 
Wilmot  met  the  Emperor  here  on  horse-back  when  they  were 
in  Paris  in  1867,  at  the  Exhibition.  As  we  neared  the  Tuileries 
we  saw  very  many  places  where  balls  and  shells  had  struck  the 
stonework  and  done  great  damage.  It  was  gutted  and  destroyed 
by  the  great  fire  that  raged  within — set  by  the  Commune. 

"  Strange  to  say  one  sees  everywhere  on  the  old  property 
of  the  State —  that  which  belonged  to  France  ere  Napoleon  was 
crowned  Emperor — '  Propriete  Republique  Francaise '  and 
'  Liberte,  Egalite,  Fraternite,'  and  on  that  which  was  added  after 
the  second  Empire  '  Propriete  Nationale.'  It  is  strange  that 
Napoleon  III  had  not  the  courage  to  rub  the  paint  brush  over 
the  former  words.  He  left  them  as  prophetic  words  to  tell  a  sub- 
sequent historic  tale,  a  '  Republique  '  under  Thiers, — '  Liberte, 
Eglite,  Fraternite,  under  the  Commune. 

"  "  Sunday,  March  10th,  1872.  Went  at  11  a.m.  to  19 
Rue  des  bons  Enfants — near  Palais  Royal,  and  then  under  the 
sign  of  Hotel  de  la  Chancellerie  D'Orleans  I  saw  the  words  '  Culte 
Evangelique.'  An  old  lady  from  a  little  shop,  when  I  asked  her 
for  the  '  Chapelle  Baptiste,'  led  me  up  two  pairs  of  stairs  and 
introduced  me  to  some  women  who  led  me  through  their  dining 
or  living,  room,  and  then  through  two  bedrooms  where  young 
men  were  dressing,  and  from  thence  into  the  chapel,  which  is 
larger  than  most  of  the  Protestant  chapels  or  rooms  I  saw  in  Italy. 
The  service  was  to  be  in  French,   and  a  young  man  informed 


me  that  the  Sabbath  School  would  be  in  session  at  2  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon;  so  I  concluded  to  go  in  search  of  a  place  of  worship 
where  I  could  understand  the  service — and  brought  up  at  the 
Independent  Church  in  23  Rue  Roy  ale.  I  had  some  difficulty  in 
finding  it,  but  at  length  succeeded.  It  was  on  the  ground  floor. 
I  noticed  a  sign  over  the  next  door,  (  Bierres  Anglaises.  Vins 
Spiritueux,'  and,  putting  the  two  words,  '  Anglaises  '  and  '  Spirit- 
ueux '  together,  it  looked  like  the  place — but  I  soon  found  my 

"...  The  chapel  was  just  in  the  midst  of  the  district 
ruined  by  shot,  shell  and  fire  of  the  Germans,  or  Commune,  or 
both,  and  close  to  the  Place  Vendome  and  the  stump  of  the 
Column.  The  carpenters'  hammers,  saws  and  planes  were  going 
all  around  us,  and  in  addition,  the  '  vins'  of  the  sign  next  door 
appeared  to  have  produced  their  results  on  some  of  the  neighbors, 
for  there  was  much  hallooing,  quarreling,  etc.,  etc.,  and  one 
virago !  Whether  she  was  old  or  young  I  could  not  tell,  but 
her  tongue  ran  at  a  terrible  rate,  interfering  with  and  drowning 
in  part  the  voice  of  the  minister.  Very  likely  she  was  one  of  the 
ladies  of  the  Commune  who  ran  about,  during  their  Parisian  reign, 
with  bottles  of  petroleum,  camphene,  etc.,  to  fire  the  city. 
I  went  to  visit  the  Sunday  School  at  19  Rue  des  bons  Enfants, 
but  a  mistake  had  been  made  by  my  informant  and  I  got  there 
too  late.  The  regular  afternoon  service  had  commenced,  in  French, 
and  I  remained  to  listen,  but  not  to  understand.  .  .  . 
Two  of  the  tunes  sung  were  familiar  old  Granville  Street  tunes, 
so  that  I  could  join  in  and  sing  the  air  with  the  congregation. 
.  .  I  told  Mr.  Lepoids  (the  pastor)  who  I  was,  and  he 
warmly  welcomed  me.  .  .  They  had  a  conference  meeting 
of  the  church  immediately  after  the  congregation  had  dispersed, 
and  he  then  introduced  me  to  them,  and  sent,  through  me,  the 
Christian  salutation  and  blessing  of  the  church  to  the  Granville 
Street  Baptist  Church  in  Halifax,  having  first  taken  the  vote  and 
the  unanimous  consent  of  his  church  on  the  matter.  All  voted 
holding  up  the  right  hand  and  standing,  and  all  looked  right 
glad  to  see  a  Canadian,  as  I  called  myself.  They  wondered  that 
I,  a  Canadian,  could  not  speak  French.  It  was  a  pleasant  meet- 
ing for  me  and  I  rejoiced  that  I  had  found  and  been  present  at 
two  '  Temples  of  Jesus  Christ '  on  this,  the  Lord's  day,  in  Paris, 
where  '  belief  in  God  '  and  His  precious  Word  is  faithfully  pro- 
claimed, notwithstanding  the  statement  made  by  M.  Brunet  in 
the  paragraph  which  I  now  quote  from  the  London  Standard  of 
March  9th,  1872.  It  is  a  telegram  dated:  Versailles,  March  8th, 
Evening.  '  The  Assembly  rejected  a  proposal  of  M.  Brunet  for 
the  erection  of  a  Temple  to  Jesus  Christ  on  the  Trocadero,  as  an 
expression  of  belief  in  God,  which  M.  Brunet  declared  to  be  neces- 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  269 

sary  for  national  regeneration.     M.  Brunet  made  a  long  speech 
on  the  necessity  of  religious  belief,  and  was  warmly  applauded 
by  the  Right/      I  was  in  Versailles  on  that  day  trying  to  get 
into  the  Chamber,  and,  if  I  had  been  successful,  would  probably 
have  heard  this  remarkable  and  wonderfully  suggestive  speech. 
There    are    thousands    upon    thousands    of    Temples    in    France 
dedicated  nominally  to  Christ,  but  actually  to  saints  or  to  the 
Virgin,  to  fallible  men  or  to  Mary  the  mother  of  Jesus :  Notre 
Dame,  costing  its  millions  of  dollars  and  having  its  millions  of 
treasures;    the  Holy  Chapel  almost  covered,  within  and  without, 
with  gold  fairly  dazzling  the  eyes  of  beholders;  the  great  Mag- 
dalene,  and  hundreds  of  other  chapels   and  churches.     Yet  M. 
Brunet  says  there  is  necessity  in  Roman  Catholic  France,  here- 
tofore the  strong  right  arm  of  the  Pope,  a  country  full  of  priests 
and  Jesuits,  to  have  a  temple  raised  to  Jesus  Christ,  as  an  expres- 
sion of  belief  in  God.     It  reminds  one  of  Paul  at  Athens.     '  His 
spirit  was  stirred  in  him  when  he  saw  the  city  wholly  given  to 
idolatry.'     Apparently  M.  Brunet's  spirit  was  stirred  within  him. 
M.  Brunet  evidently  thinks  of  the  French,  as  Paul  thought  of  the 
Athenians,  that  they  are  '  too  superstitious,'  and  he  is  desirous  that 
they  should  erect  a  temple  '  to  the  Unknown  God,'  that  the  nation 
might  acknowledge  and  worship  Him  instead  of  saints,  virgins  and 
idols.    What  a  commentary  upon  the  religious  condition  of  France, 
full  of  churches,  every  village  being  supplied  with  one,  and  the 
priests  being  so  thick  that  you  can  hardly  put  your  foot  upon  any 
part   of   French   soil   without    stumbling   over   half    a    dozen    of 
them.      .      .     .        But  what   I   have   seen   as   the   work   of   the 
Commune  makes  me  readily  believe  that   God  is  scarcely  wor- 
shipped throughout  this  vast  city  by  the  masses  of  its  popula- 
tion.     It  needs  more  than  gilded,   magnificent  works  of  stone, 
marble  and  bronze — it  needs  more  than  a  temple  '  to  Jesus  Christ ' 
to  regenerate  this  people.     It  needs  the  Gavassis,  the  Hyacinths 
and  the  Dollingers,   and  it  needs   even  these  men,   these  large- 
brained   reformers   to    have   greater   light    than   they   even   now 
possess ;   it  needs  their  hearts,   as  well  as  their  understandings, 
to   be   consecrated    and   given   to    God.      The   temples   that   God 
requires  here  are  the  softened,  subdued,  Christ-like  hearts.     These 
should  be,  and,  I  trust,  will  be,  in  France  as  well  as  elsewhere 
the  temples  of  the  living  God.     Silver  and  gold,  bronze  and  the 
painter's  brush  are  powerless,  but  God's  Holy  Spirit  can  accom- 
plish great  things  for  France.      He  can  renew   and  regenerate 
the  nation  and  make  it,  as  a  whole,  a  temple  indeed  of  the  Living, 
the,   at  present,  Unknown  God.     ...     I  copied  the  inscrip- 
tion from  the  bronzed  base  of  the  Column  Vendome.     .     .     . 
Only  a  circular  piece  of  stone  of  the  depth  of  2   or   21/2  feet 
is  left  standing  on  the  square   pediment.     The  four  eagles   at 

270  DANIEL  McNEILL  parker,  m.d. 

each  corner  of  the  pediment  were  untouched,  and  still  remain. 
.     .     .     The  column  was  vast  and  high,  decorated  with  emblems 
and  scenes  of  war  from  top  to  bottom.     The  Communists  with 
ropes  and  various  appliances  turned  it  over,  and  it  was  suddenly 
converted     into     a    broken     column.     .     .     .     The     button-hole 
decorations  are  numerous  everywhere.      I  would  like  to  under- 
stand what  they  mean.     .     .     .    Monday,  March  11th,  St.  Cloud: 
As  we  passed  along,  a  couple  of  miles  of  the  earth  and 
stonework  defences  thrown  up  by  the  Imperial  Government  to 
defend  the  city  against  the  German  met  us  on  all  sides.     Great 
destruction  of  property,  public  and  private,  was  noticed.     Shells 
passed  through  the  walls  of  stone  houses,  leaving  their  marks  in 
the  walls,  and  then  bursting  inside,  scattered  destruction  on  all 
sides.     Hundreds  of  houses  were  thus  knocked  to  pieces.     Iron 
railings  cut,  broken  and  scattered  as  if  they  had  been  glass  rods. 
A  barracks  for  soldiers  was  left,  riddled  by  shell.     Bomb-proofs 
were    every    here    and    there    passed.     .     .     .     Chateau    Royal. 
This   beautiful    old   building,    so    celebrated    in   the   history    of 
France,  was  made  a  ruin  by  the  German  artillery  on  the  sur- 
rounding hills,  which  destroyed  not  only  the  Chateau  and  the 
barracks,  but  all  the  central  part  of  the  town  (St.  Cloud).     .     .     . 
"  In  'the  evening  at  8  o'clock  I  started  to  find  my  Baptist 
brother  M.   Lepoids,   the  pasteur  of  the  church  I   attended   on 
Sunday.     I  drove  two  or  three  miles  in  a  cab  and  then  found 
him,  in  reality,  in  an  upper  chamber,  with  a  prayer  meeting  and 
Bible-class  going  on.     Several  of  those  present,  he  informed  me, 
were  Roman  Catholics  seeking  after  the  truth  as  it  is  in  Christ. 
I  could  not  understand  what  was  said,  but  I  felt  wonderfully 
at  home  with  my  brethren  in  the  Lord.     When  he  told  me  he  was 
sorry  that  I  could  not  understand,  I  told  him  that  I  never  more 
regretted  in  my  life  the  undertaking  of  the  erection  of  the  Tower 
of  Babel,  because  if  it  had  not  been  for  that  I  could  have  under- 
stood the  whole  service;  but  I  told  them  I  hoped  to  meet  them 
all   in  Heaven,   where   there  would  be  only  one  language — one 
tongue  and  one  Nation.     They  appeared  to  be  amused  about  the 
Tower  of  Babel,   and  when  we  parted  we  shook  hands   as  old 
friends  bound  Heavenward.     .     .     .  "     "  His  members,  he  told 
me  were  about  100,  and  he  is  getting  along  well  with  God's  work. 
His  wife  is  a  teacher  in  the  public  schools  and  has  charge  of 
ninety-one  scholars.     Her  voice  is  giving  away  with  much  speak- 
ing.    Finding  that  I  was  a  doctor,  they  asked  me  to  prescribe, 
and  I  did.     This  sister  was  my  only  patient  in  France.     I  had 
one  in  Rome  (Rev.  Mr.  Smith)  and  I  hope  that  God  will  bless 
the  means.    I  have  been  rather  struck  with  the  idea  of  the  Baptists 
in  France  and  Italy  always  meeting  in  upper  chambers.      The 
Episcopalians,  Presbyterians  and  Independents  all  were  on  the 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  271 

ground  floor,  and  preaching,  not  to  the  natives  and  poor,  but  to 
the  English  and  Americans,  while  the  Baptists  are,  in  these 
upper  chambers,  preaching  to  and  teaching  the  poor.  Inter  alia, 
this  rather  leads  to  the  conclusion  that,  both  in  Italy  and  in  France, 
we,  the  Baptists,  are  the  successors  of  the  Apostles.  We  parted  at 
11  o'clock,  or  thereabouts,  and  if  we  never  meet  again  on  earth, 
I  hope  to  meet  the  Lepoids  in  Heaven." 

In  the  letters  to  Johnston  which  follow,  the  beginnings  of 
the  Protestant  revival  in  Rome  are  touched  upon  in  an  interesting 
way.  In  these  letters,  the  last  ever  addressed  by  father  to  son,  are 
some  things  too  sacred  to  be  reproduced  here.  As  in  the  case 
of  matters  purely  domestic,  or  of  a  private  nature,  occurring  in 
previous  letters,  these  things  are  omitted.  But  the  spiritual 
counsel  found  in  the  letter  of  February  25th,  1872,  is  such  a 
typical  illustration  of  the  writer's  religious  faith,  of  the  vital 
reality  which  his  religion  was  to  him,  and  of  the  earnest  force 
with  which  he  was  accustomed  to  proclaim  the  Gospel,  in  its 
simplicity,  to  others  in  conversation,  and  in  public  discourse,  as 
well  as  in  his  correspondence,  that  I  feel  under  a  sense  of  com- 
pulsion to  give  this  particular  letter  in  full. 

"  The  evil  that  men  do  lives  after  them ;  the  good  is  oft 
interred  with  their  bones."  In  such  a  communication  as  this, 
may  it  not  be  that  "  he  being  dead  yet  speaketh  "  to  those  thus 
privileged  to  hear  the  voice  ?  Who  can  tell  but  this  simple,  fervid 
message  of  salvation  sent  by  the  heartsore  father  from  old  Rome 
to  his  boy  under  the  shadow  of  approaching  death  in  another 
old-world  city  famed  in  religious  history,  coming  again  to  others 
of  that  father's  descendants,  but  now  as  a  voice  from  "  that  bourne 
whence  no  traveller  returns,"  may  fall  once  more  as  seed  upon 
receptive  soil. 

The  Last  Lettees  to  Johnston. 

Hotel  de  Nice,  Nice, 

Sunday,  February  11th,  1872. 
My  Dear  Son : 

We  arrived  here  from  Marseilles  last  evening  after  a  very 
pleasant  railway  journey  through  an  Alpine  country,  the  valleys 
of  which  were  cultivated,  and  the  side  hills  also  wherever  earth 
could  be  found.  No  cattle,  sheep  or  horses,  except  those  of  the 
latter  in  use.  All  the  land  was  cultivated  for  the  vine,  the  olive 
and  the  orange,  as  well  as  other  fruits,  vegetables  and  cereals. 
During  much  of  the  distance  we  ran  close  along  the  shore  of  the 
Mediterranean  Sea,  which  was  placid  and  beautiful.  The  two 
most  important  places  we  called  at  were  Toulon,  the  southern 
Brest,  a  great  naval  arsenal  of  France  fortified  in  front  and  on 


its  heights  very  strongly,  and  Cannes,  a  most  picturesque  and 
beautiful  place  where  wealthy  people  reside  in  winter.  The  late 
Lord  Brougham  lived  there  for  years  and  owned  a  chateau,  and 
Lord  John  Russell  is  now  a  resident  of  the  place.  We  are  very 
comfortably  situated  at  the  Hotel  de  Nice,  as  we  have  been 
indeed  in  all  the  hotels.  .  .  .  We  arrived  just  in  time  for 
dinner,  having  been  delayed,  a  few  miles  this  side  of  Cannes, 
by  the  late  terrible  accident  at  Pont  de  Brague,  where  a  large 
bridge  had  been  washed  away  in  consequence  of  the  floods  pro- 
duced by  the  melting  snow  on  the  branches  of  the  Maritime  Alps 
which  everywhere  run  along  the  coast.  We  drove  about  two 
miles  in  omnibuses  and  had  our  luggage  trucked  round  to  the 
next  station  in  advance  of  this  point.  ...  I  had  a  very 
good  night's  sleep,  and  went  to  hear  the  Rev.  Burn  Murdoch,  the 
Free  Church  minister  here,  who  gave  us  a  very  good,  practical 
sermon,  without  any  display  of  oratory,  from  2nd  Corinthians, 
6  :  14-18,  and  the  first  verse  of  the  seventh  chapter.  The  subject  of 
the  immoral  theatrical  exhibitions,  the  horse  races  and  the  gambling 
houses  of  Nice,  all  of  which  have  been  lately  in  full  blast,  occupied 
a  good  deal  of  his  time,  and  I  only  hope  good  results  will  follow 
the  faithful  word  of  admonition  addressed  to  his  audience. 

I  assumed  from  not  getting  a  telegram  from  mama  at  Mar- 
seilles, or  thus  far,  that  you  must  be  improving,  and  with  much 
anxiety  to  learn  your  real  condition,  I  have,  I  trust,  been  thank- 
ful to  God  for  His  mercy  to  you.  Of  course,  had  you  been  worse 
mama  would  have  telegraphed  and  I  should  have  returned  at 
once.  It  seems  dreadfully  long,  my  dear  boy,  to  be  without  any 
intelligence  from  you,  but  I  hope  to  have  several  letters  on  my 
arrival  at  Rome.  One  written  immediately  on  the  receipt  of 
this  will  be  sure  to  meet  me  there,  at  the  "  Hotel  d'Allemagne," 
as  before  mentioned  in  my  letter  from  Paris.  I  only  wish  now 
that  I  had  asked  your  mama  to  write  me  here.  We  hope  to  be 
at  Rome  about  next  Saturday  night.  Before  going  to  Rome, 
however,  we  will  be  at  Pisa,  say  on  Thursday  next,  and  my 
address  there  will  be  "  Hotel  de  Londres,"  where  a  telegram  could 
reach  me  after  the  receipt  of  this  letter,  should  there  be  any 
occasion  for  it.  Our  next  stage  is  to  Mentone,  to-morrow  even- 
ing. Erom  thence  there  is  a  break  in  the  railway  communication 
until  we  arrive  at  Savona,  a  town  some  distance  this  side  of 
Genoa.  The  intervening  distance  has  to  be  performed  by  diligence, 
or  coach,  but  we  shall  be  repaid,  we  are  told,  for  the  fatigue  by 
the  great  beauty  of  the  scenery.  It  is  here  described  as  being 
the  finest  in  Europe.  Nice  is  beautiful  for  situation,  but  there 
is  no  regard  paid  to  the  Sabbath  day.  This  is  the  Carnival  season 
at  Rome,  and  they  are  keeping  it  up  here  as  well.  All  through 
the  city,  men,  women  and  boys  are  rushing,  on  foot,  on  horse- 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  273 

back  or  in  carriages,  disguised  with  every  description  of  mask 
and  dress,  dancing  and  making  all  kinds  of  noises  as  they  pass 
along  the  streets.  The  hurdy-gurdys  are  playing,  monkeys  are 
going  through  their  performances  on  dogs'  backs,  etc.  A  small 
steam  engine  connected  with  a  panorama  is  driving  musical 
instruments.  Carriages  by  hundreds  are  out  with  the  inhabitants. 
In  short.  Sunday  here,  my  first  in  France,  is  more  gay  than  any 
other  day  in  the  week.  How  different  from  a  Sabbath  in  Xova 
Scotia  and  in  Edinburgh.     .     .     . 

10  o'clock  p.m.  We  have  just  learned  that  the  diligence  has 
ceased  to  run  from  Mentone  to  Savona.  We  have  consequently 
changed  our  minds,  on  the  spur  of  the  moment,  and  have  con- 
cluded to  take  the  steamer  from  this  port  to  Genoa  to-morrow 
morning  at  9  o'clock,  and,  if  all  goes  well,  we  shall  be  there  in 
nine  hours.  This  will  put  us  into  Rome  one  or  two  days  earlier 
than  we  anticipated,  but  a  letter  will  still  reach  us  if  mailed  at 
once  on  the  receipt  of  this.  We  cannot  as  yet  say  what  day  we 
shall  be  in  Paris  on  our  return,  but  shall  write  from  Rome  and 
tell  mama,  so  that  she  may  make  her  arrangements  with  Agnes 
Shuttleworth  to  meet  us  there  at  the  Grand  Hotel  du  Louvre; 
that  is  to  say  if  you  are  well  enough  to  be  left  at  Torquay  for  a 
few  days,  or  rather,  at  first,  at  Dartmouth. 

I  have  been  in  communication  with  a  gentleman  here,  a 
resident,  clergyman  of  the  Independent  body,  who  having  broken 
down  in  health  in  London,  is  taking  pupils  and  boarders.  If  it 
is  desirable,  he  may  be  able  by  and  by  to  accommodate  you  in 
his  house.  I  have  made  all  the  necessary  preliminary  arrange- 
ments, and  we  will  act  in  the  matter  as  God  may  seem  to  direct  us. 
Tell  dear  mama  that  I  shall  write  her  in  a  day  or  two  from 
Genoa  or  Pisa.  In  the  meantime,  if  the  doctors  think  you  are 
able  to  leave,  and  advise  your  removal  in  the  course  of  a  week 
or  two.  she  had  better  make  her  arrangements  accordingly.  I  am 
very  anxious  for  her  to  see  London  and  Paris  before  she  goes  out, 
and  if  all  things  seem  to  be  so  ordered,  the  opportunity  will  be  a 
good  one. 

Aunt  Celia,  Cousin  M.  A.  and  Uncle  Martin  send  their  love  to 
you  all.  And  now,  my  dear  boy,  farewell  for  a  time.  With 
a  great  deal  of  love  to  mama,  yourself,  Mary  Ann,  Willie,  Laura 
and  little  Fanny,  and  kind  remembrances  to  the  doctors,  Sarah 
and  Charles, 

I  remain,  my  dear  son, 

Your  affectionate  father. 

D.  McK  Parker. 
Mr.  J.  Johnston  Parker, 

13    Salisbury   Place,   Edinburgh. 



Rome,  February  18th,  1872. 

Sunday,  Hotel  d'Allemagne. 

My  Dear  Son: 

I  wrote  to  mama  last  night,  and  having  just  returned  from 
church  will  avail  myself  of  a  quiet  few  minutes  to  drop  you  a 
line  while  Uncle  Martin,  Aunt  C.  and  M.  A.  are  up  on  one  of 
the  seven  hills  of  Rome  taking  a  look  down  upon  the  great  city 
of  the  Csesars  and  the  Popes,  of  ancient  statuary  and  monu- 
ments. I  was  desirous  of  seeing  Mr.  Wall,  the  Baptist  mission- 
ary, and  attending  service  in  his  upper  chamber  this  morning, 
but  could  not  possibly  hear  a  word  of  him.  At  the  hotel  they 
knew  nothing  of  anything  in  the  shape  of  a  Baptist,  unless  it  was 
the  chapel  or  church  of  St.  Jean  de  Baptista.  I  looked  over 
all  the  cards  with  notices  of  Protestant  places  of  worship,  hang- 
ing up  in  the  hotel,  but  found  not  a  line  concerning  the  immersers. 
So  remembering  that  the  way  to  find  a  thief  was  to  set  a  thief 
after  him,  I  carried  the  principle  into  effect  in  church  hunting, 
and  went  to  the  place  where  those  most  closely  allied  in  doctrine 
to  the  Baptists — the  Free  Church  of  Scotland — were  to  be  found, 
and  sure  enough  I  hit  the  nail  on  the  head;  for  one  of  the 
elders  of  the  church,  an  Edinburgh  Doctor  of  Medicine,  Dr. 
Phillips,  gave  me  the  address,  and  volunteered  the  statement 
that  Mr.  Wall  was  doing  a  great  deal  of  good  in  Rome.  I  intend 
going  to  hear  'him  preach  this  evening.  The  four  Protestant 
English  and  American  Episcopal  churches,  Kirk  of  Scotland 
and  Free  Church  are  just  without  one  of  the  great  and  ancient 
gates  of  Rome.  The  Popes  of  the  past  and  present  would  not 
allow  them  to  come  within  its  holy  walls  with  their  heresies. 
But  now,  Mr.  Wall  has  his  upper  chamber  and  preaching  station, 
not  only  within  the  walls,  but  almost  upon  the  Vatican  itself. 
The  sermon  was  an  excellent  one,  from  the  clergyman  of  Cumray 
on  the  Clyde,  who  is  filling  the  pulpit  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Lewis 
(just  dead  from  diphtheria).  It  was  on  Heb.  12:  2 — "Looking 
unto  Jesus."  It  would  have  profited  you,  my  dear  son,  to  have 
heard  the  Word  so  simply  and  so  ably  put  to  this  small  congre- 
gation of  100  to  150  people.  It  was  in  beautiful  contrast  with 
what  we  saw  yesterday  as  we  visited  St.  Peter's,  and  were  pre- 
sent at  4  o'clock  vespers,  at  which  service  there  were  twenty-two 
priests  engaged  in  singing  Latin  to  one  old  Italian  woman,  I 
think  a  beggar.  Gazing  in  through  the  bronzed  gate  or  open 
door  there  was  a  handful  of  English  and  American  people  stand- 
ing. We  could  not  understand  a  word  they  said,  or  sang,  but 
there  were  two  beautiful  voices,  out  of  the  twenty-two.  We  had 
previously  seen  in  the  Church  of  Santa  Maria,  supra  moenem, 
over  the  site  of  the  ancient  Temple  of  Minerva,  high  mass  per- 
formed, in  which,  amid  much  of  form,  of  genuflexions,  of  march- 

EDINBUKGH,  1871-3  275 

ing  to  and  fro  around  the  church  in  procession  (a  large  proces- 
sion it  was,  of  Dominican  monks  carrying  candles)  the  Eucharist, 
the  sacred  wafer,  the  real  body  of  Christ  as  they  say,  was  being 
marched  around  the  church  held  up  on  a  silk  curtain  by  six  or 
eight  priests — all  the  priests  singing  and  some  of  the  kneeling 
audience.  All  bowed  before  the  Eucharist  except  English  and 
Americans,  who  stood  and  looked  on  at  the  ceremony  as  a  piece 
of  idol  worship.  We  chanced  to  look  in  at  the  chapel  by  accident 
at  the  time,  having  been  taken  there  by  our  guide  to  see  the 
paintings,  statuary,  etc.  I  have  a  vast  deal  to  see  and  to  record, 
and  but  little  time  to  do  it  in.  I  am  anxious  to  push  on  as  fast 
as  possible,  so  as  to  be  back  to  join  you,  and  see  exactly  how 
you  are  doing.  You  cannot  tell,  my  dear  boy,  how  thankful  I 
was  to  our  good  God  to  learn  such  good  accounts  of  you  from 
mama's  letter.  I  have  heretofore  been  travelling  with  a  heavy 
heart,  but  shall  go  on  my  way  now,  more  cheerful  and  contented. 
While  I  am  anxious  for  you  to  leave  for  the  South  as  soon  as 
possible,  I  do  not  wish  the  slightest  risk  to  be  run,  for  I  would 
rather  mama  would  leave  you  in  Edinburgh  for  a  fortnight  longer, 
if  it  can  be  done  in  safety,  and  join  us  in  Paris,  than  to  expose 
you  to  cold  or  injury.  If  she  cannot  possibly  come  now,  I  will 
take  her  in  the  summer  by  the  Khine  to  Paris,  and  to  London. 
But  I  leave  it  all  to  the  doctors  and  your  mama  to  decide.  God 
will  direct  and  guide  in  the  matter.  I  can  get  you  in  the  house 
of  a  very  nice  man  in  Nice,  who  would  look  after  your  comfort, 
but  I  fear  the  discomforts  of  their  houses  and  the  excessive, 
debilitating  heat  of  summer.  Altogether,  I  think  our  first  plan, 
that  of  Torquay,  will  be  the  best  adapted  for  your  restoration, 
and  that  must  be  the  primary,  the  all-important  consideration. 
You  can  talk  the  matter  over  with  Drs.  Stewart  and  Gordon. 
In  three  weeks,  or  four  at  most,  I  expect  to  see  you,  God  willing. 
Tell  mama  I  am  very  sorry  to  tax  her  with  letter-writing  for 
me,  but  the  fact  is,  if  I  commence,  I  must  write  to  a  dozen,  and 
at  the  close  of  each  day  I  really  feel  exhausted  by  the  exertion 
of  walking  and  standing,  and  cannot  spare  a  moment  from  my 
work.  I  want  to  learn  all  I  can  while  absent.  In  fact  I  shall 
be  obliged  to  do  six  months'  work  in  one.  .  .  .  Give  my  love 
to  mama,  Mary  Ann,  Willie,  Laura  and  dear  little  Fanny,  and 
remember  me  to  Charles  and  Sarah;  and  with  much  love  to 

I  remain,   dear  boy, 

Your  affect,  father, 

D.  McN.  Parker. 
Mr.  J.  Johnston  Parker, 

13  Salisbury  Place,  Edinburgh.1 


Rome,,  Italy,  Sunday  night, 

February  25th,  1872. 
My  Dear  Son: 

I  was  much  pleased  to  see  your  handwriting  under  date 
February  14th,  and  I  perused  your  letter  with  interest,  and 
gratitude  to  God  for  His  goodness  in  restoring  you  thus  far  toward 
health.  I  pray  to  Him  daily  that  the  improvement  may  continue 
progressively  until  you  are  restored  to  your  former  state  physi- 
cally; and  spiritually,  to  the  joys  of  His  great  salvation. 

Instead  of  thinking  your  statements  in  relation  to  your  spirit- 
ual state  "  unsatisfactory,"  I  look  upon  them  as  just  the  opposite. 
I  thank  God  that  He  has  put  it  into  your  heart  to  pray  to  Him 
for  a  renewed  heart,  and  this,  I  feel  assured,  you  are  doing  sin- 
cerely. And  you  may  rest  in  faith  upon  Him  who  said  of  Paul : 
"  behold  he  prayeth,"  and  then  received  him  as  His  adopted  child 
and  never  after  let  go  the  hold  He  had  of  him,  but  through  good 
report  and  evil  report,  through  trials  and  persecutions — some  of 
them  quite  near  the  spot  where  I  am  writing  this — through  temp- 
tations and  hardships,  preserved  him  as  His  faithful,  loving 
follower  to  the  end  of  life,  and  then  took  him  to  glory.  Now,  as 
regards  "  feeling,"  that  is  a  matter  you  cannot  control.  It  is  God 
who  gives  us  emotional  feeling,  or  withholds  it.  He  does  not 
tell  us  to  weep  and  cry  and  mourn  continually  over  our  sins. 
All  He  says  is :  "  Believe  on  Me  and  ye  shall  be  saved,"  and  the 
real  test  of  our  belief,  in  His  eyes,  is  the  ceasing  to  do  evil  and 
learning  to  do  well.  If  a  man  had  jumped  into  the  sea  and  saved 
your  life,  I  have  no  doubt  you  would  be  grateful,  but  that  grati- 
tude, in  a  person  of  your  temperament,  would  not  be  likely  to  take 
the  demonstrative  form.  At  the  same  time,  if  this  individual 
asked  you  to  do  anything  for  him,  in  reason,  I  have  no  doubt  you 
would  gladly  and  promptly  accede  to  his  request.  Now,  Christ 
has  done  more  than  hazard  His  life  to  save  yours.  He  has  sacri- 
ficed that  life  for  you,  and  all  He  asks  in  return  is,  that  you 
should  believe  He  has  done  it ;  that  you  should  confess  with  your 
mouth  that  He  is  the  Lord  Jesus,  the  Son  of  God,  and  believe  in 
your  heart  that  God  hath  raised  Him  from  the  dead,  and  you  shall 
be  saved.  He  does  not  say:  weep,  mourn,  be  of  a  sorrowful  heart, 
and  go  in  sackcloth  and  ashes  for  your  past  sins  and  neglect 
of  Him — but  rather,  believe  and  rejoice.  Man  never  has  and 
never  can  feel  that  contrition  of  soul  for  his  sins  that  he  should. 
But  that  is  a  matter  for  Christ  to  consider,  and  if  He  is  con- 
tented to  take  and  receive  you  just  as  you  are,  just  take  Him  at 
His  word  and  say:  "  I  go,  Lord,  here  I  am  just  as  I  am;  accept 
and  receive  me,"  and  the  Father  will  receive  and  pardon  you, 
and  make  you  a  son,  and,  if  a  son,  an  heir  of  God  and  a  joint- 
heir  with  Christ. 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  277 

But  this  is  to  be  remembered,  that  having  determined  to 
accept  the  great  salvation  on  the  simple  and  easy  terms  offered 
in  the  Gospel,  the  old  man  must  be  put  off  and  the  new  man  must 
be  put  on;  that  is  to  say:  wherein  you  have  wittingly  disobeyed 
and  sinned  against  God  in  the  past,  you  must  sin  no  more,  but 
must  determine  to  relinquish  those  occupations,  pleasures,  com- 
panions and  sins  of  every  description  which  have  heretofore  led 
you  astray  and  away  from  Him.  It  will  be  no  acceptance  of  Him 
and  His  terms,  if  the  sinner  says,  '  I  will  believe  in  the  Lord 
Jesus  that  I  may  be  saved,"  and  the  next  moment,  in  direct  opposi- 
tion to  His  Father's  commandments,  openly  and  wittingly  breaks 
those  commandments.  After  having  determined  to  serve  the  Lord, 
the  determination  must  be  carried  out,  every  hour,  with  watch- 
fulness and  care,  trusting  in  the  Lord  for  strength  to  resist 
temptation  and  trials;  and  He  will  most  assuredly  give  you  the 
strength  to  resist,  and  to  continue  to  serve  Him.  And,  this  very 
obedience  and  trustfulness  and  prayerfulness  having  enabled  you 
to  conquer  your  trials  and  temptations,  will  beget,  to  a  greater 
or  less  extent,  the  comfort,  happiness,  or  even  the  joy,  which  in 
the  beginning,  even  before  you  have  made  the  consecration  of 
yourself  to  Him  and  His  cause,  you  are  looking  for.  The  deter- 
mination and  the  consecration  must  first  be  made,  in  faith,  and 
leave  all  the  rest  to  God.  All  other  things  will  be  added,  and 
your  soul  will  be  saved.  It  is  useless  to  say  "  I  would  like  to  be 
a  Christian,"  without  resolving  and  acting.  In  every  act  of  life 
that  is  attended  with  success,  effort  is  demanded,  and  without  effort 
put  forth  and  sustained,  men  never  succeed  in  anything.  Just 
so  is  it  in  the  business  of  the  soul's  salvation.  Resolve !  Act ! 
and  prayerfully  commit  the  rest  to  Him  who  has  made  the 
promise  that  your  soul,  under  such  circumstances,  shall  be  saved. 
"  Now  is  the  accepted  time.     This  is  the  day  of  salvation." 

I  glean  from  your  mother's  letter  that  I  am  likely  to  find 
you  in  Edinburgh  on  my  return.  If  you  had  the  strength  to 
move,  and  she  would  accompany  you,  there  would  be  no  necessity 
for  this;  but  I  shall  learn  in  Paris  whether  I  am  to  see  you  at 
Dartmouth  or  Torquay,  or  Edinburgh.  I  do  not  wish  you  to 
work  at  French  or  anything  else  just  now.  Recreation  may  be 
taken  in  this  way,  but  nothing  more. 

Last  Sunday  evening  I  found  out  Mr.  Wall's  missionary  meet- 
ing in  Rome,  and  found  the  place  of  worship  was  like  that  of 
St.  Paul  in  the  long  years  that  are  past — "  in  his  own  hired 
house."  It  was  crammed  to  overflowing  by  anxious  listeners  and 
Bible  students,  who  a  few  months  before  were  Romanists.  I  met 
there  a  minister  and  his  three  deacons  from  Bristol,  England, 
who  were  taking  the  same  tour  we  have  been  doing.     Almost 


the  first  question  one  of  them  asked  me  was :  "Do  you  know 
Mrs.  Joplin  in  Halifax  ?"  I  replied  "  Yes ;  and  intimately,"  and 
then  found  out  that  they  were  friends  of  hers.  Strange  that 
I  should  have  met  them  almost  under  the  Vatican,  where  twelve 
months  since  the  whole  of  us  would  have  been  arrested  by  Papal 
soldiers  for  taking  part  in  a  heretical  meeting.  But  things  are 
changed  here  now.  On  the  9th  of  this  month  a  discussion  took 
place  between  three  Jesuit  priests  and  three  missionaries,  in  the 
Academy  of  the  Tiber  here,  on  the  subject  of  the  presence  of 
Peter  in  Rome ;  the  Protestants  asserting  that  he  never  had  been 
in  the  city  at  all ;  the  priests  saying  he  was  here  for  a  number  of 
years  and  was  crucified,  head  down,  on  the  exact  site  of  the 
great  Cathedral  which  bears  his  name.  The  contest  has  excited 
great  attention.  The  priests  got  terribly  handled  and  worsted 
in  the  argument,  especially  by  Gavatzi.  All  the  Protestants  had 
been  priests  in  former  years.  Our  guide  through  Rome  Was 
full  of  it,  and  although  nominally  a  Catholic,  rejoiced  at  the 
defeat  the  Papal  three  had  received.  He  would  often  repeat  to 
me  the  words,  "  The  Evangelists  won  it,"  as  if  the  six  had  been 
contending  in  the  old  Roman  races  as  athletes.  To-day  I  went 
to  Mr.  Wall's  service  again,  and,  as  on  Sunday  evening  last,  the 
service  was  in  Italian,  and,  of  course,  could  not  be  understood 
by  me.  But  I  enjoyed  it  exceedingly  from  the  fact  that  I  could 
plainly  see  the  poor  people  who  were  present  were  drinking  it 
all  in  as  new  and  unheard-of  truths.  In  Mr.  Wall's  rooms  it 
was  that  Mr.  Spurgeon  preached,  a  couple  of  months  since, 
and  was  interrupted  by  a  Jesuit  priest  who  went  in  with  the 
crowd  to  hear  him.  I  partook  of  the  communion  with  the  little 
band  of  baptized  believers,  and  altogether  had  a  pleasant  morning. 
Present  at  it  was  the  representative  of  the  American  Baptist 
Missionary  Society.  Rev.  Mr.  Cote,  an  Edinburgh  surgeon's 
son,  had  been  preaching  here  since  November  last.  As  soon 
as  he  knew  I  was  from  Nova  Scotia  he  asked  me  if  I  knew 
Dr.  Cramp,  and  when  I  told  him  I  did,  he  said :  "  I  have  his 
Baptist  History  in  my  library."  His  father  was  a  missionary 
at  the  Grand  Ligne  station,  near  Montreal,  and  has  preached  for 
us  at  Granville  Street.  He  has  just  completed  for  the  Baptist 
Missionary  Society  of  the  United  States  a  complete  history  of 
all  the  baptisteries  in  Italy  connected  with  the  old  Roman 
Catholic  church,  which  will  prove  beyond  dispute  that  they,  as 
well  as  those  in  the  Catacombs,  were  used  for  immersing  the 
candidates.  I  spent  three  hours  with  him  to-day,  and  a  most 
interesting  time  we  had.  ...  He  tells  me  that  not  long  since 
he  baptized  forty  on  the  Adriatic  side  of  this  Italian  peninsula, 
at  a  town  called  Bari,  and  he  has  soon  to  go  there  again  for  the 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  279 

same  purpose.  Mr.  Wall  has  a  Bible  class  of  sixty  men  and  women 
of  all  ages,  once  or  twice  a  week,  at  his  house,  and  I  was  present 
at  his  Sunday  school  this  morning,  also  at  a  meeting  of  members 
after  the  Communion,  to  discuss  doctrinal  points,  so  that  they  may 
be  armed  for  the  contest  with  the  enemy.  Mr.  Wall  told  me  that 
there  are  one  hundred  names  on  his  list  of  applicants  for  member- 
ship, but  he  has  to  be  very  careful  as  to  whom  he  admits.  Some 
think  they  should  be  baptized  before  they  are  taught  the  nature 
of  the  ordinance.  One  attempted  to  stab  him  the  other  night 
because  he  was  dismissed  for  drunkenness ;  and  Mr.  Cote  says 
he  has-  been  convoyed  by  soldiers  to  and  from  his  preaching 
stations,  to  save  him  from  the  assassins'  knives.  But  the  result 
of  the  recent  great  victory  in  the  St.  Peter  discussion  has  acted 
as  a  quietus  to  the  Jesuits,  and  they  are  not  so  openly  hostile 
now  as  they  were  a  few  weeks  since. 

Take  care  of  yourself,  and  may  God  bless  you,  my  dear  boy. 
Ever  your  afft.  father, 


In  the  spring  of  1872  the  house  on  Salisbury  Place  was 
exchanged  for  !No.  20  Mayfield  Terrace,  Newington,  as  more 
preferable  for  Johnston,  the  situation  being  open  and  airy, 
with  the  Queen's  Park  on  one  side  and  an  unobstructed  view 
of  the  Braid  Hills  at  the  rear ;  and  a  spacious  garden  was  attached 
to  the  property.  This  was  the  home  of  the  family  for  the 
remainder  of  the  sojourn  in  Edinburgh. 

But.  nothing  availed  to  stay  the  rapid  progress  of  Johnston's 
fatal  malady,  and  he  passed  away  on  the  first  of  July.  His 
remains  lie  in  the  family  burial  lot  of  the  late  Sir  Grainger 
Stewart  at  the  beautiful  Dean  Cemetery.  Upon  his  monument 
his  father  inscribed  the  words :  "  Shall  not  the  Judge  of  all 
the  earth  do  right  ?  " — words  which  commemorate  the  faith  of 
him  concerning  whom  the  Scriptures  say  he  "  believed  God,  and 
it  was  counted  unto  him  for  righteousness,"  wo*rds  truly  expres- 
sive of  my  father's  child-like  faith  and  his  meek  spirit  of  loyal, 
trustful  surrender  to  the  will  of  his  Father  in  Heaven.  He  could 
not  then  understand,  and  like  any  mortal,  had  to  grope  his  way  in 
the  darkness  for  a  time,  but  he  could  cling  and  trust  while  seeing 
"  as  through  a  glass  darkly."     Now  he  knows  and  understands. 

The  remainder  of  that  trying  summer  was  spent  in  seclusion 
on  the  Clyde,  at  Dunoon,  with  occasional  excursions  among  the 
Western  Isles  and  Lochs,  in  the  course  of  which  liis  student 
quarters  on  the  Isle  of  Bute  were  revisited,  a  call  on  old  Halifax 
friends  at  Helensborough  was  made,  and  there  was  a  trip  through 


the  Trossachs  which  included  Stirling  and  the  sail  down  Lochs 
Katrine  and  Lomond.  The  diverting  influences  of  the  seven  or 
eight  weeks  so  spent  were  very  beneficial  to  my  father's  harassed 
spirit,  and  he  seemed  to  find  further  solace  in  his  studies,  too, 
which  were  not  discontinued.  Recreation  without  his  books  would 
soon  grow  wearisome.  He  returned  to  take  up  the  burden  of 
duty  at  Edinburgh  refreshed  in  mind  and  body. 

As  an  illustration  of  his  activity  of  mind  at  this  period  (when 
he  was  engrossed  in  professional  study)  as  well  as  of  his  public- 
spirited  interest  in  the  affairs  of  his  country  and  his  strength  in 
political  controversy  with  the  pen,  the  following  example  will 
serve : 

The  London  Daily  News  of  September  21st,  1872,  contained 
this  editorial,  which  he  answered  in  its  columns  with  the  letter 
that  follows: 

"  The  Canadian  elections  have  resulted  in  a  series  of  ministerial 
defeats  so  numerous  and  signal  that  nothing  but  a  highly  excited  state 
of  the  public  mind  against  the  most  eminent  persons  in  the  Colony  can 
account  for  them. 

"  Sir  John  A.  Macdonald,  the  Premier;  Sir  Francis  Hincks,  the 
Finance  Minister;  Mr.  McDougall,  the  Minister  of  Public  Works,  and 
Sir  George  B.  Cartier  have  been  not  only  rejected,  but  rejected  with 
ignominy,  most  of  them  by  constituencies  which  they  have  represented 
for  many  years. 

"  In  his  letter  which  we  printed  yesterday,  our  correspondent  at 
Toronto  explains  with  great  lucidity  the  reasons  of  the  great  change 
which  has  taken  place  in  Colonial  sentiment. 

"  The  ministers  have  been  presuming  too  much  on  their  popularity, 
and  taking  too  much  upon  them  by  encroaching  on  the  rights  of  the 
people.  The  consolidation  of  the  various  provinces  into  one  great 
Dominion  has  made  the  old  leaders  of  Upper  and  Lower  Canada  greater 
men  than  they  were  before,  and  they  have  been  too  conscious  of  the 
change.  They  persuaded  the  last  Parliament  to  authorize  them  to  raise 
great  loans  and  to  leave  the  expenditure  of  the  money  to  their  uncon- 
trolled judgment;  and  they  decided  upon  the  route  of  the  Intercolonial 
Railway — which  is  to  cost  £4,000,000  sterling — without  asking  the 
sanction  of  Parliament.  It  was,  however,  their  high-handed  way  of 
dealing  with  the  project  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway  which  did  them 
most  harm  at  the  poll.  This  great  scheme,  as  passed  by  the  last  Parlia- 
ment, included  a  Government  subsidy  of  thirty  million  dollars  in 
money,  and  fifty  million  acres  of  land,  besides  the  holding  of  as  many 
more  acres  by  the  Government  as  a  reserve.  The  Government  further 
obtained  power  to  make  a  contract"  for  the  construction  of  the  road,  and 
charter  a  company  to  make  it. 

"  This  was  going  very  far  indeed,  and  we  need  not  wonder  that  the 
Canadians  saw  danger  in  the  extent  to  which  their  public  men  were 
mixed  up  so  largely  with  gigantic  financial  and  speculative  undertakings. 
Our  co-respondent  says  that  in  the  Parliament  of  200  members,  25  were 
directly  interested  in  the  companies  competing  for  the  contract. 

"  The  danger  is  one  that  besets  all  governments  in  undeveloped  and 
progressive  countries.  It  will  be  interesting  to  see  what  the  new  Par- 
liament will  do,  and  very  interesting  indeed  if  it  should  put  a  limit  to 
these  commitments  of  the  taxpayers  to  great  public  works,  of  which  the 
cost  and  the  utility  are  alike  immeasurable." 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  281 

20  Mayfield  Terrace,  Edinburgh, 

September  28th,  1872. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Daily  News: 

Sir, — My  attention  has  just  been  called  to  your  editorial 
of  the  21st  inst.  on  the  recent  Canadian  elections,  and  as  it 
contains  several  statements  which  are  at  variance  with  facts, 
and  as  a  whole  is  calculated  to  mislead,  may  I  beg  you  to  insert 
this  communication  in  your  next  issue,  in  order  that  the  mis- 
takes, into  which  your  Toronto  correspondent  has  led  you, 
may  be  corrected,  and  those  of  your  readers  who  take  an  interest 
in  the  political  and  financial  business  of  the  Dominion  may  not 
continue  to  entertain  erroneous  impressions  concerning  the  present 
position  of  several  leading  Canadian  statesmen,  as  well  as  in 
relation  to  important  public  works,  in  which  the  British  people 
have  a  deep  and  a  very  direct  interest.  The  article  in  the  Daily 
News,  to  which  I  refer,  commences  by  stating  that  "  the  Cana- 
dian elections  have  resulted  in  a  series  of  ministerial  defeats, 
so  numerous  and  signal  that  nothing  but  a  highly  excited  state 
of  the  public  mind  against  the  most  eminent  persons  in  the 
Colony  can  account  for  them.  Sir  John  A.  Macdonald,  the 
Premier,  Sir  Francis  Hincks,  the  Finance  Minister,  Mr.  Mc- 
Dougall,  the  Minister  of  Public  Works,  and  Sir  George  E. 
Cartier,  have  been  not  only  rejected  but  rejected  with  ignominy, 
most  of  them  by  constituencies  which  they  have  represented  for 
many  years." 

Doubtless  you  will  be  surprised  to  learn  that  Sir  John  A. 
Macdonald,  the  Premier,  was  not  recently,  and  never  has  been 
rejected  by  the  constituency  of  Kingston  which  he  has  repre- 
sented, if  I  mistake  not,  ever  since  he  has  been  in  public  life — 
now  more  than  twenty  years.  He  is  to-day  the  representative 
in  Parliament  of  Kingston,  and  the  leader  of  the  Government. 
Sir  Francis  Hincks,  Finance  Minister,  it  is  true,  lost  his  seat 
for  the  constituency  he  represented  in  the  last  house,  but  like  a 
number  of  the  leading  statesmen  of  Great  Britain,  in  modern 
times,  whose  temporary  misfortune  will  be  within  your  recollec- 
tion— if  rejected  by  one  constituency,  he  was  returned  by  another, 
and  is  to-day  a  member  of  Parliament  and  the  Finance  Minister 
of  Canada.  Sir  Francis  Hincks  only  sat  in  the  last  House  for  a 
part  of  its  term,  having  been  returned  to  Parliament  to  succeed 
Sir  John  Rose  as  Finance  Minister  when  that  gentleman  retired 
from  public  life.  For  many  years  previously  he  (Sir  Francis) 
had  been  absent  from  British  America,  employed  by  the  British 
Government  as  Her  Majesty's  representative  in  several  of  hex 
Colonial  possessions. 

Mr.  McDougall,  whom  you  designate  "  the  Minister  of  Public 


Works,"  once  occupied  that  position,  but  for  the  past  three  or 
four  years  has  not  been  a  member  of  Government,  and  conse- 
quently could  not  during  that  time  be  "  Minister  of  Public 
Works."  He  lost  his  seat,  as  did  Sir  George  E.  Cartier,  and  I 
feel  assured  you  will  find  I  am  right  when  I  state  that  Sir 
George,  the  Minister  of  Militia,  is  the  only  member  of  the  Privy 
Council  who  has  not  been  returned  to  Parliament,  and  should 
his  health  (which  for  some  weeks  past  has  been  very  seriously 
impaired)  be  equal  to  it,  he  will  obtain  a  seat  the  moment  he 
desires  it.  In  passing,  let  me  add  that  many  of  his  ministerial 
colleagues  were  returned  either  by  acclamation  or  by  overwhelm- 
ing majorities.  While  both  in  Ontario  and  Quebec  the  Govern- 
ment have  lost  several  supporters,  they  have  gained  other  seats 
from  their  opponents,  but  as  far  as  these  two  Provinces  are 
concerned  their  losses  will  not  be  compensated  for  by  their  gains. 
However,  the  great  changes  that  have  taken  place  in  the  Mari- 
time Provinces  of  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Brunswick,  in  favor 
of  the  present  Ministry,  and  of  Union,  will  quite  compensate  for 
the  losses  they  have  sustained  in  the  two  Western  Provinces, 
and  will  enable  them  to  meet  Parliament  with  a  good  working 
majority.  In  short,  the  position  of  Sir  John  A.  Macdonald's 
Government  would  be  analogous  to  that  of  Mr.  Gladstone,  should 
a  dissolution  of  Parliament  take  place  in  this  country  and  its 
ministry  should  find  that  they  had  sustained  losses  in  England 
which  were  compensated  for  by  gains  in  Scotland  and  Ireland. 
England  is  not  the  whole  of  Great  Britain,  neither  is  Ontario 
the  whole  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada. 

Without  saying  so  in  direct  terms,  your  editorial  would  lead 
your  readers  to  conclude  that  Sir  John  A  Macdonald's  Govern- 
ment had  been  defeated  at  the  recent  general  election,  and  specific 
reasons  are  given  for  such  defeat.  Thus,  you  state :  "  Our  cor- 
respondent at  Toronto  explains  with  great  lucidity  the  reasons  of 
the  great  change  which  has  taken  place  in  Colonial  sentiment. 
The  ministers  have  been  presuming  too  much  on  their  popularity 
and  taking  too  much  upon  them  by  encroaching  on  the  rights 
of  the  people,"  etc.,  etc.  This,  taken  in  connexion  with  the 
extract  first  quoted,  does  more  than  suggest  losses  and  ministerial 
rejections  "  with  ignominy " — it  must  lead  the  general  public 
to  the  conclusion  that  the  Government  has  fallen.  My  reply 
to  this  has  been  given  already,  in  the  statement  above  made, 
that  the  ministry  in  appealing  to  the  people  have  been  sustained, 
a  majority  of  the  constituencies,  in  all  the  provinces  but  one, 
having  in  this  practical  way  expressed  their  satisfaction  with 
their  past  acts,  and  their  confidence  in  them  for  the  future. 

One  of  the  specific  charges  brought  against  the  Dominion 
Government  is  contained  in  the  following  sentence :    "  They  per- 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  283 

suaded  the  last  Parliament  to  authorize  them  to  raise  great 
loans,  and  to  leave  the  expenditure  of  the  money  to  their  uncon- 
trolled judgment;  and  they  decided  upon  the  route  of  the  Inter- 
colonial Railway — which  is  to  cost  £4,000,000  sterling — without 
asking  the  sanction  of  Parliament."  This  is  a  matter  in  which 
the  British  public  have  a  very  direct  interest,  inasmuch  as  the 
larger  portion  of  the  above  amount  has  been,  or  will  be,  obtained 
on  the  guarantee  of  the  Imperial  Government,  and  any  derelic- 
tion of  duty  or  misappropriation  of  funds,  thus  obtained,  would 
very  naturally  tend  to  impair  British  confidence  in  the  Admin- 
istration, Parliament,  and  country — hence  it  calls  for  a  few  words 
of  explanation. 

It  is  true  that  the  last  Parliament  did  authorize  the  Executive 
Government  to  raise  a  large  loan  for  an  important  public  work — 
the  Intercolonial  Railway — to  enable  Western  Canada  to  reach, 
through  British  territory,  the  British  seaboard,  in  the  Mari- 
time Provinces,  at  all  seasons  of  the  year.  Hitherto  the  external 
commerce  of  Ontario  and  Quebec  in  winter  has  necessarily  had 
to  pass  through  a  foreign  country;  and  communication  with 
the  sister  Provinces  on  the  seaboard  and  with  the  Mother  Country 
has  been  almost  altogether  through  the  United  States.  As  soon 
as  the  Provinces  were  confederated,  this  difficulty  was  met. 
The  Government  was  authorized  to  contract  a  loan,  and  having 
the  confidence  of  the  country,  was  permitted  to  disburse  the 
money  without  first  submitting  detailed  estimates  for  this  special 
service  to  Parliament.  Just  as  the  British  Government  is  per- 
mitted through  its  Admiralty  Department  to  appropriate  very 
large  amounts  in  the  construction  of  ships  of  war,  or  through 
the  War  Department  to  expend  equally  large  sums  in  erecting 
fortifications  and  defensive  works,  a  gross  amount  is  asked  for, 
and  the  details  of  expenditure  are  scrutinized,  and  discussed  subse- 
quently, or  when  the  documents  connected  therewith  are  pre- 
sented to  Parliament,  when,  if  misappropriations  have  been  made 
the  Government  will  be  held  accountable. 

Xow  as  regards  the  question  of  the  route  selected  for  this 
railroad,  permit  me  to  state  that  as  far  back  as  thirteen  or  four- 
teen years  ago,  a  delegation  from  Canada,  Nova  Scotia  and  ~New 
Brunswick  came  to  this  country  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  from 
the  British  Government  a  guarantee  for  the  money  required  to 
construct  this  Intercolonial  road.  The  then  basis  of  arrangement 
between  the  different  Provinces  was,  that  a  northern  route  should 
be  accepted,  for  Imperial  as  well  as  other  reasons,  which  I  need 
not  now  discuss,  further  than  to  state  that  the  British  Government 
has  never  at  any  time  entertained  the  question  of  any  other  than 
a  northern  route,  which  could  be  made  available  for  military 
purposes.     To  have  constructed  a  road  running  throughout  the 


greater  part  of  its  course  in  close  proximity  with  the  American 
frontier,  would  have  been  opposed  to  national  interests,  and  in 
case  of  war  with  the  United  States  it  would  have  been  entirely 
useless.  My  native  Province — -Nova  Scotia — entered  the  Union, 
and  I  have  no  doubt  that  New  Brunswick,  through  which  country 
a  very  large  portion  of  the  line  runs,  did  so  too,  with  the  under- 
standing that  the  arrangement  of  1858  should  be  adhered  to  and 
that  the  northern  location  should  be  adopted.  Hence  you  will 
perceive  that  when  the  responsibility  (constitutionally  and  pro- 
perly pertaining  to  the  Government)  of  deciding  the  question, 
devolved  on  them,  they  were  nationally  and  morally  bound  to 
adhere  to  the  original  agreement.  And  I  may  add,  that  Mr. 
Mackenzie,  the  leader  of  the.  Opposition,  concurred  as  to  the 
desirability  of  finally  selecting  the  North  Shore  line,  and  I 
believe  quite  a  numher  of  representatives  who  usually  co-operated 
with  him  entertained  at  the  time  similar  views. 

You  characterize  the  action  taken  by  the  Government  in 
connexion  with  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway  as  "  high  handed," 
and  assume  that  they  were  injured  thereby  at  the  poll.  In 
legislation,  as  you  are  aware,  it  is  very  hard  to  please  everybody, 
but  in  this  immensely  important  matter,  the  Government  appear 
to  have  pleased  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  people's  represen- 
tatives in  the  last  House,  and  a  majority  of  the  constituencies 
in  that  which  will  be  convened  in  the  early  part  of  next  year. 
That  this  work,  which  is  to  connect  the  Atlantic  with  the  Pacific, 
Nova  Scotia  with  British  Columbia,  and  is  destined  to  bring  Eng- 
land more  readily  and  quickly  into  communication  with  China, 
Japan,  and  other  far-off  lands,  which  in  the  future  are  to  be  large 
markets  for  her  manufactured  productions,  should  be  constructed 
with  the  least  possible  delay,  is  a  political  necessity.  Without  it, 
British  Columbia  and  Manitoba,  abounding  in  mineral  and  agri- 
cultural wealth,  would  be  useless  members  of  our  Canadian  Con- 
federation, and  ere  very  long  the  more  distant  Province  (placed 
as  it  is  between  California  and  Alaska,  two  portions  of  United 
States  territory)  and  perhaps  Manitoba,  too,  would  drop  into  the 
ever-ready  lap  of  our  great  neighbor. 

To  construct  this  great  continental  highway,  without  render- 
ing available,  for  that  purpose,  the  land  through  which  it  is  to 
pass,  is  an  undertaking  far  beyond  the  resources  of  the  new-born 
Dominion,  so,  following  the  example  of  the  United  States,  in 
which  one  Pacific  road  has  been  in  operation  for  a  few  years, 
and  another  is  now  in  course  of  construction,  the  Parliament  of 
Canada  concluded  to  subsidize  a  responsible  joint  stock  company 
to  the  extent,  if  necessary,  of  thirty  millions  of  dollars  and  fifty 
millions  of  acres  of  land,  who  would  undertake  to  complete,  equip 
and  work  the  road.     Thirty  millions  of  dollars  is  a  small  sum  of 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  285 

money  when  contrasted  with  the  value  of  the  work  it  is  to  aid  in 
completing,  and  it  is  an  amount  quite  within  the  resources  of  the 
vigorous  and  financially  healthy  Dominion.  Fifty  millions  of 
acres  of  land  is  an  enormous  quantity,  even  for  an  inhabitant  of 
a  vast  continent  like  America  to  think  of  and  talk  about;  but 
what  is  its  value  without  means  of  access  to  it? — simply  nil. 
Let,  however,  a  company  thus  subsidized  open  up  the  country 
by  a  railroad,  and  carry  thither  emigrants  from  the  densely 
populated  countries  of  Europe,  for  their  own  pecuniary  advan- 
tage, and  they  will  enhance,  an  hundredfold,  the  value  of  the 
millions  upon  millions  of  acres  remaining  to  the  Dominion. 

Referring  to  your  remark  in  connection  with  land  reserved  by 
Government,  along  the  line  of  the  Pacific  road — in  alternate  blocks 
— which  is  not  to  be  sold  under  a  rate  to  be  agreed  upon  with  the 
Company,  permit  me  to  suggest  that  this  subsidy  in  land  would  be 
of  no  value  to  the  Company  as  a  means  of  realizing  money  for  the 
completion  of  the  road  if  it  were  not  for  such  an  arrangement; 
for  who  would  pay  two,  three  or  four  shillings  an  acre  for  the 
Company's  land  when  they  could  procure  it  of  the  same  quality 
in  the  very  next  block  for  nothing  ? 

As  regards  your  correspondent's  remark,  "  That  in  the  Parlia- 
ment of  two  hundred  members,  twenty-five  were  directly  interested 
in  the  companies  competing  for  the  contract,"  I  am  not  in  a  posi- 
tion to  dispute  the  statement,  but  let  me  ask  what  is  there  to  object 
to  should  such  be  in  reality  the  case?  Are  there  not  joint  stock 
companies  in  Great  Britain  to-day,  having  business  transactions 
with  the  British  Government,  in  which  members  of  Parliament 
are  shareholders  ?  I  think  a  little  enquiry  in  the  proper  quarters 
will  elicit  an  affirmative  reply  to  the  question.  And  if  such  is  the 
case,  may  I  not  further  ask  if  either  these  members  of  Parlia- 
ment, or  the  Government,  would  be  compromised  before  the  House 
of  Commons,  the  Lords,  or  the  country  by  such  indirect  business 
transactions.  It  is  stated  in  the  paragraph  last  quoted  that  there 
are  companies  (it  is  in  the  plural)  competing  for  the  contract  to 
construct  this  railroad.  If  such  is  the  case,  and  I  believe  it  to 
be  true,  may  we  not  hope  that  this  competition  will  effect  a  saving 
to  the  Dominion,  and  that  some  considerable  portion  of  the  thirty 
millions  of  dollars,  and  fifty  millions  of  acres  of  land — one  or  both 
— may  by  this  means  revert  to  the  country  ?  And  if  there  should 
be  members  of  Parliament  in  each  of  the  competing  organizations, 
should  we  not  look  upon  it  rather  as  a  fortunate  circumstance,  as 
those  in  the  one  company  will  be  jealously  watching  the  proceed- 
ings of  the  others,  while  all  will  be  narrowly  scrutinizing  the  acts 
of  the  Government  in  connection  with  this  vast  undertaking.  You 
are  not  to  infer  from  what  I  have  stated  that  Mr.  Mackenzie,  the 
able  leader  of  the  Opposition  in  the  last  House,  was  hostile  to  a 


Canadian  Pacific  railroad.  On  the  contrary,  he  and  a  large 
number  of  his  influential  and  intelligent  followers  were  in  favor 
of  it,  but  they  differed  from  the  majority  on  several  of  the  prom- 
inent features  of  the  Government  bill. 

In  conclusion  let  me  say  that  I  have  not  seen  your  Toronto 
correspondent's  letter,  but  I  fear  he  has  received  his  information 
on  Canadian  political  topics  from  ill-informed  or  very  prejudiced 

Apologizing  for  the  length  of  this  communication, 

I  am,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

D.   McN.   Parkek. 

The  Christmas  recess  of  two  weeks  (1872-3)  was  passed  by 
my  father  and  family  in  London,  where  he  was  an  excellent  and 
entertaining  guide,  as  he  had  proved  himself  in  Scotland  during 
various  short  excursions  to  places  such  as  Stirling  and  the  field 
of  Bannockburn,  Glasgow,  Abbotsford;  Dryburgh,  Melrose  and 
other  abbeys,  Hawthornden,  various  points  on  the  east  coast,  and 
elsewhere  in  the  interior.  From  the  reminiscences  of  that  London 
visit  I  recall  his  great  pleasure  in  meeting  and  hearing  Spurgeon 
and  Dr.  Landells,  then  the  foremost  representatives  of  his  religious 
denomination  in  Britain. 

He  had  hoped  to  obtain  leave  of  absence  from  his  legislative 
duties  for  a  second  session,  that  he  might  prolong  his  residence  in 
Edinburgh  until  the  ensuing  summer  or  autumn,  and  find  time  to 
visit  some  of  the  English  hospitals;  but  in  this  he  was  disap- 
pointed, his  plans  for  more  extended  study  abroad  being  defeated 
by  political  exigencies.  He  gladly  would  have  forfeited  his  seat 
in  the  Legislative  Council  by  remaining,  or  have  resigned  it ;  but  he 
yielded  to  the  clamor  of  political  party  associates,  and  in  February, 
1873,  sailed  from  Liverpool  for  Halifax  to  take  his  seat,  leaving 
the  family  to  follow  when  the  schools  closed  in  the  summer. 

The  letters  written  at  Edinburgh  for  the  Christian  Messenger 
have  already  been  referred  to,  and  the  first  of  them  has  been  given 
place  in  the  order  of  time.  The  remaining  six  now  follow.  They 
indicate  his  habits  of  thought,  his  thoroughness  as  an  observer  of 
men  and  things,  his  careful  study  of  conditions,  institutions  and 
public  questions  as  he  met  them  when  abroad,  and  they  are  exam- 
ples of  his  style  and  method  as  a  writer.  Upon  their  own 
merits,  and  because  of  their  informing  character,  it  fairly  may  be 
claimed  that  these  letters  possess  a  general  interest.  At  least  for 
anyone  who  would  learn  what  manner  of  man  the  writer  was,  their 
prolixity  will  hardly  detract  from  their  value. 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  287 

For  the  Christian  Messenger. 

13  Salisbury  Place,  Newington,  Edinburgh. 
January  16th,  1872. 
My  Dear  Editor, — 

I  was  not  a  little  shocked  to  see  so  large  a  portion  of  the  Chris- 
tian Messenger  of  November  16th  occupied  with  my  "  Jottings  by 
the  Way,"  which  I  supposed  would  have  been  subdivided  into 
parts  and  been  given  to  your  readers  in  two  or  three  issues  of  your 
paper.  Men  of  my  profession  have  been  charged  before  to-day, 
and  I  fear  correctly,  with  overdosing  their  patients,  and  I  must,  in 
this  instance,  plead  guilty  to  having  fallen  into  a  similar  error, 
with  this  difference,  however — the  patients  were  yours,  not  mine, 
which  adds  to  the  gravity  of  the  offence.  In  again  addressing  you 
I  give  you  full  liberty  to  break  this  present  communication  into  as 
many  parts  as  may  suit  your  editorial  convenience,  for,  like  the 
last,  I  fear  before  I  have  done  with  the  subject,  which  is  to  be 
Edinburgh,  that  it  will  have  overgrown  the  somewhat  circum- 
scribed limits  which  in  commencing  I  have  prescribed  for  myself. 


The  subject  is  vast,  and  I  hardly  know  where  to  begin.  Indeed, 
I  feel  very  like  the  schoolboy  who,  when  urged  by  anxious  and 
waiting  companions  to  practically  exhibit  to  them  how  to  make 
segments  of  a  circle,  by  subdividing  the  maternal  cake  which  lay, 
deeply  frosted,  before  them,  replied  that  he  did  not  know  where  to 
commence,  and  if  he  were  to  follow  the  advice  of  his  very  disin- 
terested and  waiting  friends  he  feared  he  might  mar  its  beauty 
and  entirely  spoil  the  circle. 

Well,  I  feel  very  much  as  if  I  should  "  spoil  the  circle  "  were 
I  to  attempt  anything  like  a  detailed  description  of  Scotland's 
great  capital.  Indeed,  I  believe  I  might  as  well  attempt  to 
"  square  the  circle  "  as  to  convey  to  your  readers,  in  words,  any 
just  conception  of  its  appearance — of  its  natural  or  artificial 
beauty;  consequently  I  shall,  with  as  much  brevity  as  possible, 
refer  only  to  one  or  two  features  in  this  connection,  and  then  pass 
on  to  the  consideration  of  some  few  of  its  many  institutions. 


To  deal  with  the  subject  in  the  natural  order  of  things,  and  in 
accordance  with  prescribed  principles,  it  would  be  necessary,  first, 
to  recall  the  days  when  a  few  rude  straw-thatched  cottages  (inhab- 
ited by  a  hardy,  uncultivated  race  of  people)  occupied  the  ridge  or 
rocky  eminence  between  the  Cowgate  and  Princes  Street  Garden, 
in  immediate  proximity  to  the  Castle  Pock ;    and  from  this  primi- 


tive  beginning,  much  more  than  a  thousand  years  ago,  to  trace  its 
progress  through  the  centuries,  until  "  the  Modern  Athens  "  of 
our  own  day  and  generation  is  brought  into  view;  but  this  is  not 
required,  from  the  fact  that  the  children  of  these  happy  days  get 
all  these  facts  more  correctly  and  graphically  portrayed  in  the 
popular  and  standard  histories  of  their  free  schools  and  home 
libraries  than  I  could  possibly  give  them  in  the  columns  of  the 

But  the  geological  and  the  true  antiquarian  Scot  would  not  be 
satisfied  with  this  as  a  starting-point ;  and  with  pride  of  heart  and 
of  nationality  would  direct  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  Great 
Architect  of  the  Universe  specially  laid  the  foundations  of  Edin- 
burgh, and  in  such  a  way  that  not  even  the  simplest  son  of  Adam 
could  have  passed  it  by  without  recognizing  the  fact  that  the 
locality  was  born  to  be  the  site  of  a  great  city,  when  from  deeply 
beneath  the  surface  of  the  earth  He  elevated  by  volcanic  action 
the  massive  rocks  and  some  of  the  undulating  hills  on  and  around 
which  most  of  it  is  built,  leaving  beautiful  valleys  just  in  those 
positions  where  they  would  most  gratify  the  eyes  of  those  who  first 
beheld  them,  and  eventually  serve  to  add  charming  variety  to  the 
scene  when  hill  and  dale  alike  should  be  covered  by  the  dwelling- 
places  of  their  successors  in  subsequent  ages.  This  beautifully 
irregular  foundation,  besides  having  its  great  central  and  defensive 
elevations,  was,  by  the  same  creative  power  which  called  into 
existence  "  the  site,"  surrounded  on  all  sides  with  natural  barriers 
and  fortifications,  as  if  to  protect  it  from  the  assaults  of  enemies 
beyond  and  without — and  I  may  add  every  hill  and  every  valley 
for  miles  around  has  its  traditional  or  written  history  of  war  and 
romance,  of  victory  and  defeat,  all  interwoven  with  the  nation's 
history.  On  the  north  is  the  beautiful  and  broad  Firth  of  Forth, 
with  here  and  there  an  island  rising  out  of  its  generally  placid 
but  sometimes  terribly  disturbed  waters,  which  separates  Edin- 
burgh and  Leith  from  the  Fifeshire  country. 

On  the  east  we  have  Salisbury  Crags  and  Arthur's  Seat,  the 
latter  rising,  lion-like,  822  feet  above  the  sea's  level,  a  beautiful 
and  bold  object  on  which  the  eye  may  continually  rest  without 
growing  weary,  a  perfect  Gibraltar,  which  if  fortified  would  com- 
mand all  the  eastern  and  south-eastern  approaches  to  the  city.  On 
the  south  and  west  the  Blackford,  the  Braid  and  the  Pentland  Hills 
rise  up  as  elevated  and  protective  walls,  undulating  and  pictur- 
esque to  the  eye,  their  natural  beauty  being  enhanced  by  the  rich 
cultivation  of  their  northern  and  eastern  slopes,  on  which  herds 
and  flocks  quietly  graze,  giving  additional  variety  to  the  scene. 

On  the  western  extremity  of  the  elevated  ridge  (to  which  refer- 
ence has  already  been  made)  commencing  at  Holyrood  Palace  and 
Abbey,  and  gradually  ascending,  stands  famed  Edinburgh  Castle, 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  289 

a  bold,  irregular,  craggy  rock,  having  an  elevation  above  the  level 
of  the  sea  of  some  440  or  450  feet.  On  three  sides,  north,  west 
and  south,  it  rises  from  the  valley  beneath  almost  perpendicularly, 
while  it  is  easy  of  access  from  the  east,  by  way  of  the  High  Street. 
Of  itself,  this  stronghold  of  the  centuries  past  has  a  history  full 
of  stirring,  romantic  interest,  and  the  true  Scot,  as  he  looks  with 
pride  upon  the  magnificent  mass  of  dark  rock  before  him,  has  his 
heart  moved  and  his  blood  warmed  at  the  mere  thought  of  the 
deeds  of  daring  which  have  taken  place  within  and  around  this, 
one  of  the  great  natural  citadels  of  his  country. 


So  great  has  been  the  growth  of  the  city  in  recent  times  to  the 
south  and  west  that  the  Castle  now  forms  a  magnificent  central 
spot  from  which  to  view  it  as  a  whole.  From  its  ramparts  the 
eye  rests  upon  symmetrical  and  beautiful  structures  of  freestone, 
in  the  form  of  fine  broad  streets,  crescents,  squares,  public  build- 
ings, charitable  institutions,  monuments  and  church  structures — 
with  numerous  intervening  and  large  gardens,  where  twenty-five 
years  ago  the  plow  and  the  harrow  turned  over  the  rich  soil,  that 
these  broad  acres,  now  thus  beautified  by  the  architect's  skill,  might 
bring  forth  their  abundant  harvests  for  the  supply  of  the  markets 
of  Edinburgh. 

Another  stronghold  in  the  central  part  of  the  city,  at  the 
eastern  end  of  Princes  Street  (the  great  thoroughfare  or  "  Broad- 
way "  of  the  new  town)  is  Calton  Hill,  another  vast  rock,  the 
elevation  of  which  is  only  about  100  feet  less  than  the  Castle. 
Instead,  however,  of  bristling  cannon  its  summit  is  covered  with 
monuments  of  men  of  national  and  worldwide  reputation  in  war 
and  letters,  whose  deeds  of  arms  and  brain,  in  the  years  that  are 
past,  are  thus  brought  vividly  before  both  natives  and  strangers  as 
they  wend  their  way  along  the  beautiful  walks  which  in  recent 
times  have  been  constructed  on  and  around  this  lovely  historic  hill. 

I  have  dwelt  on  these  strong  and  natural  points  of  defence 
which  on  all  sides  surround  Edinburgh,  not  because  I  possess 
either  military  knowledge  or  tastes  (although  I  have  the  honor 
of  being  a  disbanded  militia  surgeon),  but  to  direct  your  attention 
to  a  feature  in  connection  with  the  capital  which  is  not  often 
referred  to  by  newspaper  correspondents,  but  which  must  be 
abundantly  evident  to  all  who  visit  the  locality. 

To  the  practical  soldier  these  military  points  would  be  among 
the  first  things  to  suggest  themselves.  Paris,  with  such  natural 
surroundings,  and  with  a  Firth  of  Forth  to  have  given  her  access 
to  the  sea,  would  in  all  probability  have  kept  Von  Moltke  and 
Bismarck  outside  her  walls,  and  by  means  of  such  a  continuation 


of  fortified  heights  would  have  saved  France  the  national  and 
military  degradation  to  which  that  country  has  so  recently  had  to 

The  absence  of  such  bold  and  elevated  surroundings  from 
London  and  the  great  commercial  marts  of  England  gives  Edin- 
burgh an  advantage  over  these  cities,  both  as  regards  the  pic- 
turesque and  in  relation  to  the  question  of  defence,  which  all  the 
appliances  that  money  and  science  can  devise  cannot  compensate 
for ;  and  inasmuch  as  the  natural  fortifications  to  which  I  am 
calling  attention  are  to  a  great  extent,  like  Gibraltar,  of  solid  rock, 
the  mining  engineer  of  an  enemy  would  be  thereby  foiled  in  his 
efforts  to  approach  and  undermine  these  natural  citadels.  The 
walk  down  the  High  Street  and  Canongate  from  the  Castle  to 
Holyrood  Palace  and  Abbey  brings  before  you  the  Edinburgh  of 
centuries  past,  with  her  narrow  streets,  her  narrower  wynds  and 
closes,  her  great,  towering,  dark  and  worn  stone  buildings,  then 
the  homes  of  Scotland's  noblest  and  greatest  families,  but  now  the 
dwellings  of  the  poorest  of  the  poor.  The  hands  of  the  Goths  and 
Vandals  of  these  progressive  times  are  busy,  razing  these  anti- 
quarian structures  to  the  ground,  widening  the  streets,  closes  and 
wynds,  and  erecting  modern  buildings  for  the  purposes  of  trade. 

In  this  way  have  many  historic  buildings  disappeared,  even  to 
their  foundation  stones,  and  in  their  place  have  risen  food,  raiment 
and  whiskey  shops,  as  well  as  more  modern  dwellings. 


As  I  have  walked  over  these  localities  and  viewed  again  the 
places  and  scenes  familiar  to  me  in  the  days  of  my  student  career, 
even  though  my  antiquarian  spirit  is  feeble,  it  has  been  aroused 
at  the  desecration  I  have  witnessed. 

The  high  and  ancient  houses  of  the  past  have  largely  disap- 
peared, and  I  cannot  now  get  nearer  the  clouds  than  ten  stories, 
and  even  this  elevation  can  only  occasionally  be  attained,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  levelling  process  now  so  familiar  to  the  eye.  At 
one  thing  I  am  rejoiced,  and  that  is,  that  while  the  hands  of  man 
may  destroy  the  works  of  man,  the  enduring  hills  and  rocks  in  and 
around  Edinburgh,  to  which  I  have  called  your  attention,  are  not 
likely  ever  to  be  disturbed,  except  by  the  same  Power  that  called 
them  into  existence  and  gave  them  their  great  and  picturesque 
elevation  above  the  earth's  surface. 

I  look  in  vain  for  some  of  the  houses  in  which,  far  up  between 
the  street  and  the  clouds,  I  practically  commenced  my  profession, 
when  for  long  hours  of  the  night  I  have  on  more  than  one  occasion 
remained  in  rooms  entirely  destitute  of  bed,  bedding  or  chairs, 
with  "  a  farthing  dip  "  stuck  to  the  mantelpiece  or  the  floor,  my 
easy-chair  a  candle-box,  or  something  like  it,  and  on  one  occasion 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  291 

a  stone  from  the  chimney,  the  more  luxurious  seat  first  mentioned 
being  furnished  by  some  of  the  more  affluent  neighbors,  who,  if  not 
possessed  of  much  of  this  world's  goods,  had  kind  hearts  and  looked 
well  after  the  comforts  of  "  the  doctor."  A  little  loose  straw  in 
the  corner  answered  the  purpose  of  a  bed  for  my  patients.  Even 
here,  had  I  desired  it,  I  could  have  obtained,  I  have  no  doubt, 
from  a  broken  bottle  or  broken  cup,  "  a  drop  of  whiskey  to  keep 
me  warm,"  or,  had  I  been  a  smoker,  a  whiff  of  tobacco  to  comfort 
me :  hence  the  straw,  the  candle-box  and  the  stone.  Yet  in  these 
very  rooms,  centuries  before,  great  men  had  lived  in  luxury,  and 
notable  men  had  probably  first  seen  the  light  of  day.  But  I  am 
digressing — or,  like  the  old  soldier,  fighting  my  battles  over  again. 

To  return  to  my  subject,  we  have  in  and  about  Edinburgh  a 
most  picturesque  blending  of  bold  and  elevated  (almost  mountain- 
ous) scenery  with  that  which  is  quiet,  cultivated  and  beautiful, 
producing  an  effect  which  I  think  can  hardly  be  surpassed  the 
world  over.  While  this  remark  is  applicable  to  its  physical 
geography,  we  have  in  the  varied  structures  which  constitute  the 
city — its  houses,  public  buildings,  church  edifices,  numerous  monu- 
ments, broad  and  narrow  streets  and  wynds — a  contrast  scarcely 
less  striking,  suggesting  at  the  same  moment  memories  of  the  long 
past,  and  everything  that  is  progressive  and  beautiful  connected 
with  refinement,  art  and  education  of  the  present. 

Built  as  the  city  is  on  the  hills  above  and  in  the  valleys  beneath, 
this  contrast  between  the  architectural  past  and  present  is  the  more 
striking  and  is  a  feature  of  which  the  eye  never  wearies.  No 
stranger  should  ever  visit  Edinburgh  without  viewing  it  at  night, 
as  a  whole,  from  some  of  its  commanding  heights  such  as  the 
Castle,  Calton  Hill,  or,  if  the  breath  be  good  and  the  muscles 
strong,  from  Arthur's  Seat,  from  whence  he  will  obtain  a  bird's- 
eye  view  of  Leith  (which  is  now  continuous  with  Edinburgh),  the 
old  and  the  new  city,  from  centre  to  circumference,  here  elevated, 
there  depressed;  in  one  locality  displaying,  between  two  straight 
lines  of  light,  long  and  broad  streets,  in  another  the  crescentic 
arrangements  of  the  residences  of  the  wealthy,  while  in  a  third  the 
narrow  outlines  of  the  wynds  and  closes  may  be  occasionally  recog- 
nized by  their  very  darkness.  I  can  scarcely  imagine  anything 
more  beautiful  than  Edinburgh  by  gas-light,  seen  as  I  have  not 
unfrequently  beheld  it  from  one  or  two  of  these  great  central  out- 

It  would  take  a  volume  to  describe  this  capital  architecturally, 
a  city  (Leith  included)  of  only  250,000  inhabitants,  and  as  I  have 
neither  the  time  nor  the  practical  knowledge  to  enable  me  to  deal 
with  this  matter,  I  shall  pass  on  to  the  consideration  of  some  other 
subjects  in  which  I  presume  your  readers  will  be  equally,  if  not 
more,  interested. 

{To  he  continued.) 


For  the  Christian  Messenger. 

13  Salisbury  Place,  Newington,  Edinburgh, 

January   16th,    1872. 
My  Dear  Editor, — 


Edinburgh  partakes  only  to  a  limited  extent  of  the  advantages 
to  be  derived  from  the  general  educational,  or  parish,  system  of 
the  country,  which  may  be  described  in  few  words. 

It  is  sustained  by  the  "  Heritors,"  or  landed  proprietors,  and 
by  small  fees,  and  the  schools  connected  with  the  system  never 
refuse  admission  to  the  children  of  the  poor  who  are  unable  to  pay 
the  usual  small  annual  charge. 

These  schools  are  controlled  and  managed  by  the  Heritors  and 
Kirk  Sessions — that  is  to  say,  by  the  landed  proprietors,  and  the 
ministers  and  elders  of  the  established  Church  of  Scotland  in  every 

The  instruction  imparted  is  a  good  plain  English  education, 
but  the  more  advanced  boys,  if  they  desire  it,  receive  a  rudimentary 
knowledge  of  Mathematics  and  Latin. 

The  Bible  and  the  Shorter  Catechism  are  used  in  all  these 

The  word  "  hospital  "  in  this  city  and  throughout  Scotland  is 
used  in  a  different  sense  from  the  more  common  and  generally 
received  definition  of  the  word  in  America.  When  it  is  met  with 
here,  and  I  am  glad  to  say  it  is  a  word  in  very  common  use,  it 
very  generally  designates  an  endowed  institution  for  educational 
and  charitable  purposes. 

Thus  Heriot's,  Gillespie's,  George  Watson's,  John  Watson's, 
The  Trades  Maidens',  Stewart's,  The  Merchant  Maidens',  Fettes's, 
Donaldson's  and  other  hospitals  were  founded  and  generouslv 
endowed  by  wealthv,  large-hearted  Scotchmen  for  the  reception  and 
education  of  boys  and  girls,  under  varied  regulations,  but  prin- 
cipally for  those  in  indigent  circumstances,  and  the  children  of 
parents  who  have  fallen  into  adversity  through  innocent  causes. 

Thousands  upon  thousands  of  children  have  in  this  way  been 
provided — for  a  period  of  six  or  seven  years — with  comfortable, 
healthy  and  happy  homes,  educated  and  sent  forth  upon  the  world 
under  the  supervision  of  those  who,  as  the  trustees  of  the  bequests, 
provide  them  on  leaving  the  institution  with  clothing,  books,  and 
in  very  many  instances  with  money  to  the  extent  of  from  £20  to 
£50  sterling  to  assist  them  during  their  minority  or  apprentice- 
ship; while  the  more  talented  and  successful  pupils  are  enabled, 
by  means  of  hospital-scholarships  and  bursaries,  to  obtain  a  univer- 
sity course  and  a  profession. 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  205 

Heriot's  Hospital,  founded  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  by  George  Heriot,  a  jeweller,  for  "  the  maintenance, 
reliefe,  bringing  up  and  education  of  poore  fatherlesse  boyes,  free- 
men's sonnes  of  the  towne  of  Edinburgh,"  had  on  the  day  I  visited 
it  126  resident  pupils,  and  forty-six  day  scholars  who  were  clothed 
and  fed  by  the  Hospital,  but  who  remained  at  night  with  their 
parents  or  friends.  They  enter  from  seven  to  nine  years  of  age, 
and  are  instructed  by  ten  different  masters  in  all  the  important 
branches  of  a  sound  English  and  mathematical  education,  as  well 
as  in  Latin,  Greek,  French,  drawing,  music — vocal  and  instru- 
mental— gymnastics  and  military  drill,  ere  they  are  sent  forth  from 
its  walls  to  fight  the  battle  of  life.  This  single  institution,  in 
consequence  of  the  judicious  management  of  its  funds  by  com- 
petent business  men,  has  now  an  annual  income  of  about  £23,000 
stg.,  which  not  only  maintains  the  hospital  proper,  but  after  more 
than  a  dozen  large  school  buildings  have  been  erected  from  the 
capital,  in  various  parts  of  the  city,  is  to-day  imparting  a  generous 
and  a  free  education  to  3,400  poor  children  of  both  sexes. 

Donaldson's  Hospital,  one  of  the  most  magnificent  educational 
structures  in  the  country,  erected  at  a  cost  of  £100,000  stg.,  was 
opened  twenty  or  twenty-five  years  ago  for  the  maintenance  and 
education  of  poor  boys  and  girls.  I  was  informed  by  the  servant 
who  conducted  me  through  the  building  that  there  were  at  that 
time  receiving  instruction  in  the  institution  356  pupils,  eighty-six 
of  whom  were  deaf  and  dumb. 

The  chapel  is  very  large  and  perhaps  the  finest  I  have  seen  in 
any  of  the  public  institutions  of  the  country. 

The  building  is  beautifully  situated,  and  from  the  windows  in 
the  rear,  close  at  hand,  three  other  large  institutions,  similar  in 
character,  are  observed.  The  grounds  are  extensive,  admirably 
kept,  and  the  shrubbery  beautiful. 

The  original  bequest  was  £210,000  stg.  This  Mr.  Donaldson 
was  an  Edinburgh  printer,  and  I  think  I  may  with  propriety  add 
that  he  was,  among  printers,  a  vara  avis — a  well-paid  printer, 
whose  subscribers,  if  he  published  a  newspaper,  were  honest  and 

Sir  William  Fette's  Hospital,  erected  at  a  cost  of  £150,000  stg., 
"  for  the  education  and  maintenance  of  young  persons  whose 
parents  have  fallen  into  adversity  through  innocent  causes,"  is  the 
only  other  separate  institution  of  this  description  that  I  shall  refer 
to.  Within  its  walls  the  same  noble  work  is  going  on,  and  pretty 
much  after  the  same  system,  as  that  described  in  connection  with 
the  Heriot  Hospital,  with  the  exception  of  the  outside  Free  schools, 
which  are  not  supplied  either  by  the  Trustees  of  this  or  of  Donald- 
son's institution. 


The  Merchants'  Company  of  Edinburgh,  a  large  and  wealthy- 
corporation,  have  been  engaged  for  many  years  past  in  this  same 
description  of  educational  work,  and  the  "  Merchant  Maiden's 
Hospital,"  maintained  and  managed  by  them,  has  provided  an 
educational  home  for  a  large  number  of  girls.  But  being  pos- 
sessed with  the  idea  that  these  institutions,  both  male  and  female, 
could  be  turned  to  better  advantage  and  with  their  vast  endow- 
ments confer  a  much  larger  amount  of  good  on  the  children  of  the 
middle  and  poorer  classes  if  the  hospital  or  monastic  system  were 
abolished,  the  funds  of  all,  or  many,  were  combined  and  appro- 
priated purely  for  educational  purposes — or,  in  other  words, 
applied  to  sustain  a  large  number  of  day-schools  under  first-class 
teachers,  in  which  schools  a  most  liberal  education  would  be 
imparted  at  a  comparatively  cheap  rate.  With  great  tact  and 
business  capacity  the  Merchants'  Company  worked  up  this  idea, 
which  soon  became  popular,  the  more  so  from  the  fact  that  the 
private  schools  were  becoming  so  expensive  that  men  of  moderate 
means  found  it  a  terrible  pecuniary  burden  to  give  their  children 
anything  like  a  superior  education. 

The  governing  bodies  of  several  of  these  hospitals  co-operated 
with  the  Merchants'  Company,  and  an  arrangement  was  entered 
into  by  which  those  children  "  Foundationers,"  as  they  are  here 
called,  having  a  claim  on  these  institutions  for  maintenance  should 
now,  and  in  the  future,  be  provided  for  in  the  homes  of  relatives  and 
friends,  where  practicable,  or  under  the  roofs  of  respectable  fam- 
ilies who  would  treat  them  as  their  own  children.  The  basis  of 
agreement  between  the  company  in  question  and  the  hospital 
trustees  having  been  arranged,  an  Act  of  Parliament  was  sought 
and  obtained,  and  the  schools  under  the  new  arrangement  went 
into  operation  some  eighteen  months  since,  and  thus  far  have  quite 
realized  the  anticipations  of  their  friends  and,  as  far  as  I  can 
ascertain,  are  meeting  with  the  approval  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
city  and  surrounding  country  generally. 

The  somewhat  formidable  opposition  of  the  teaching  profession 
has  been  materially  neutralized  by  drafting  into  the  new  schools 
many  of  its  ablest  members  who  were  formerly  interested  in  private 

The  Act  of  Parliament  to  which  I  have  referred  does  not  con- 
fine the  trust  and  management  of  these  schools  to  those  who  for- 
merly, held  control,  but  the  new  Board  is  drawn  from  the  Mer- 
chants' Company,  the  Town  Council  and  the  learned  professions. 
A  more  competent  and  better  qualified  commission  could  hardly 
have  been  arranged,  combining,  as  it  does,  thorough  business 
capacity  with  high  educational  attainments. 

The  benefits  arising  from  these  new  educational  establishments 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  295 

are  not  confined  by  any  means  to  the  citizens  of  Edinburgh,  for 
there  is  hardly  a  town  in  Scotland  not  now  represented  in  them, 
and  I  may  add  that  England  also  has  numbers  of  young  people 
receiving  instruction  in  these  schools.  In  visiting  one  of  them  a 
few  days  since,  the  head  master  informed  me  that  the  institution 
under  his  charge  had  pupils  from  the  districts  as  far  north  as  the 
Shetland  Islands,  and,  in  an  opposite  direction,  as  far  south  as  the 
Channel  Islands.  Indeed,  very  many  families  have  moved  into 
Edinburgh  from  a  distance  purposely  to  take  advantage  of  the 
schools  in  question.  The  highest  charge  for  the  more  advanced 
classes  is  ten  pounds  sterling  per  annum,  and  for  the  junior  classes 
two  pounds  ten  shillings — and  the  parents  rejoice  in  the  fact  that 
these  amounts  cover  everything — there  are  no  extras.  In  all  these 
schools  a  very  thorough  English  and  mathematical  education  is 
imparted.  Natural  philosophy,  geology  and  other  branches  of 
natural  science,  Latin,  Greek,  French,  German,  music  (both  vocal 
and  instrumental),  dancing,  and  in  the  female  schools  sewing,  are 
taught  by  the  most  accomplished  masters  and  teachers.  At  twelve 
years  or  age.  or  thereabouts,  the  boys  or  their  parents  generally 
intimate  the  branches  to  which  they  desire  special  attention  to  be 
given,  and  if  they  are  intended  for  mercantile  life  they  generally 
devote  more  time  to  the  modern  than  the  dead  languages,  and  pur- 
sue that  course  of  study  better  qualified  to  fit  them  for  commercial 
pursuits ;  while  those  who  are  intending  to  adopt  professions  give 
their  attention  to  the  classics  and  such  other  branches  as  they  shall 
be  called  upon  to  pass  an  examination  in  ere  they  commence  the 
special  work  of  the  professions  they  have  chosen. 

In  all  these  endowed  schools,  as  well  the  Merchants'  as  those 
hospitals  which  are  not  yet  in  any  way  connected  with  them, 
physical  training  is  not  neglected.  Brain  and  muscle  alike  receive 
their  due  amount  of  attention  and  education.  Both  sexes  are 
regularly  drilled,  while  the  elder  boys  are  taught  fencing  and  gym- 

The  number  of  schools  connected  with  the  Merchants'  system 
scattered  over  the  city  I  am  not  on  the  moment  prepared  to  state, 
but  there  are  to-day  receiving  instruction  within  their  walls  no  less 
than  4,500  pupils,  and  I  must  add  that  the  poor  are  not  excluded, 
for  in  those  connected  with  Gillespie's  foundation  the  fees  are 
merely  nominal,  and  the  children  here,  as  in  the  out-door  schools  of 
Heriot's  Hospital,  receive  instruction  in  the  ordinary  branches  of 
an  English  education,  with  the  addition  of  drill,  vocal  music  and 
drawing;  while  all  can  compete  for  money  prizes  and  for  admis- 
sion free  of  charge  to  the  higher  schools  of  the  company,  and  the 
few  who  are  at  the  top  of  the  list  may  secure  further  pecuniary 
advantages  in  the  form  of  scholarships  or  bursaries  amounting  in 
all  to  £400  stg. 


Thus  you  see  the  son  of  the  very  poor  man  may,  if  he  has  the 
brain  and  the  industry,  compete  in  these  Merchants'  schools  (as 
he  may  indeed  in  most  of  the  separate  hospital  schools)  with  the 
sons  of  the  better-off  citizens  for  prizes  worth  contending  for, 
which,  if  obtained,  are  sure  to  place  the  possessor  in  an  admirable 
position  for  future  success  in  whatever  department  of  life  he  may 
be  subsequently  found. 

Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Knox,  "  the  master  "  or  president 
of  the  Merchants'  Company,  I  was  permitted  to  thoroughly  inspect 
all  or  as  many  of  these  schools  as  I  felt  disposed,  and  to  convey  to 
your  readers  some  idea  of  their  extent,  and  the  manner  in  which 
they  are  worked,  I  will,  in  as  few  words  as  possible,  describe  my 
visit  to  the  female  school  which  was  organized  in  the  Hopetown 
Rooms,  Queen  Street,  in  1870. 

On  entering  the  building  I  was  received  by  a  servant  in  livery, 
but  could  not  advance  for  some  minutes,  as  the  three  staircases  and 
the  halls  were  fully  occupied  by  the  young  ladies,  who,  to  martial 
music — heard  all  over  the  house — in  companies  of  forty,  each 
headed  by  a  governess,  were  marching  two  and  two  in  all  direc- 
tions, vacating  one  set  of  classrooms  and  entering  others. 

This  grand  parade  being  over  for  an  hour,  the  head  master's 
office  was  reached,  and  that  gentleman  most  kindly  kept  me  con- 
tinuously occupied  for  an  hour  and  a  half,  during  which  I  had  a 
second  time  to  be  very  closely  inspected  myself  by  this  marching 
regiment  of  1,250  or  1,260  Scotch  and  English  lassies  as  they 
again  changed  their  classrooms.  I  learned  that  the  whole  school 
was  educationally  classified,  and  that  no  class  contained  more 
than  forty  pupils,  all  in  very  nearly  the  same  state  of  advancement. 

Each  company  had  its  governess  whose  duty  it  was  to  scru- 
tinize the  deportment  and  to  keep  a  general  supervision  over  those 
under  her  charge,  which  charge  commenced  as  soon  as  the  pupils 
entered  the  house  in  the  morning  and  terminated  only  when  they 
left  it  in  the  afternoon.  Except  to  very  junior  classes  all  the 
instruction  is  imparted  by  masters. 

The  musical  arrangements  are  novel.  The  whole  department 
contains  forty-five  pianos,  and  in  all  the  classrooms,  for  this 
description  of  work,  save  one,  there  are  eight  instruments,  and 
eight  young  ladies  are  instructed  at  one  time,  and  play  together 
in  each  room. 

I  visited  two  of  these  rooms,  and  in  both,  two  of  the  eight 
pianos  were  silent,  in  consequence  of  the  absence  of  pupils ;  but 
the  six  who  were  present,  played  with  the  utmost  harmony,  and 
as  far  as  my  uneducated  ear  could  detect,  there  was  not  an  error 
of  a  single  note  during  the  time  occupied  by  these  two  classes 
in  playing  two  long  and  difficult  pieces  of  music.     Of  course  this 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  297 

result  could  not  be  attained  without  a  very  thorough  classifica- 
tion of  pupils,  and  not  without  much  practice  at  home — a  very 
few  mistakes  will  send  a  young  lady  from  a  higher  to  a  lower 
class — hence,  great  efforts  are  made  to  retain  their  positions. 

Equal  harmony  was  observable  in  the  department  of  vocal 
music,  where  I  heard  the  senior  class  of  about  sixty  young  ladies 
(from  fourteen  to  twenty  years  of  age)  sing  together  most 

The  drawing  and  writing  classes  were  at  work  in  large  rooms 
at  the  top  of  the  building,  in  which  two  or  more  classes  were 
being  instructed  at  the  same  time. 

The  drill,  play,  dancing  and  sewing  rooms  on  the  first  floor 
are  large  and  high,  and  connected  by  folding  doors,  so  that  they 
can  readily  be  converted  into  one  room,  as  is  the  case  once  a 
week  when  Mr.  Pryde,  the  principal,  delivers  a  lecture  to  six 
hundred  of  the  more  advanced  pupils  on  some  subject  connected 
with  English  Literature.  In  the  basement  is  a  large  luncheon 
hall,  where  for  a  penny  the  pupils  can  purchase  a  bun  and  a 
cup  of  milk  or  coffee.  Here  also  are  the  cloak  and  bonnet  rooms — 
one  for  each  class  of  forty  pupils — in  which  each  young  lady 
has  her  own  hook  and  box,  numbered,  where  bonnets,  cloaks  and 
boots  are  carefully  placed  in  the  morning,  as  they  enter,  and 
taken  again  in  the  afternoon,  as  they  leave  the  building.  Com- 
fortable slippers  take  the  place  of  walking  boots,  which  change 
assists  in  effecting  three  important  results,  cleanliness,  quietness 
and  the  health  of  the  scholars.  These  toilet  arrangements  take 
place  under  the  supervision  of  the  class  governesses — with  the 
same  order  which  pervades  the  whole  institution.  The  numbers 
are  so  large  that  in  almost  all  the  departments  there  are  several 
teachers,  who  are  well  paid.  The  lowest  salary  paid  to  any  of 
the  masters  is  £210  stg.  The  principal,  I  was  informed,  is  in 
the  receipt  of  £600  stg.  per  annum.  His  duties  are  purely  execu- 
tive, and  all  the  teaching  he  performs  is  the  weekly  lecture  above 
mentioned.  The  governesses  receive  from  £25  to  £90  stg.  The 
number  of  teachers  and  governesses  combined  amounts  to  ninety. 

It  is  unnecessary  that  I  should  take  you  through  the  Merchant 
Company's  male  schools,  which  are  conducted  on  the  same  general 
principles,  with  the  adoption  of  such  modifications  as  circum- 
stances, sex,  and  future  occupation  will  naturally  suggest  to 
your  readers.  One  of  the  most  important,  is  now  accomplishing 
its  work  in  the  old  Merchant  Maidens'  Institution,  where  from 
1,000  to  1,100  boys  are  receiving  a  very  thorough  education. 

(To  he  continued.) 


For  the  Christian  Messenger. 

13  Salisbury  Place,  ISTewington, 

Edinburgh,  January  16th,  1872. 
My  Dear  Editor: 

The  University  of  Edinburgh. 

This  fine  old  school,  founded  in  1582,  is  still  pursuing  its 
course;  extending  its  bounds;  and  more  than  retaining  its  former 
position  as  the  headquarters  or  centre  for  the  higher  education 
in  Scotland. 

This  year,  under  thirty-six  Professors,  between  1,700  and 
1,800  matriculated  students  are  receiving  instruction  in  the  depart- 
ments of  Literature  and  Philosophy,  Theology,  Law  and  Medicine 
— and  I  am  informed  by  the  officials  in  the  Secretary's  office, 
that  when  the  matriculation  for  the  summer  session  is  closed, 
this  year's  roll  will  probably  reach  1,850. 

The  number  of  medical  students  is  larger  than  for  many  years 
past — over  700 — a  very  large  majority  of  these  young  men  belong 
to  the  British  Isles,  but  all  quarters  of  the  globe  are  well  repre- 
sented. Under  the  first  division  (Literature  and  Philosophy)  there 
are  fourteen  Professors  teaching  the  following  subjects : — I.  Latin. 
II.  Greek.  III.  Mathematics.  IV.  Logic  and  Metaphysics. 
V.  Moral  Philosophy.  VI.  Natural  Philosophy.  VII.  Rhetoric 
and  English  Literature.  VIII.  Practical  Astromony.  IX.  Agri- 
culture. X.  Sanskrit  and  Comparative  Philology.  XL  Theory 
of  Music.  XII.  Engineering  and  Mechanical  Drawing. 
XIII.  Geology  and  Mineralogy.  XIV.  Commercial  and  Political 
Economy  and  Mercantile  Law. 

I  have  enumerated  the  subjects  in  this  division,  some  of  which 
would  hardly  be  recognized  elsewhere  as  belonging  either  to 
Literature  or  Philosophy,  to  give  you  an  idea  of  the  ground 
covered  by  it.  Theology  has  its  four  Professors ;  Law  six,  includ- 
ing the  Professor  of  Medical  Jurisprudence,  who  is  also  a  teacher 
in  the  medical  department — and  Medicine  twelve  (exclusive  of 
the  chair  of  Medical  Jurisprudence).  Two  of  these  thirty-six 
Chairs  have  been  quite  recently  founded  and  liberally  endowed : 
that  of  Geology  and  Mineralogy  by  the  late  Sir  Roderick 
Murchison,  and  the  Chair  of  Commercial  and  Political  Economy 
and  Mercantile  Law,  by  the  Merchants'  Company  of  Edinburgh, 
who,  as  you  will  have  learned  from  an, earlier  part  of  this  letter, 
are  by  their  liberality,  and  the  great  interest  they  are  taking  in 
the  subject  of  education,  setting  a  bright  and  admirable  example  to 
the  mercantile  profession  of  the  world. 

In  the  medical  department  but  one  of  the  Professors  still 
fills    a    chair    in    the    University    who    occupied    that    position 

EDINBURGH,  1871-3  299 

when  I  graduated  in  1845,  and  he,  Sir  Kobert  Christison,  Bart, 
is  about  to  be  entertained  at  a  great  banquet  to  be  given  by  the 
profession  of  Edinburgh,  and  the  whole  country,  on  the  occasion  of 
the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  his  appointment  to  the  position.  New 
men  sit  in  the  places  of  the  great  and  honored  dead,  but  they 
are  laborers  admirably  equipped  for  the  work;  and  certainly 
the  thoroughness  of  the  course  of  instruction  imparted,  and  the 
facilities  afforded  for  acquiring  both  a  practical  and  theoretical 
knowledge  of  the  profession  can  hardly,  I  think,  be  surpassed. 
The  largest  Infirmary  contains  between  six  and  seven  hundred 
beds,  divided  into  surgical  and  medical  departments  in  which  are 
wards  set  apart  for  the  treatment  of  special  diseases,  as  of  the 
eye,  etc.,  etc.  Connected  with  this  Infirmary  and  under  the 
same  management  is  a  large  Convalescent  Hospital,  built  and  to 
some  extent  endowed  by  the  bequest  of  a  single  individual,  situated 
three  miles  from  the  city  in  a  beautiful  and  healthy  locality, 
to  which  patients  are  sent  when  it  is  found  they  require  change 
of  air  and  scene  to  finally  restore  them  to  health. 

The  Infirmary  for  sick  children  is  very  pleasantly  situated 
and  well  managed,  and  receives  to  its  wards  a  class  of  poor 
children  who  could  not  be  treated  successfully  at  their  own  homes ; 
but  here  obtain  the  same  professional  care,  generous  diet,  kind 
attention  and  nursing  that  they  would  receive  were  they  the  off- 
spring of  wealthy  parents  dwelling  in  luxurious  homes. 

This  institution  affords  an  admirable  opportunity  for  students 
to  practically  study  the  diseases  of  children.  One  of  the  neatest 
and  best  constructed  Infirmaries  I  have  seen,  is  called  after  its 
founder,  Chalmers,  a  plumber,  who  died  some  years  since  leaving 
a  sum  of  money  to  erect  and  endow  a  small  hospital  for  the  treat- 
ment, I  believe,  of  the  more  respectable  poor.  I  mention  it,  as 
rather  an  unusual  circumstance  attracted  my  attention  when  I 
visited  it.  The  physician  who  accompanied  me  to  the  building, 
one  of  the  staff,  treated,  I  observed,  one  of  the  nurses  as  if  she 
were  socially  his  equal.  I  was  struck  with  her  appearance  and 
address,  and  shortly  after  learned  from  my  friend  that  she  was 
the  daughter  of  a  lord,  who  had  left  all  the  comforts  of  a  rich 
and  elegant  home  to  take  a  nurse's  position  in  a  male  ward  of 
this  institution — a  very  unusual  thing  in  this  country,  but  I  have 
seen  wealthy  and  accomplished  ladie